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Lophphllid Corals

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I am deeply indebted to Dr. R. C. Moore for his numerous suggestions and criticisms of the text and illustrations during the progress of this study, and for making available the corals in the collections of the Kansas Geological Survey. The illustrated catalog of the Late Paleozoic corals prepared for the Geological Survey has been of invaluable assistance. Sincere thanks are given to R. H. King for making available a fine collection of well-preserved specimens from Texas and for advice on taxonomic procedure and editorial help. Many others at the University of Kansas have also aided by discussions and by careful search in the field for additional material.

While at the University of Kansas, Dr. N. D. Newell had made polished sections of a few Upper Carboniferous corals and these were useful in the preliminary determination of the characters of the fauna. I am indebted also to Dr. J. M. Weller of the Illinois Geological Survey for the loan of one lot of corals from Springfield, Illinois, and to Dr. J. W. Wells for the loan of specimens and thin sections of corals from near Flint Ridge, Ohio. Dr. W. M. Furnish has kindly sent several lots of Upper Carboniferous corals from Oklahoma. Groups of corals also have been borrowed from Dr. L. M. Cline, of Iowa State College.


Arkell, W. J., 1933, The Jurassic system in Great Britain: p. 1-681, pls. 1-41, text figs. 1-97, Oxford

Beede, J. W., 1898, New corals from the Kansas Carboniferous: Kansas Univ. Quart., vol. 7, p. 17-18, pl. 1.

Beede, J. W., 1900, Carboniferous invertebrates: Kansas Univ. Geol. Survey, vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 1-187, pls. 1-22.

Brown, T. C., 1909, Studies on the morphology and development of certain rugose corals: New York Acad. Sci., Annals, vol. 19, p. 45-97, text-figs. 1-26, 1-22, 1-19.

Carruthers, R. G., 1906, Primary septal plan of the Rugosa: Ann. Mag. Nat. History, ser. 8, vol. 18, p. 356-363.

Carruthers, R. G., 1911, Notes on the corals; in, Lee, G. W., A Carboniferous fauna from Nowaja Semlja, collected by Dr. W. S. Bruce: Edinburgh Roy. Soc., Trans., vol. 47, p. 143-186, pls. 1, 2.

Carruthers, R. G., 1913, Lophophyllum and Cyathaxonia--Revision notes on two genera of Carboniferous corals: Geol. Mag., n. ser., dec. 5, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 49-56, pl. 3.

Chi, Y. S., 1935, Notes on some Carboniferous and Permian corals of Dr. Erik Norin's collection from Sinkiang Province: Geol. Soc. China Bull., vol. 14, p. 23-34, pls. 1, 2.

Chi, Y. S., 1938, Permian corals from southeastern Yunnan: Geol. Soc. China Bull., vol. 18, no. 2, p. 155-190, pls. 1, 2.

Croneis, Carey, 1930, Geology of the Arkansas Paleozoic area with especial reference to oil and gas possibilities: Arkansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 3, p. 1-457, pls. 1-45,text-figs. 1-30.

Dobrolyubova, T. A., 1936, Rugosa corals of the Middle and Upper Carboniferous and Permian of the North Ural: Polar Comm. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. Trans., fasc. 28, p. 77-146 (Russian) 146-158 (English), text-figs. 1-81.

Dobrolyubova, T. A., 1937, Simple corals of the Myatshkovo and Podolsk horizons of the Middle Carboniferous of the Moscow Basin: Trav. Inst. Paleozool., tome 6, livr. 3, p. 1-92, pls. 1-23.

Douglas, J. A., 1920, Geological sections through the Andes of Peru and Bolivia; Pt. 3, Geological description of the section from Mollendo to the Inambar River: London Geol. Soc., Quart. Jour., vol. 76, p. 7-52, pl. 1.

Duerden, J. E., 1902, Relationships of the Rugosa (Tetracoralla) to the living Zoantheae: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 9, p. 381-398.

Duerden, J. E., 1906, Morphology of the Madroporaria: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 18, p. 226-242, text figs. 1-12.

Edwards, H. M., 1860, Histoire naturelle des corallaires ou polypes proprement dits: pt. 3, p. 1-560.

Edwards, H. M., and Haime, J., 1848, Récherches sur les polypiers; premier mémoire. Observations sur la structure et Ie developement des polypiers en général: Paris Sci. Nat., Ann., ser. 3, Zool., vol. 9, p. 37-89, pls. 4-6.

