Plate 6, figures 1, 2; plate 8, figure 5
Lophophyllum profundum Morgan, 1924, Oklahoma Bur. Geology, Bull. 2, pl. 32, figures 2, 2a; not 2b?d.
This species is based on several well-preserved specimens showing structural details with remarkable clarity. All the specimens are broadly conical solitary corallites that are slightly bent in the plane of the alar septa. The moderately thick theca shows sharp narrow septal grooves and broad interseptal ridges, crossed by a few fine transverse growth lines and low wrinkles. The type specimen is about average in size, 27.1 mm in length and 16.7 mm in diameter. The large solid column projects into the lower part of the deep calyx as a sharp spine.
Plate 6--All figures 3 times natural size. In each transverse section the counter septum is placed at the top). A higher-resolution PDF version is available.
Fig. 1-2, Lophophyllidium magnificum, n. sp., lower Boggy shale, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian, at NW sec. 22, T. 2 S., R. 7 E., southeast of Ada, Oklahoma.--1a-c, Transverse sections of specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 175-21b).--2a-e, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 175-21a). a, Longitudinal section. b-e, Transverse sections.
Fig. 3-4, Lophophyllidium newelli, n. sp., middle Savanna formation, Des Moines series Pennsylvanian, from center south side sec. 34, T. 3 N., A. 13 E., Oklahoma.--3a-c, Transverse sections of specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 2562-21d).--4a-d, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 2562-21b). a, Longitudinal section. b-d, Transverse sections.
There are 29 long straight major septa with alternating short minor septa. The septal arrangement near the calyx is counter septum, 8 metasepta, alar septum, 5 metasepta, cardinal septum, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 8 metasepta, and the counter septum again. This is uneven due to several injuries to the corallite. Lower down in the corallite the septal arrangement is counter septum, 7 metasepta, alar septum, 4 metasepta, cardinal septum, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 7 metasepta, and back to the counter septum. In the mature part of the type specimen the septa are of unequal length, some reaching two-thirds and others one-half the distance to the column. Aside from the protosepta, the relative length of the septa is not constant either for the same septum throughout the same individual or for equivalent septa in different individuals. The cardinal septum is the shortest major septum in all stages. The counter septum is connected to the column in the immature growth stages but after withdrawing from the column, it becomes shorter than the other major septa. Minor septa are present in only the mature part of the corallite, and are introduced in an irregular manner. In the lower part the septa closely approach the column and are united to it by steroplasm. This youthful stage shows a very prominent open cardinal fossula and less prominent alar pseudofossulae. The counter quadrants are considerably accelerated over the cardinal.
Tabulae are limited to the lower one-fourth of the corallite and may be entirely concealed by the deposits of stereoplasm. There are no dissepiments. The laterally compressed column shows prominent regular striae near the calyx but less so lower in the corallite. Concentric layers formed by the closely packed conelike tabulae and the distinct median lamella are seen in transverse sections of the axial column. The tabulae are crossed by numerous lateral lamellae and thickened by stereoplasm so as to form a large solid column having a fine reticulate appearance in transverse section. The column regains about the same maximum diameter in cross section throughout the corallite but close to the calyx the alar diameter increases considerably.
The large, conspicuously striated axial column and thin radiating septa of the adult part distinguish Lophophyllidium magnificum from other species of this genus. The concentration of the few tabulae in the lower portion and the structure of the axial column separate it from other similar species such as L. newelli, n. sp., and L. minutum, n. sp.
Lower Boggy shale, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by R. C. Moore, at NW sec. 22, T. 2 S., R. 7 E., southeast of Ada, Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 175-21a. Half a dozen corallites from the abundant available material were also sectioned for study.
Lophophyllidium newelli, n. sp.
Plate 6, figures 3, 4.
