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Atrazine, Central Kansas Croplands

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Alexander, M., 1977, Introduction to Soil Microbiology: 2d ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York

Aller, L., Bennet, T., Lehr, J. H., and Petty, R. J. (National Water Well Association), 1985, DRASTIC--a standardized system for evaluating ground water pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings: Technical Report EPA 600/2-85/018, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, Oklahoma

Anderson, M. P., 1979, Using models to simulate the movement of contaminants through ground water flow systems: Chemical Rubber Company, Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, v.19,p.97-156

Anderson, M. R., 1989, Chemigation well water quality study: Mimeograph, Division of Plant Health, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Topeka

Armstrong, D. E., and Chesters, G., 1968, Adsorption catalyzed chemical hydrolysis of atrazine: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 2, no. 9, p. 683-689

Armstrong, D. E., Chesters, G., and Harris, R. F., 1967, Atrazine hydrolysis in soil: Soil Science Society of America, Proceedings, v. 3 1, p. 61-66

Bailey, G. W., and White, J. L., 1964, Review of adsorption and desorption of organic pesticides by soil colloids, with implications concerning pesticide bioactivity: Agriculture and Food Chemistry, v. 12, no. 4, p. 324-332

Bailey, G. W., and White, J. L., 1970, Factors influencing the adsorption, desorption, and movement of pesticides in soil; in, Residue Reviews, v. 32, The Triazine Herbicides, F. A. Gunther and J. D. Gunther, eds.: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 29-92

Bailey, G. W., White, J. L., and Rothberg, T., 1968, Adsorption of organic herbicides by montmorillonite-role of pH and chemical character of adsorbate: Soil Science Society of America, Proceedings, v. 32, p. 222-234

Baker, D. B., Krieger, K. A., Tichards, P. R., and Kramer, J. W., 1985, Effects of intensive agricultural land use on regional water quality in northwestern Ohio--perspectives on non-point-source pollution: Technical Report EPA 440/5-85-001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., p. 201-208

Basel, C. L., Defreese, J. D., and Whittemore, D. O., 1982, Interferences in automated phenol red method for determination of bromide in water: Analytical Chemistry, v. 54, p. 2090-2094

Biggar, J. W., and Nielsen, D. R., 1967, Miscible displacement and leaching phenomenon: Agronomy Monograph, v. 11, p. 254-274

Birkeland, P. W., 1984, Soils and Geomorphology: Oxford University Press, New York, 372 p.

Boast, C. W., 1973, Modeling the movement of chemicals in soil by water: Soil Science, v. 115, p. 224-230

Bouma, J., and Wosten, J. H. M., 1979, Flow patterns during extended saturated flow in two undisturbed swelling clay soils with different macrostructures: Soil Science Society of America, Journal, v. 43, p. 16-22

Bower, H., 1978, Groundwater Hydrology: McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, p. 424-432

Boyce, J. S., Muir, J., Edwards, A., Seim, E. C., and Olson, R. A., 1976, Geologic nitrogen in Pleistocene loess of Nebraska: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 5, no. 1, p. 93-96

Burnside, O. C., Fenster, C. R., and Wicks, G. A., 1963, Dissipation and leaching of monuron, simazine, and atrazine in Nebraska soils: Weeds, v. 11, no. 3, p. 209-213

Cameron, D. R., Kowalenko, C. G., and Campbell, C. A., 1979, Factors affecting nitrate-nitrogen and chloride leaching variability in a field plot: Soil Science Society of America, Journal, v. 43, p. 455-460

Cassel, K. K., van Genuchten, M. T., and Wierenga, P. J., 1975, Predicting anion movement in disturbed and undisturbed soils: Soil Science Society of America, Proceedings, v. 39, p. 10 15-1019

Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), 1985, Agriculture and ground-water quality: Iowa State University, Ames, 62 p.