Edwards, H. M., and Haime, J., 1850, A monograph of the British fossil corals, Part 1, Introduction: Palaeont. Soc., p. i-lxxxv, 1-71, pls. 1-11.

Edwards, H. M., and Haime, J., 1851, Monographic des polypiers fossiles des terrains palaeozoïques, precédee d'un tableau général de la classification des polypes: Paris Mus. Hist. Nat. Arch., tome 5, p. 1-502, pls. 1-20.

Faurot, L., 2909, Relations entre le mode du development des Tetracoralla et Hexacoralla: Acad. Sci. Paris, Comptes rendus, vol. 148, p. 583-584.

Felser, K. 0., 1937, Rugose Korallen aus dem Oberkarbon-Perm der Karnischen Alpen zwischen Schulterkofel und Tressdorfer Hohe: Mitt. Naturwiss. Ver. f. Steiermark, Bd. 74, p. 1-20, pl. 1.

Foerste, A. F., 1887, Flint Ridge Bryozoa: Denison Univ., Sci Lab., Bull., vol. 2., p. 71-88, pl. 7.

Foerste, A. F., 1888, Notes on Paleozoic fossils: Denison Univ., Sci. Lab., Bull., vol. 3., p. 117-136.

Fomitchev, V., 1938, Corals Rugosa from the Middle and Upper Carboniferous deposits of the Donetz Basin: Acad. Sci. U.R.S.S., C. R. (Dokl.) n. s., vol. 20, p. 219-222.

Garwood, E. J., 1912, The Lower Carboniferous succession in the north-west of England: London Geol. Soc., Quart. Jour., vol. 68, p. 449-572, pls. 44-56, text figs. 1-7.

Gerth, H., 1919, Uber die Entwicklung der Septalapparates bei den Paläozoischen Rugosen und bei lebenden Korallen: Zeitschr. Indukt. Abstammungs und Vererbungslehre, Berlin, vol. 21, p. 201-215.

Girty, G. H., 1911, On some new genera and species of Pennsylvanian fossils from the Wewoka formation of Oklahoma: New York Acad. Sci., Ann., vol. 21, p. 119-156.

Girty, G. H., 1915, Fauna of the Wewoka formation of Oklahoma: U.S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 544, p. 1-271, pls. 1-35.

Girty, G. H., 1915a, Invertebrate paleontology [of the Pennsylvanian of Missouri]: Missouri Bur. Geol., ser. 2, vol. 13, p. 263-376, pls. 27-32.

Gordon, C. E., 1906, Studies on early stages in Paleozoic corals: Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 21, p. 109-127, text figs.

Gorsky, I. I., 1937, Development of Upper Paleozoic rugose corals: 17th Intern. Geol. Congr., Abstr., 1937, p. 95, Moscow-Leningrad.

Gorsky, I. I., and others, 1939, The atlas of the leading forms of the fossil faunas of the U.S.S.R., vol. 5, Middle and Upper Carboniferous: Contr. Geol. Prosp. Inst., p. 1-155, pls. 1-36, text-figs. 1-37.

Grabau, Amadeus, 1922, Palaeozoic corals of China: Part 1, Tetraseptata: Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. B, vol. 2, fasc. 1, p. 1-70, pl. 1, text-figs. 1-73.

Grabau, Amadeus, 1928, Palaeozoic corals of China: Part 1, Tetraseptata: Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. B, vol. 2, fasc. 2, p. 1-151, pls. 1-8, text-figs. 1-22.

Graham, Roy, 1933, Preparation of palaeobotanical sections by the peel method: Stain Technology, vol. 8, p. 65-68.

Greck, N., 1936, The representatives of the genus Caninia from the limestones of the Verkhnie Chussovskyie Gorodki, Colva-Vuschera rivers and Ufimskoe Plateau: Petrol. Geol.--Prosp. Inst. Trans., ser. B., no. 61, p. 1-26, pls. 1-3.

Gregory, J. W., 1917, Thomson's genera-of Scottish Carboniferous corals: Geol. Soc. Glasgow Trans., vol. 16, p. 220-243.

Heritsch, Franz, 1931, Versteinerungen aus dem Karbon der Karawanken and Karnischen Alpen: Abh. Geol. Bundesanst, Bd. 23, H. 3, p. 1-56, pls. 1-4, text-figs. 1-9.

Heritsch, Franz, 1933, Rugose Korallen aus dem Trogköfelkalk der Karawanken und der Karnischen Alpen: Prirodoslovne Razprave, Knjiga 2, Ljubljana, 13, IV, p. 42-55, pls. 5-6.