This species comprises broadly conical corallites, the lower parts of which are slightly curved in the plane of the alar septa. There are well-developed septal grooves and wide interseptal ridges on the exterior of the theca and these are crossed by a very few transverse markings. The moderately deep calyx contains a thin lathlike column projecting upward. The type is a specimen preserved in hematite, 22.7 mm in length and 21.0 mm in diameter, at the calyx.
There are 32 unequal major septa thickened slightly at the axial ends but not distinctly rhopaloid. Minor septa are mere ridges. The cardinal septum is very short in all periods of growth but the counter septum is long and connected to the axial column except in and close to the calyx, where it rapidly becomes even shorter than other major septa. The septal arrangement is as follows: counter septum, 8 metasepta, alar septum, 6 metasepta, cardinal septum, 6 metasepta, alar septum, 8 metasepta, and counter septum once more. The sections in the lower parts of the corallite of this species are especially noteworthy and characteristic. The short cardinal septum lies in a deep long fossula whereas other major septa are joined at their inner ends to the column. The two large oval-shaped alar pseudofossulae show the slight acceleration of the counter quadrants.
No tabulae or dissepiments are recognized, although the lower one-eighth of the corallite is solidly filled with stereoplasm that conceals the details.
This species most closely resembles Lophophyllidium distinctum, n. sp., but can be separated by its larger cardinal fossula in immature stages, thinner laterally compressed column in adult stages, and slightly rhopaloid nature of some of the septa near the calyx. This species lacks the conspicuously striated axial column of L. magnificum, n. sp. Lophophyllidium newelli and similar species, such as L. minutum, L. distinctum, L. sp. A, and L. sp. B, form a group of corals differing from other species assigned to Lophophyllidium in the restriction of the immature characters to the lower part of the corallite, scarcity or seeming absence of tabulae, and development of large alar pseudofossulae. The major septa are thickened axially only a little at most and minor septa are rudimentary or lacking. These species differ from Malonophyllum in the occurrence of prominent alar pseudofossulae, nature of development of the septa, the straight unthickened character of the septa, and the close proximity of the septa and axial column even in upper part of the corallite. Although corals of the L. newelli type differ somewhat from the genotype of Lophophyllidium, they are tentatively referred to this genus.
This species is named for N. D. Newell, formerly of the University of Kansas and the Kansas Geological Survey, who has contributed much to the knowledge of the paleontology and stratigraphy of midcontinent Upper Carboniferous rocks.
Middle Savanah formation, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by N. D. Newell, from a gully by a railroad bridge at center south side sec. 34, T. 3 N., R. 13 E., Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 2562-21b. The material available for study includes about a dozen well-preserved corallites.
Lophophyllidium distinctum, n. sp.
Plate 7, figure 1
Solitary steeply conical corallites of very gently curved form and having the cardinal fossula on the concave side are included in this species. The thick even'theca shows fine septal grooves, broad interseptal ridges and moderately well developed transverse growth lines and wrinkles. The lower part of the deep calyx contains the laterally compressed axial column. The type is 17.8 mm in length and 14.1 mm in diameter.
Plate 7--All figures 3 times natural size. In each transverse section the counter septum is placed at the top. A higher-resolution PDF version is available.
Fig. 1, Lophophyllidium distinctum, n. sp., shale in middle Altamont limestone, Marmaton group, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian, from middle north side sec. 7, T. 34 S., R. 17 E., Montgomery County, Kansas.--1a-d, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 5210-21a). a, Longitudinal section. b-d, Transverse sections.
Fig. 2-4, Lophophyllidium minutum, n. sp., Morrow age, Pennsylvanian.--2a-c, Specimen from Wapanucka limestone. Coal Creek, sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 7 E., Oklahoma (Univ. Kansas no. 2747-21a). a, Longitudinal section. b,c, Transverse section.--3a-b, Type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 7385-21c) from east side dam at Greenleaf Lake, southwest of Bragg, Oklahoma. a, Longitudinal section. b, Transverse section.--4, Transverse section of specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 3342-21a) from the Otterville limestone, north of Berwyn, Oklahoma.