Dao, T. H., and Lavy, T. L., 1978, Atrazine adsorption on soil as influenced by temperature, moisture content, and electrolyte concentration: Weed Science, v. 26, no. 3, p. 303-308

Devitt, D., Letey, J., Lund, L. J., and Blair, J. W., 1976, Nitrate-nitrogen movement through soil as affected by soil profile characteristics: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 5, no. 3, p. 282-288

Egboka, B. C. E., 1984, Nitrate contamination of shallow ground waters in Ontario, Canada: Science of the Total Environment, v. 35, p. 53-70

Endelman, F. J., Keeney, D. R., Gilmour, J. T., and Saffigna, P. G., 1974, Nitrate and chloride movement in the Planfield loamy sand under intensive irrigation: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 3, no. 3, p. 295-298

Exner, M. E., and Spalding, R. F., 1979, Evolution of contaminated ground water in Holt County, Nebraska: Water Resources Research, v. 15, no. 1, p. 139-147

Fishman, M. J., and Friedman, L. C. (eds.), 1985, Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments; in, Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file Report 85-495, book 5, ch. A1, p. 178-181

Freeze, R. A., and Cherry, J. A., 1979, Groundwater: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, p. 413-416

Frissel, M. J., and Bolt, G. H., 1962, Interaction between certain ionizable organic compounds (herbicides) and clay minerals: Soil Science, v. 5, p. 284-291

Gambrell, R. P., Gilliam, J. W., and Weed, S. B., 1975, Denitrification in subsoils of the North Carolina coastal plain as affected by soil drainage: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 4, no. 3, p. 311-316

Gianessi, L. P., 1986, A National Pesticide Usage Data Base: Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C., 13 p.

Gilliom, R. J., Alexander, R. B., and Smith, R. A., 1985, Pesticides in the nation's rivers, 1975-1980, and implications for future monitoring: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper 2271, 26 p.

Hallberg, G. R., 1985, Ground-water quality and agricultural chemicals--a perspective from Iowa: Proceedings of the North-Central Weed Control Conference, v. 40, p. 130-147

Hallberg, G. R., 1986a, From hoes to herbicides--agriculture and groundwater quality: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, v. 41, no. 6, p. 357-364

Hallberg, G. R., 1986b, Overview of agricultural chemicals in ground water; in, Proceedings of Agricultural Impacts on Ground Water--A Conference: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 1-66

Harris, C. I., 1967, Fate of 2-chloro-s-triazine herbicides in soil: Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, v. 15, no. 1, p. 157-162

Harris, C. I. , and Warren, G. F., 1964, Adsorption and desorption of herbicides by soil: Weeds, v. 12, p. 120-126

Hassall, A. K., 1982, Herbicides that act through soils; in, The Chemistry of Pesticides: Macmillan Press, London, p. 302-309

Hathaway, L. R., Waugh, T. C., Galle, O. K., and Dickey, H. P., 1980, Chemical quality of irrigation waters in the Equus beds area, south-central Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Chemical Quality Series 10, 45 p.

Hayes, M. H. B., 1970, Adsorption of triazine herbicides on soil organic matter, including a short review on soil organic matter chemistry; in, Residue Reviews, v. 32, The Triazine Herbicides, F. A. Gunther and J. D. Gunther, eds.: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 131-174

Heiman, A., Steichen, J., Koellicker, J., Grosh, D., and Yearout, R., 1987, Results of Kansas farmstead well water quality study; in, Proceedings of the Conference on Hazardous Waste Research, L. E. Erickson, ed.: Kansas State University, Manhattan, p. 38-51

Helling, C. S., 1970, Movement of s-triazine herbicides in soil; in, Residue Reviews, v. 32, The Triazine Herbicides, F. A. Gunther and J. D. Gunther, eds.: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 17 5-2 10

Helling, C. S., and Gish, T. J., 1986, Soil characteristics affecting pesticide movement into ground water; in, Evaluation of Pesticides in Ground Water, W. Y. Garner, R. C. Honeycutt, and H. N. Nigg, eds.: American Chemical Society Symposium Series 315, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., p. 14-38

Hergert, G. W., 1978, Nitrogen losses from sprinkler-applied nitrogen fertilizer: Report A-045-NEB, Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute, Lincoln, 47 p.

