Plate 3, figure 1
This species includes medium-sized solitary conical corallites having almost no curvature. The moderately thick theca shows wide rounded septal grooves and interseptal ridges. There are growth lines and low wrinkles transverse to these longitudinal markings. The calyx is not well preserved in available specimens, but it seems to be moderately deep and it contains a long spikelike column. The type specimen is 23.5 mm in length and 14.1 mm in diameter, at the calyx.
Plate 3--All figures 3 times natural size. In each transverse section the counter septum is placed at the top. A higher-resolution PDF version is available.
Fig. 1, Lophophyllidiuin complexum, n. sp., upper Labette shale, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian, in roadcut at center sec. 9, T. 21 N., R. 15 E., west of Claremore, Rogers County, Oklahoma.--1a-e, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 2306-21a). a, Longitudinal section. b-e, Transverse sections.
Fig. 2, Lophophyllidium expansum n. sp., Cherokee shale, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian, at Tillman Pit, NE NE sec. 23, T. 42 N., R. 26 W., Henry County, Missouri.--2a-d, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 323-21a). a, Longitudinal section. b-d, Transverse sections.
The section just below the calyx reveals 28 major septa. The septal arrangement in a section slightly lower with 26 septa is as follows: counter septum, 7 metasepta, alar septum, 4 metasepta, cardinal septum, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 7 metasepta, and counter septum once more. In a section about 3 mm below the disrupted uppermost section of the type specimen the major septa are of two lengths. One group is long and rhopaloid. The others are short and straight. Transverse sections through the lower part of the corallite show the septa to be distinctly thickened axially in such manner that they are joined together and to the column. The cardinal septum is very short and unthickened throughout. The counter septum is distinctly thickened at the axis up to the place where, in mature specimens, it separates from the column. Minor septa about half as long as the cardinal septum are present near the calyx.
The cardinal fossula is well developed. Two pseudofossulae are distinct but not prominent in early stages and are inconspicuous in the adult stages. The slightly anastomosing tabulae are rather closely spaced. In the lower portion they arch steeply from the periphery, dip down slightly, and arch again just as they join the column, but they are more or less horizontal in the upper portion of the corallite. The column is relatively narrow in longitudinal section and distinctly oval in transverse section. It is free from all septa above a point slightly below the floor of the calyx and tapers upward to a sharp crest.
The more or less horizontal tabulae of the upper part of the corallite of Lophophyllidium complexum are the most diagnostic feature of this species. It is distinguished from L. expansum, n. sp. by the more irregular length of the major septa, and absence of a distinct space each side of the counter-cardinal plane in immature parts. The nearly flat tabulae and relative breadth of the corallite separate L. complexum from L. proliferum. The cardinal septum of L. murale, n. sp. is longer and the theca much thinner than in the species here described.
Upper Labette shale, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by N. D. Newell in roadcut at center sec. 9, T. 21 N., R. 15 E., west of Claremore, Rogers County, Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 2306-21a.
Lophophyllidium murale, n. sp.
Plate 2, figures 3, 4; plate 8, figure 6
The description of this species is based on two well-preserved specimens of a rather large solitary broadly conical coral that is gently curved in the plane of the alar septa. The theca is marked longitudinally with low ridges and broad rounded septal grooves. There are broad low transverse wrinkles and fine growth lines. Short radicles are developed near the apex and rarely one or two occur higher on the corallite. The calyx is not well preserved but seems to have been broad and shallow, containing only a low column. The type specimen is 35.4 mm in length and 23.0 mm in diameter, at the calyx.
There are 33 septa in the upper part of the type specimen, the septal arrangement being counter septum, 9 metasepta, alar septum, 5 metasepta, cardinal septum, 6 metasepta, alar septum, 9 metasepta, and the counter septum again. This uneveness is also shown in a lower section of another specimen. The arrangement of the septa in this is as follows: counter septum, 7 metasepta, alar septum, 5 metasepta, cardinal septum, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 6 metasepta, and counter septum once more. The major septa are nearly of equal length but there is some irregularity. The counter septum is long, reaching the axial column even in the region close to the calyx. The cardinal septum, on the other hand, is about two-thirds the length of the metasepta in upper sections but it reaches the column in early immature stages. Minor septa, which occur only high up in the corallite, are extremely short. The major septa approach the column closely in all growth stages but do not join it. Near the calyx the septa are long, distinctly rhopaloid, and mostly separate. Lower sections reveal that they are joined to each other at their axial ends by stereoplasm. The septa on either side of the counter-cardinal plane are each joined together. This forms a long narrow open rectangle occupied by the cardinal and counter septa.