Heritsch, Franz, 1936, Lophophyllum, Lophophyllidium, and Sinophyllum: Centralblatt f. Min. etc., Jahrg. 1936, Abt. B, no. 9, p. 408-415.

Heritsch, Franz, 1936a, Korallen der Moskauer-, Gshel- und Schwagerinen-Stufe der Karnischen Alpen: Palaeontographica, Belt. z. Naturges. d. Vorzeit, Bd. 83, Abt. A, p. 99-162, pls. 14-18, text-figs. 1-6, Stuttgart.

Heritsch, Franz, 1936b, A new species of Waagenophyllum from the Permian of the Glass Mountains, Texas: Am. Jour. Sci., 5th ser., vol. 31, p. 141-148, fig. 1.

Heritsch, Franz, 1936c, A new rugose coral from the Lower Permian of Texas, with remarks on the stratigraphic significance of certain Permian coral genera: Am. Jour. Sci., 5th ser., vol. 32, p. 134-144, pls. 1, 2.

Heritsch, Franz, 1937, Die rugosen Korallen und die Stratigraphie der Permformation: F. E. Suess-Festschrift der Geol. Gesell. Wien, Mitt. Bd. 29, p. 307-328.

Heritsch, Franz, 1937a, Rugose Korallen aus dem Salt Range, aus Timor und aus Djoulfa mit Bemerkungen über die Stratigraphie des Perms: Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturwiss, Kl. Sitzungsber., Abt. 1, 146, Bd. 1 und 2, Heft, p. 1-16, pls. 1, 2.

Heritsch, Franz, 1938, Die stratigraphische Stellung des Trogköfelkalkes: Neues Jahrb., Beilage-Band 79, Abt. B, p. 63-186, pls. 3-8, text-figs. 1, 2.

Hill, Dorothy, 1935, British terminology for rugose corals: Geol. Mag., vol. 72, no. 857, p. 481-519, text-figs. 1-21.

Hill, Dorothy, 1938, A monograph on the Carboniferous rugose corals of Scotland, Part 1; Palaeont. Soc., vol. 91, part 3 (for 1937), p. 1-78, pls. 1, 2, 2 text-figs.

Hill, Dorothy, 1939, A monograph .on the Carboniferous rugose corals of Scotland, Part 2; Paleont. Soc. (for 1938), p. 79-114, pls. 3-5.

Hill, Dorothy, 1940, A monograph on the Carboniferous rugose corals of Scotland, Part 3: Palaeont. Soc. (for 1940), vol. 94, p. 115-204, pls. 6-11.

Huang, T. K., 1932, Permian corals of southern China: Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. B, vol. 8, fasc. 2, p. 1-163, pls. 1-16.

Hudson, R. G. S., 1935, On the Lower Carboniferous corals; Rhopalolasma, gen. nov. and Cryptophyllum, Carr: Yorkshire Geol. Soc., Proc., vol. 23, pt. 2, p. 90-102, pls. 4, 5.

Hudson, R. G. S., 1935a, The development and septal notation of the Zoantharia Rugosa (Tetracoralla): Yorkshire Geol. Soc., Proc., vol. 23, p. 68-78, text-figs. 1-8.

Hudson, R. G. S., and Platt, M. I., 1927, On the Lower Carboniferous corals; the development of Rybtonia benecompacta, gen. et sp. n.: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 9, vol. 19, p. 39-48, pl. 1.

Kayser, E., 1883, Obercarbonische Fauna von Lo-Ping: in Richthofen, F. F., China, Bd. 4, Abh. 8, p. 160-208, pls. 19-29.

Kelley, W. A., 1930, Lower Pennsylvanian faunas from Michigan: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 4, p. 129-151, pl. 11.

Kunth, A., 1870, Beitrage zur Kenntniss fossiler Korallen: Deutsche geol. Gesell., Zeitschr., vol. 22, p. 24-43, pl. 1.

Lang, W. D., 1923, Trends in British Carboniferous corals: Geol. Assoc., Proc., vol. 34, p. 120-136.

Lang, W. D., Smith, Stanley, and Thomas, H. D., 1940, Index of Palaeozoic coral genera: Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 1-231, London.

Lewis, H. P., 1935, The Lower Carboniferous corals of Nova Scotia: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, vol. 16, p. 118-142, pls. 5-7, text fig. 1.