Hergert, G. W., 1982, Distribution of mineral nitrogen under native range and cultivated fields in the Nebraska sandhills: Report PB83-150367, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 84 p.

Hill, A. R., 1982, Nitrate distribution in the ground water of the Alliston region of Ontario, Canada: Ground Water, v. 20, no. 6, p. 696-702

Hillel, D., Krentos, V. D., and Stylianou, Y., 1972, Procedure and test of an internal drainage method for measuring soil hydraulic characteristics in situ: Soil Science, v. 114, p. 395-400

Hiltbold, A. E., and Buchanan, G. A., 1977, Influence of soil pH on persistence of atrazine in the field: Weed Science, v. 25, no. 6, p. 515-520

Hoar, S. K., Blair, A., Holmes, F. F., Boysen, C. D., Robel, R. J., Hoover, R., and Fraumeni, J. F., 1986, Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma: Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 256, no. 9, p. 1141-1147

Hurlburt, S., 1988, The problem with nitrates: Water Well Journal, v. 42, no. 8, p. 37-42

Hurle, K. B., and Freed, V. H., 1972, Effect of electrolytes on the solubility of some 1,3,5-triazines and substitute ureas and their adsorption on soil: Weed Research, v. 12, p. 1-10

Jester, W. A., and Uhler, K. A., 1974, Identification and evaluation of water tracers amenable to post-sampling neutron activation analysis: Research Publication 85, Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Research on Land and Water Resources, University Park, 92 p.

Junk, G. A., Spalding, R. F., and Richard, J. J., 1980, Areal, vertical, and temporal differences in ground-water chemistry, II, Organic constituents: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 9, no. 3, p. 479-483

Jury, W. A., Foght, D. D., and Farmer, W.J., 1987, Evaluation of pesticide ground-water pollution potential from standard indices of soil-chemical adsorption and biodegradation: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 16, no. 4, p. 422-428

Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 1988, Tables of fertilizer use from 1986 to 1987: Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Topeka

Kaufman, D. D., and Kearney, P. C., 1970, Microbial degradation of s-triazine herbicides: Residue Reviews, v. 32, p. 235-265

Keeney, D., 1986, Sources of nitrate to ground water: Chemical Rubber Company, Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, v.16,no.3,p.257-304

Kelley, R., and Wnuk, M., 1986, Little Sioux River synthetic organic compound municipal well sampling survey: Iowa Department of Water, Air, and Management, Des Moines, 24 p.

Kelley, R., Hallberg, G. R., Johnson, L. G., Libra, R. D., Thompson, C. A., Splinter, R. C., and DeTroy, M. G., 1986, Pesticides in ground water in Iowa; in, Proceedings of Agricultural Impacts on Ground Water: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 622-647

Kimble, J. M., Barlett, R. J., McIntosh, J. L., and Varney, K. E., 1972, Fate of nitrate from manure and inorganic nitrogen in a clay soil cropped to continuous corn: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 1, no. 4, p. 413-415

Kreft, A., and Zuber, A., 1978, On the physical meaning of the dispersion equation and its solutions for different initial and boundary conditions: Chemical Engineering Sciences, v. 33, p. 1471-1480

Li, G. C., and Felbeck, G. T., Jr., 1972, Atrazine hydrolysis as catalyzed by humic acids: Soil Science, v. 14, no. 3, p. 201-209

Lund, L. J., 1982, Variations in nitrate and chloride concentrations below selected agricultural fields: Soil Science Society of America, Journal, v. 46, p. 1062-1066

McGlamery, M. D., and Slife, F. W., 1966, The adsorption and desorption of atrazine as affected by pH, temperature, and concentration: Weeds, v. 14, no. 3, p. 237-239

Minnesota Testing Laboratories, Inc., 1986a, Method CHR-2.1--determination of atrazine, G-30033, and G-28279 in soil using gas chromatography: Internal memo, Minnesota Testing Laboratories, New Ulm

Minnesota Testing Laboratories, Inc., 1986b, Method CHR-3--determination of G-34048 residues in soil using high-performance liquid chromatography: Internal memo, Minnesota Testing Laboratories, New Ulm

Nielsen, D. R., van Genuchten, M. T., and Biggar, J. W., 1986, Water flow and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone: Water Resources Research, v. 22, no. 9, p. 895-1085

Nielsen, E. G., and Lee, K. L., 1987, The magnitude and costs of ground-water contamination from agricultural chemicals: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resource Economic Division, Washington, D.C.