The partial abortion of the cardinal septum produces a distinct open fossula. Alar pseudofossulae are not well developed. Thin regularly spaced complete tabulae arch steeply from the periphery and join the column or the inner wall near the axis. The column formed by the axial end of the counter septum and axial ends of the uparched tabulae is small and not distinctly differentiated from the septum in early periods of growth. In upper transverse sections it steadily becomes more irregular in shape, and there are several protruding bulges that contain distinct lamellae. These do not appear to be directly related to any of the septa, but may be produced by attachment to the column of parts of the wall formed around axial ends of the septa in earlier stages. The inner wall is formed by the junction of the septa on each side of the counter-cardinal opening and by addition of stereoplasm. It is well shown in the longitudinal section of the second specimen as two solid vertical structural deposits parallel to the narrow axial column.
The irregular shape of the axial column in mature portions of Lophophyllidium murale is a characteristic feature. This species is separated from L. expansum, n. sp., by the thin theca of youthful stages, slight stereoplasmic thickening of the septal ends, more widely spaced tabulae, and poorly developed minor septa. L. compressum, n. sp., has a much shorter cardinal septum and more horizontal tabulae.
About 8 feet above the base of the Memorial shale, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by J. M. Jewett from roadcut in sec. 2, T. 33 S., R. 13 E., Montgomery County, Kansas.
Univ. Kansas no. 2615-21b. The material studied includes 9 specimens.
Lophophyllidium expansum, n. sp
Plate 3, figure 2
Large conical solitary corallites slightly but regularly curved in the plane of the alar septa comprise this species. The moderately thick theca is crossed by prominent wrinkles but growth lines are absent. The septal grooves are wide and broad as are the longitudinal ridges. The calyx is very deep, the narrow pointed column being present in the lower part. The type is 33.9 mm in length and 33.4 mm in diameter.
There are 28 major septa in the upper part of the corallite of the type, the septal arrangement being as follows: counter septum, 7 metasepta, alar septum, 5 metasepta, cardinal septum, 5 metasepta, alar septum, 7 metasepta and the counter septum again. The counter septum is extended to the axis in early stages and thickened to form the column. It withdraws from the column about halfway up in the corallite and progressively decreases in length until in a section just below the calyx it is shorter than the counter lateral septa. The cardinal septum is very short in the mature parts of the corallite, but although very thin in the lower parts, it is extended to the column. The other major septa are of two lengths in the mature portion, the counter lateral septa and about every alternating pair being slightly longer. The major septa are notably rhopaloid in adolescence but upper sections show only a few such thickened septa. In upper sections minor septa, about one-third as long as the major, alternate with the longer septa. A feature of most of the major and minor septa of the type specimen is a diamond-shaped thickening that occurs a short distance from the periphery, as seen in transverse section just below the calyx. The short cardinal septum lies in a prominent open fossula. In lower sections the position of the fossula is indicated by the extremely thin cardinal septum.
Numerous regularly spaced tabulae rise steeply from the periphery to the axial column. This column is formed by the thickened counter septum supplemented by the ascending axial ends of the tabulae. Transverse sections of the column show no differentiation into tabular structures or radiating lamellae.
The coral named Lophophyllidium expansum is separated from L. complexum, n. sp., by its larger size, more steeply arched tabulae, and the long cardinal septum in young forms. This species differs from L. proliferum in the broadly conical form and the more or less open spaces on either side of the counter and cardinal septa in young stages.
Study of the transverse and longitudinal sections shows that the counter septum is not extended along one side of the column as is suggested by the second highest transverse section. This is a pecularity of this part of the corallite and seemingly is formed by stereoplasm, perhaps as a result of injury to the polyp.
Cherokee shale, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by J. B. Owen at Tillman pit, NE NE sec. 23, T. 42 N., R. 26 W., Henry County, Missouri. Also from the Cherokee shale along road in secs. 4 and 8, T. 31 S., R. 24 E., Crawford County, Kansas, collected by H. W. Compton.
Univ. Kansas no. 323-21a. Other material included several dozen specimens from the Kansas locality.
Lophophyllidium girtyi, n. sp.
This species includes solitary conical corallites that are curved only near the apex. The theca has distinct longitudinal grooves and ridges, the former being about as wide as the interseptal ridges. The surface is more or less covered by numerous stubs of hollow radicles placed in irregular rows over the entire corallite. The theca surrounding the calyx is not preserved, and accordingly the nature of the calyx is unknown. The type specimen is 27.4 mm in length and 17.4 mm in diameter.