Licharew, B., and others, 1939, The atlas of the leading forms of the fossil fauna U.S.S.R.: Central Geol. and Prosp. Inst., vol. 6, Permian, p. 1-228, pls. 1-56; text-figs. 1-113.

McChesney, J. H., 1860-1865, Descriptions of new fossils, from the Palaeozoic rocks of the western states: p. 1-96, pls. 1-9, Chicago, [pp. 1-56 (1859) issued Jan. 3, 1860; p. 57-76, issued May 24, 1860; p. 77-96 issued Feb., 1861; pls. issued April, 1865. Reissued in revised and rearranged form in Chicago Acad. Sci. Trans., p. 1-57, pls. 1-9, 1867.]

Mather, K. F., 1915, The fauna of the Morrow group of Arkansas and Oklahoma: Denison Univ. Sci. Lab., Bull., vol. 18, p. 59-284, pls. 1-16.

Meek, F. B., 1872, Report on the paleontology of eastern Nebraska: Hayden, Final Report, U.S. Geol. Survey Nebraska, U.S. 42d Cong., House Ex. Doc. 19, p. 140-244, pls. 1-11.

Meek, F. B., and Worthen, A. H., 1873, Descriptions of invertebrates from Carboniferous system: Illinois Geol. Survey, vol. 5, p. 321-619, pls. 1-32.

Meek, F. B., 1875, Descriptions of invertebrates: Illinois Geol. Survey, vol. 6, p. 489-532, pls. 23-33.

Michelin, J. L. H., 1841-1848, Iconographie zoophytologique, description par localités et terrains des polypiers fossiles de France et pays environments: p. 1-348, pls. 1-129, Paris, [p. 1-40, 1841; p. 42-72, 1842; p. 73-104, 1843; p. 105-144, 1844; p. 145-184, 1845; p. 185-248, 1846; p. 249-328, 1847; p. 329-348, 1848.]

Moore, R. C., and Jeffords, R. M., 1941, New Permian corals from Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 38, pt. 3, p. 65-120, pls. 1-8. [available online]

Morgan, G. C., 1924, Geology of the Stonewall quadrangle, Oklahoma: Oklahoma Bur. Geol., Bull. 2, p. 1-248, pls. 1-53.

Newell, N. D., 1935, Some mid-Pennsylvanian invertebrates from Kansas and Oklahoma; pt. 2, Stromatoporoidea, Anthozoa, and Gastropoda: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 9, p. 341-355, pls. 33-36.

Okulitch, V. J., and C. C. Albritton, Jr., 1937, Malonophyllum, a new tetracoral from the Permian of Texas: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 11, p. 24-25, pl. 4, figs. 15-17.

Plummer, F. B., and Moore, R. C., 1921, Stratigraphy of the Pennsylvanian formations of north-central Texas: Univ. Texas Bull. 2132, p. 1-237, pls. 1-27, text-figs. 1-19.

Rowley, R. R., 1901, Two new genera and some new species of fossils from the Upper Paleozoic rocks of Missouri: Amer. Geologist, vol. 27, p. 343-355, pl. 28.

Sanford, W. G., 1939, A review of the families of tetracorals: Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 237, p. 295-323, 401-423, text-figs. 1-16.

Sayre, A. N., 1930, The fauna of the Drum limestone of Kansas and western Missouri: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 17, p. 84-160, pls. 1-21.

Scheme, E. T., and McMasters, J. H., 1936, Procedure in taxonomy: p. 1-72, Stanford Univ. Press, Palo Alto, Calif.

Schindewolf, O. H., 1830, Uber die Symmetrie-Verhältnisse der Steinkorallen; Palaeont. Zeitschr, vol. 12, p. 214-263, text-figs. 1-60.

Schindewolf, O. H., 1940, "Konvergenzen" bei Korallen und. bei Ammoneen: Fortschr. Geologie u. Palaeontologie, Bd. 12, Heft 41, p. 289-492, 1 pl., text-figs. 1-33.

Sibly, T. F., 1908, The faunal succession in the Carboniferous limestone (Upper Avonian) of the Midland Area (N. Derbyshire and N. Staffordshire): London Geol. Soc., Quart. Jour., vol. 64, p. 34-82, pl. 1.

Simpson, G. B., 1900, Preliminary descriptions of new genera of Paleozoic rugose corals: New York State Mus., Bull. 8, p. 199-222, text-figs. 1-45.