Fig. 5-6, Lophophyllidium sp. A, Frensley limestone, of Lampasas age, Pennsylvanian, from Murray State Park, southeast of Ardmore, Oklahoma.--5a-d, Specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 6808-21b). a, Longitudinal section. b-d, Transverse sections.--6, Transverse section of specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 6808-21c).
Fig. 7-8, Lophophyllidium girtyi, n. sp., Wewoka formation, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian, Oklahoma.--7a-d, Specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 84-21b) from 1300 feet north of SW cor. sec. 4, T. 3 S., R. 7 E., Oklahoma. a, Longitudinal section. b-d, Transverse sections.--8a-c, Transverse sections of the type specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 2289-21b) from lower shale in Wewoka formation, 0.25 miles north and 200 feet east of Lovelady School, SW sec. 4, T. 3 S., R. 7 E., Oklahoma.
There are 24 straight unequal major septa in the mature part of the type, and in addition there are minor septa, indicated by small ridges. The septal arrangement in a clockwise direction is as follows: counter septum, 6 metasepta, alar septum, 4 metasepta, cardinal septa, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 5 metasepta, and counter septum again. The cardinal septum is short throughout, but the counter septum is joined to the column except in the most mature part of the corallite.
The cardinal fossula is very prominent in early growth stages in which all septa, except the cardinal, are united closely to the axial column by stereoplasm. The fossula is roughly rectangular in transverse section and closed in these stages but open in the mature portions. Tabulae are very rare or absent. The column is large and pear-shaped in transverse sections of youthful stages but it becomes elliptical in outline near the calyx. The median lamella of the counter septum is extended throughout the diameter of the column in the counter-cardinal plane.
A species that seems to be most closely similar to Lophophyllidium distinctum is L. newelli, n. sp. Immature forms resemble one another especially but L. distinctum has more angular alar pseudofossulae, a markedly thicker counter septum, and a shorter cardinal fossula. In the mature parts of the corallite this species has distinctly wedge-shaped septa that have no axial thickening. The theca is also much thicker than in L. newelli. From L. minutum, n. sp., the species called L. distinctum may be distinguished by its larger and more solid axial region in youth and by its much more prominent breviseptal stage.
Shale in middle Altamont limestone, Marmaton group, Des Moines series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by J. M. Jewett from middle of north side sec. 7, T. 34 S., R. 17 E. Montgomery County, Kansas.
Univ. Kansas no. 5210-21a.
Lophophyllidium minutum, n. sp.
Plate 7, figures 2-4
This species includes small solitary conical-cylindrical corallites having only a very slight curvature near the apical end. The relatively thick theca bears deep narrow septal grooves and moderately broad interseptal ridges. Transverse growth lines and wrinkles are low and inconspicuous. The calyx is not well preserved but seems to be of moderate depth. The type specimen is 14.1 mm in length and 10.0 mm in diameter.
The type specimen has 21 major septa in the uppermost part of the corallite and about the same number of septa occur in the other specimens studied. No indication of minor septa is seen in any of the sections. The cardinal septum, which is very short, lies in a prominent fossula. The counter septum is prolonged and attached to the column in all growth stages, although it shows a tendency to become separate close to the calyx. The counter acceleration is shown by the position of the large alar pseudofossulae, which are seen in all the transverse sections. The arrangement of the septa in the uppermost section of the type specimen in a clockwise direction is as follows: counter septum, 5 metasepta, alar septum, 3 metasepta, cardinal septum, 3 metasepta, alar septum, 6 metasepta, and counter septum again.
The septa are joined to the axial column in early stages by thick deposits of stereoplasm but tend to become more distinct in upper parts of the corallite. The highest sections show that the septa have a distinct axial swelling and are still united with the column. In well-preserved specimens it is possible to recognize the elements of the septa and the column and to see that the union of the septa with the column is not a primary structural feature.