There are 32 major septa in the type specimen, about the same number occurring in other specimens. The septa are arranged as follows: counter septum, 9 metasepta, alar septum, 5 metasepta, cardinal septum, 5 metasepta, alar septum, 9 metasepta and the counter septum again. The nearly equal metasepta reach close to the column even in the mature part of the corallite. The cardinal septum is distinctly shortened and the counter septum is prolonged to the axis where it is thickened to form the axial column. Minor septa are small inconspicuous ridges between some of the major septa or are entirely absent. The shortened cardinal septum lies in a relatively inconspicuous open fossula.
Numerous tabulae ascend steeply from the periphery for a distance equal to about two-thirds the radius of the corallite and then bend down slightly before rising abruptly to join the column. Most longitudinal sections show the tabulae to be numerous and regularly spaced. There are no dissepiments.
The solid rodlike laterally compressed column is formed by the thickened axial portion of the counter septum and the ascending axial ends of the tabulae. It is closely allied to the counter septum throughout the corallite and may be joined to the other major septa by stereoplasm.
This species shows much similarity in external form to the specimens called Lophophyllium profundum var. radicosum by Girty (1911, p. 122; 1915, p. 27, pl. 2, figs. 7-9). Different forms are described from several localities, none of which are designated as a definite type locality. Material from one of these localities includes horn corals that bear a prominent column and external spines. The internal structures of these specimens and this species seem to be different.
Girty's variety is presumed to have a much more laterally compressed column in mature stages, and a more prominent cardinal fossula and alar pseudofossulae in immature stages. The septal development and deposition of stereoplasm seems to be of a different character. Accordingly, it seems likely that more than one rugose coral species was represented in the material described by Girty. Study of his type material is needed before the form named by him can be recognized properly.
This species is characterized by its numerous radicles and its flat or laterally compressed axial column. It differs from Lophophyllidium murale, n. sp., in the more numerous tabulae, relatively thick peripheral parts of the septa, and in the shorter cardinal septum of youthful stages. The septa are seen in a number of transverse sections to be thick out to the intersection with a tabulae, beyond which they decrease in thickness sharply.
This species is named for the late George H. Girty of the U.S. Geological Survey. He has contributed much to the knowledge of the Upper Carboniferous coral faunas, and published several important observations on the lophophyllid corals.
The type specimen is from the lower shale of Wewoka formation, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by N. D. Newell, 0.25 miles north and 200 feet east of Lovelady School, SW sec. 4, T. 3 N., R. 7 E., Pontotoc County, Oklahoma; other specimens from the Wewoka formation were collected by R. C. Moore, 1300 feet north of SW cor. sec. 4, T. 3 N., R. 7 E., Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 2289-21b. The material studied includes about 15 corallites associated with the type and numerous specimens from the other locality.
Lophophyllidium elongatum, n. sp.
Plate 4, figures 1-3
The description of this species is based on numerous well-preserved specimens of large conical solitary corals that exhibit only slight curvature in the plane of the alar septa. The rate of expansion is very regular and continues throughout growth. The thick theca is externally marked with sharp low ridges and broad grooves. Transverse ornamentation consists of many very fine growth lines and rare low wrinkles. The calyx is deep and it contains a spikelike column in the lower part. The type specimen is 35.4 mm in length and 16.2 mm in diameter. Other specimens range from 18.4 mm to 52.6 mm in length and 10.3 mm to 19.0 mm in diameter.
There are 28 major septa in the uppermost part of the type specimen and other specimens have 28 to 30. The septal arrangement in the type specimen is as follows: counter septum, 8 metasepta, alar septum, 4 metasepta, cardinal septum, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 8 metasepta, and the counter septum once more. The cardinal septum is short in all stages but the counter septum is extended to the axis where it is slightly thickened. Other major septa are of unequal length in uppermost part of the corallites, but are nearly equal in lower portions. In maturity the septa are only slightly thickened axially. Transverse sections low in the corallite show the long septa joined together by stereoplasm, but separate from the axial column. Even in lowermost sections the axial column and each septum are distinct. Minor septa alternating with the major septa are short and thick.
Plate 4--All figures 3 times natural size. In each transverse section the counter septum is placed at the top. A higher-resolution PDF version is available.
Fig. 1-3, Lophophyllidium elongatum, n. sp., top of Hogshooter limestone, Skiatook group, Missouri series, Pennsylvanian, west of bridge, south side of river from Sand Springs, Oklahoma.--1a-f, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 3217-21c). a, Longitudinal section. b-f, Transverse sections.--2a-c, Transverse sections of specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 3217-21b).--3, Longitudinal section of specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 3217-21y) showing interrupted axial column.