Smith, Stanley, 1916, The genus Lonsdoleio and Dibunophyllum Rugosum (McCoy): London Geol. Soc. Quart. Jour., vol. 71, p. 218-272, pls. 17-21.

Smith, Stanley, 1934, An appendix in F.B.C. Reed, Anthracolithic fauna of the southern Shan States: India Geol. Survey Rec., vol. 67, p. 83-134, pls. 1, 2.

Soschkina, E. D., 1925, Les coraux du Permien inférieur (étage d'Artinsk) du versant occidental de 1'Oural: Soc. Naturalistes Moscou Bull., géol. sec., tome 3, n. ser., tome 33, p. 76-104, pls. 1-3.

Soschkina, E. D., 1928, Die unterpermischen Korallen vom westlichen Abhang des nordlichen Uralgebrges: Soc. naturalistes Moscou Bull., géol. sec., vol. 5, p. 339-393, pl. 12, text-figs.

Soschkina, E. D., 1932, The Lower Permian corals of the Oufimskoe Plateau: Soc. naturalistes Moscou Bull., géol. sec., vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 251-267, pl. 1, text-figs.

Soschkina, E. D., 1936, New species of the Artinskian (Lower Permian) corals from the Aktubinsk region, south Ural: Petroleum Geol.-Prosp. Inst., tr., s. B., no. 61, p. 27-40, text-figs. 1-13.

Stuckenberg, A., 1904, Anthozoen und Bryozoen des unteren Kohlenkalks von Central Russland: Comité Géol. Mém., n. ser., livr. 14, p. 1-67 (Russian), p. 68-109 (German), pls. 1-9.

Thomson, J., 1879, On a new genus of rugose corals from the Carboniferous limestone of Scotland: Phil. Soc. Glasgow Proc., vol. 11, p. 323-344, pls. 1-3.

Thomson, J., and Nicholson, H. A., 1875, Contributions to the study of the chief generic types of the Palaeozoic corals: Annals Mag. Nat. History, ser. 4, vol. 16, p. 424-429, pl. 12.

Thomson, J., and Nicholson, H. A., 1876, Contributions to the study of the chief generic types of Palaeozoic corals: Annals Mag. Nat. History, ser. 4, vol. 17, p. 60-70, 123-238, 290-305, 451-462, pls. 6-8, 12, 14-17, 21-25.

Thomson, J., and Nicholson, H. A., 1876a, Contributions to the study of the chief generic types of the Palaeozoic corals: Annals Mag. Nat. History, ser. 4, vol. 18, p. 68-72, pls. 1-3.

Vaughan, Arthur, 1905, The palaeontological sequence in the Carboniferous limestone of the Bristol area: London Geol. Soc., Quart. Jour., vol. 61, p. 181-307, pls. 22-29, text-figs. 2-6.

Vaughan, Arthur, 1915, Correlation of Dinantian and Avonian: London Geol. Soc., Quart. Jour., vol. 71, p. 1-52, pls. 1-7.

Weissermil, W., 1897, Die Gattung Columnaria und Beiträge zur Stammes-geschichte der Cyathophylliden und Zaphrentiden: Deutsche geol. Gesell, Zeitschr., vol. 49, p. 865-888, text-figs. 1-3.

Weissermil, W., 1927, Die Umbildung der Rugosa in Hexakorallen: S. B. Preuss. geol. Landesanstalt, vol. 2, p. 1-17.

White, C. A., 1877, Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey W. 100 mer. (Wheeler), pt. 1, p. 1-219, pls. 1-21.

Woodruff, E. G., The geology of Cass county, Nebraska: Nebraska Geol. Survey, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 181-393, pls. 4-19.

Yakovlev, N., 1903, Die Fauna der oberen Abtheilung der palaeozoischen Ablagerungen im Donez-Bassin, II, Die Korallen: Comité Géol. Mém., n. ser., livr. 12, p. 1-8 (Russian), p. 9-16 (German), pl. 1, text-figs. 1-11.

Yoh, S. S., and Huang, T. K., 1932, The coral fauna of the Chihsia limestone of the Lower Yangtze Valley: Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. B., vol. 8, fasc. 1, p. 1-72, pls. 1-10.

Yu, C. C., 1931, The correlation of the Fengninian system, the Chinese Lower Carboniferous, as based on coral zones: China Geol. Survey, Bull. 10, p. 1-30, text-figs. 1-5.

Yu, C. C., 1933 (1934), Lower Carboniferous corals of China: Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. B, vol. 12, fasc. 3, p. 1-212, pls. 1-24.

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Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
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