Nilson, E. B., and Johnson, M. E., 1978, Kansas 1978 pesticide usage report: Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Division of Statistics, Topeka, and Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service, Manhattan, 36 p.

Obien, S. R., and Green, R. E., 1969, Degradation of atrazine in four Hawaiian soils: Weed Science, v. 17, no. 4, p. 509-514

Parker, J. C., and van Genuchten, M.T., 1984a, Determining transport parameters from laboratory and field tracer experiments: Virginia Agricultural Experimental Station, Bulletin 84-3, 96 p.

Parker, J. C., and van Genuchten, M.T., 1984b, Flux-averaged and volume-averaged concentrations in continuum approaches to solute transport: Water Resources Research, v. 20, p. 866-872

Richards, L. A. (ed.), 1969, Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils: Agriculture Handbook 60, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C., 160 p.

Rodgers, E. G., 1962, Leaching of four triazines in three soils as influenced by various frequencies and rates of simulated rainfall: Proceedings of the Southern Weed Control Conference, v. 15, p. 268

Roeth, F. W., Lavy, T. L., and Burnside, O. C., 1969, Atrazine degradation: Weed Science, v. 17, no. 2, p. 202-205

Rose, C. W., Stem, W. R., and Drummond, J. E., 1965, Determination of hydraulic conductivity as a function of depth and water content for soil in situ: Australian Journal of Soil Research, v. 3, P. 1-9

Russell, J. D., Cruz, M., and White, J. L., 1968, Mode of chemical degradation of s-triazines by montmorillonite: Science, v. 160, p. 1340-1342

Saffigna, P. G., and Keeney, D. R., 1977, Nitrate and chloride in ground water under irrigated agriculture in central Wisconsin: Ground Water, v. 15, no. 2, p. 170-177

Sandyland Agricultural Experiment Station, 1983, Precipitation: Kansas State University, Manhattan, p. 3

Schneider, A. D., Wiese, A. F., and Jones, O. R., 1977, Movement of three herbicides in a fine sand aquifer: Agronomy Journal, v. 69,p.432-436

Sheets, T. J., 1970, Persistence of triazine herbicides in soils; in, Residue Reviews, v. 32, The Triazine Herbicides, F. A. Gunther and J. D. Gunther, eds.: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 287-3 10

Sirons, G. J., Frank, R., and Sawyer, T., 1973, Residues of atrazine, cyanazine, and their phytotoxic metabolites in a clay loam: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, v. 21, no. 6, p. 10 16-1020

Skipper, H. D., and Volk, V. V., 1972, Biological and chemical degradation of atrazine in three Oregon soils: Weed Science, v. 20, no. 4, p. 344-347

Skipper, H. D., Volk, V. V., Mortland, M. M., and Raman, K. V., 1978, Hydrolysis of atrazine on soil colloids: Weed Science, v. 26, no. 1, p. 46-51

Smith, S. J., and Davis, R. J., 1974, Relative movement of bromide and nitrate through soils: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 3, no. 2, p. 152-155

Spalding, M. E., 1984, Implication of temporal variations and vertical stratification of ground-water nitrate-nitrogen in the Hall County special use area: Report 372906, Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 30 p.