The cardinal septum lies in a deep fossula throughout growth. In very early stages the cardinal septum is very thin and extends through the fossula to the column. Alar pseudofossulae are poorly developed. The axial column is a direct continuation of the counter septum but becomes separated from it in the uppermost parts of the corallite. Regular anastomosing tabulae rise steeply from the periphery to the inner wall formed by thickened axial portions of the septa. Beyond the wall they curve downward slightly and then rise abruptly just as they join the axial column. The inner wall is present in all but mature stages. It is seen in longitudinal section as two vertical deposits of stereoplasm parallel to the column, and in transverse section as a band surrounding the column.
This species is distinguished by its large size, conical form, and thick long septa in maturity. Lophophyllidium expansum, n. sp., has a somewhat similar mature stage but differs in the more rapidly expanding form and more numerous, more steeply ascending tabulae and a much more solid lower portion.
One specimen shows an abrupt termination of the axial column, and above a space that lacks a column, the axial structure reappears. This seems to be the result of a peculiarity in growth probably due to an injury sometime previous to the death of the polyp.
Top of Hogshooter limestone, Skiatook group, Missouri series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by N. D. Newell, west of bridge, south side of the river from Sand Springs, Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 3217-21c. The collection includes several hundred corallites of which 10 representative specimens were selected for sectioning.
Lophophyllidium radiatum, n. sp.
Plate 5, figures 1, 2; plate 8, figure 7
This species is based on a large number of medium-sized solitary corallites, conical to conical-cylindrical in upper portions and either straight or slightly curved. The moderately thick theca shows distinct broad septal grooves and ridges with rather coarse growth lines and low transverse wrinkles. The calyx is shallow. The type specimen is 26.1 mm in length and 16.1 mm in diameter. Other specimens range from 6.0 mm to 38.0 mm in length and 3.4 mm to 18.0 mm in diameter.
Plate 5--All figures 3 times natural size. In each transverse section the counter septum is placed at the top. A higher-resolution PDF version is available.
Fig. 1-2, Lophophyllidium radiatum, n. sp., Checkerboard limestone, Skiatook group, Missouri series, Pennsylvanian, from shale pit, NW sec. 35, T. 34 S., R. 16 E., northwest part of Coffeyville, Montgomery County, Kansas.--1a-e, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 1164-21g). a, Longitudinal section. b-e, Transverse sections.--2a-d, Specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 1164-21J). a, Longitudinal section, b-d, Transverse sections.
Fig. 3, Lophophyllidium sp. B, Seminole formation? (Fossiliferous shale 50 feet below the Checkerboard limestone), Missouri series, Pennsylvanian, center north side sec. 34. T. 13 N., R. 10 E., 2 miles south of Okmulgee, Oklahoma.--3a-c, Specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 2166-21b). a, Longitudinal section, b-c, Transverse sections.
In the upper parts the septa are long, straight, and slightly thickened axially. Lower down they form an inner wall close to the column, their inner ends being thickened and joined together by stereoplasm. The cardinal septum is short, only about half the length of the other major septa. The counter septum is extended to the axis and slightly thickened. Other major septa are of nearly equal length. The septal arrangement of the major septa in the upper part of the type specimen is counter septum, 8 metasepta, alar septum, 4 metasepta, cardinal septum, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 8? metasepta, and the counter septum again. Short minor septa are developed in upper portions only.
The cardinal septum lies in a prominent fossula throughout. Alar pseudofossulae are weakly developed in the earliest stages and inconspicuous above. Numerous regularly spaced thin and slightly anastomosing tabulae rise steeply from the periphery and then arch more gently to the column. In transverse sections these evenly arched tabulae form a thin inner wall, one-third to one-half the distance to the axis.
The small axial column is well developed in the lower part of all the corallites but becomes shorter and does not quite reach to the axis in the most mature portions of a few of the specimens studied. Longitudinal sections of the axial region reveal a narrow solid column that is formed by the axial thickening of the counter septum, supplemented by addition of numerous tabulae.
The numerous thick septa, abundant tabulae, and the subsegmented appearance of the crooked column characterize this species. It differs from Lophophyllidium proliferum in its larger size, more conical form and jointed and thinner axial column. L. radiatum resembles L. complexum, n. sp., in having numerous tabulae but it does not have the arched tabulae or the distinctive union of the paired tabulae and the axial column that are seen in L. complexum.
Checkerboard limestone, Skiatook group, Missouri series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by R. C. Moore from the shale pit, NW sec. 35, T. 34 S., R. 16 E., northwest part of Coffeyville, Montgomery County, Kansas.
Univ. Kansas no. 1164-21g. A dozen representative specimens from the lot of several hundred corallites were sectioned for study.
Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed on web September 2005; originally published November 30, 1942.
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