Spalding, R. F., and Kitchen, L. A., 1988, Nitrate in the intermediate vadose zone beneath irrigated cropland: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 8, no. 2, p. 89-95

Spalding, R. F., Junk, G. A., and Richard, J. J., 1980, Pesticides in ground water beneath irrigated farmland in Nebraska, August 1978: Pesticides Monitoring Journal, v. 14, no. 2, p. 70-73

Spalding, R. F., Gormly, J. R., Curtiss, B. H., and Exner, M. E., 1978, Nonpoint nitrate contamination of ground water in Merrick County, Nebraska: Ground Water, v. 16, no. 2, p. 86-95

Steichen, J., Koelliker, J., Grosh, D., Herman, A., Yearout, R., and Robbins, V., 1988, Contamination of farmstead wells by pesticides, volatile organics, and inorganic chemicals in Kansas: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 8, no. 3, p. 153-160

Strathouse, S. M., Sposito, G., Sullivan, P. J., and Lund, L. J., 1980, Geologic nitrogen--a potential geochemical hazard in the San Joaquin Valley, California: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 9, no. 1, p.54-60

Stullken, L. E., Stamer, J. K., and Carr, J. E., 1987, Reconnaissance of water quality in the High Plains aquifer beneath agricultural lands, south-central Kansas: U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations Report 87-4003, 25 p.

Sullivan, J. D., and Felbeck, G. D., Jr., 1968, A study of the interaction of s-triazine herbicides with humic acids from three different soils: Soil Science, v. 106, no. 1, p. 42-52

Swanson, R. A., and Dutt, G. R., 1973, Chemical and physical processes that affect atrazine and distribution in soil systems: Soil Science Society of America, Proceedings, v. 37, p. 872-876

Talbert, R. E., and Fletchall, O. H., 1965, The adsorption of some striazines in soils: Weeds, v. 13, no. 1, p. 46-52

Tennyson, L. C., and Settergren, C. D., 1980, Percolate water and bromide movement in the root zone of effluent irrigation sites: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 16, no. 3, p. 433-437

Thompson, C. A., Libra, R. D., and Hallberg, G. R., 1986, Water quality related to ag-chemicals in alluvial aquifers in Iowa; in, Proceedings of the Agricultural Impacts on Ground Water--A Conference: National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 224-242

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986a, Method 506--determination of nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing pesticides in ground water by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector: Supplement to "Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Finished Drinking Water and Raw Source Water," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Physical and Chemical Methods Branch, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio

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van Genuchten, M. T., and Alves, W. J., 1982, Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional convective-dispersive solute transport equation: Technical Bulletin 1661, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 151 p.

van Genuchten, M. T., and Wierenga, P. J., 1976, Mass transfer studies in sorbing porous media, I. Analytical solutions: Soil Science Society of America, Journal, v. 40, p. 473-480

Watson, K. K., 1966, An instantaneous profile method for determining the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous materials: Water Resources Research, v. 2, p. 709-715

Weber, J. B., Weed, S. B., and Ward, T. M., 1969, Adsorption of s-triazines by soil organic matter: Weed Science, v. 17, no. 4, p. 417-421

Wehtje, G., Leavitt, J. R. C., Spalding, R. F., Mielke, L. N., and Schepers, J. S., 1981, Atrazine contamination of ground water in the Platte Valley of Nebraska from non-point sources: Science of the Total Environment, v. 21, p. 47-51

Wehtje, G. R., Spalding, R. F., Burnside, O. C., Lowry, S. R., and Leavitt, J. R. C., 1983, Biological significance and fate of atrazine under aquifer conditions: Weed Science, v. 31 9 p. 610-618

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Wierenga, P. J., 1977, Solute distribution profiles computed with steady-state and transient water movement models: Soil Science Society of America, Journal, v. 41, p. 1050-1055

Wierenga, P. J., 1982, Solute transport through soils--mobile-immobile water concepts; in, Symposium on Unsaturated Flow and Transport Modeling, Proceedings, E. M. Arnold, G. W. Gee, and R.W. Nelson, eds.: Report PNL-SA-10325, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, p. 211-226, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Report NUREG/CP-0030

Wierenga, P. J., 1987, Solute transport; in, Future Developments in Soil Science Research: Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, p. 23-34

Yaron, B., Gerstl, Z., and Spencer, W. F., 1985, Behavior of herbicides in irrigated soils; in, Advances in Soil Science, B. A. Stewart, ed.: Springer-Verlag, New York, v. 3, p. 121-212

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Kansas Geological Survey, Geohydrology
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