The two last-formed septa in the counter quadrants are short and bend towards the counter septum, leaving wide spaces or pseudofossulae on the counter side of the alar septa. The last-formed septa in the cardinal quadrants join the adjacent earlier septum so that the cardinal fossula is enclosed by the two lateral septa and the column.
The laterally compressed column, produced by the thickened end of the counter septum, is increased in size by the close approach of the axial ends of the septa and the stereoplasm deposited between the septa and the column. No tabulae are recognized.
The species here described is a very small form in which the septa are joined rather closely to the axial column, even in adult portions of the corallite. It seems to be a rather primitive species. The prominent alar pseudofossulae, thick theca, and unstriated thick axial column are characteristic features. The solid central or axial portion is smaller than in L. distinctum, n. sp., and pseudofossulae are more developed than in L. sp. A.
Morrow beds, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). The type specimen was collected by R. C. Moore from the Brentwood limestone member of the Bloyd shale, center sec. 10, T. 13 N., R. 20 E., on Greenleaf Lake, southwest of Bragg, Oklahoma. Other specimens are from the Otterville limestone, collected by R. C. Moore north of Berwyn, Oklahoma; and from the Wapanucka limestone, collected by R. C. Moore at Coal Creek, sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 7 E., Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 7385-21c. The material studied includes sectioned specimens from each of the three localities given above and several corallites associated with the type specimen.
Lophophyllidium sp. A
Plate 7, figures 5, 6
A number of different lophophyllid coral types have been found during this study but the unsatisfactory nature of the preservation or insufficiency of the material does not permit adequate specific description. The two specimens here called Lophophyllidium sp. A show the characters of this genus, but more material must be sectioned in order to determine their significant structural features.
These small solitary uncurved conical-cylindrical corallites have a moderately thick theca that bears indistinct narrow septal grooves and transverse growth lines but no wrinkles. The calyx is poorly preserved but seemingly was deep, containing a sharply pointed column. One specimen is about 14 mm in length and 7.9 mm in diameter.
There are 22 unequal major septa arranged in the following order: counter septum, 6 metasepta, alar septum, 3 metasepta, cardinal septum, 3 metasepta, alar septum, 6 metasepta, and counter septum again. The counter quadrants are considerably accelerated. Minor septa are only irregularly developed as small ridges. The major septa are quite thick near the periphery but taper rapidly towards the axis.
The short cardinal septum lies in a prominent fossula in immature stages but the fossula is not conspicuous in sections near the calyx. Alar pseudofossulae are well developed in the youthful part of the corallite and near the calyx are indicated by the two shortened major septa. No tabulae are observed. The thick strong axial column is prominently but irregularly striated. It is distinct from the counter septum in more than one half the height of the corallite.
This form is characterized by its small size and prominently striated axial column. The septa in the adult stage resemble those of Lophophyllidium distinctum, n. sp., but the latter species has more prominent minor septa and lacks the striated column. This species seems easily separated from L. newelli, n. sp; and L. minutum, n. sp., by its poorly developed alar pseudofossulae in the youthful parts of the corallite. It differs from L. magnificum, n. sp., in the smaller size and different development of the immature portions.
Frensley limestone, of Lampasas age, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous). Collected by R. C. Moore from Murray State Park, southeast of Ardmore, Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 6808-21b and 6808-21c.
Lophophyllidium sp. B
Plate 5, figure 3
This form is a solitary conical corallite that is slightly curved in the plane of the alar septa throughout its length. The moderately thick theca has fine narrow septal grooves and broad low interseptal ridges. The calyx is deep, and a laterally compressed irregular column projects into its lower part. The only specimen studied is 20.9 mm in length and 13.5 mm in diameter.
In the uppermost transverse section there are 22 major septa arranged as follows: counter septum, 5 metasepta, alar septum, 4 metasepta, cardinal septum, 4 metasepta, alar septum, 5 metasepta and counter septum again. In this stage the cardinal septum is very short and the counter septum is slightly shorter than other major septa. The alar septa are the longest. The last septa to be introduced in both the cardinal and counter quadrants are noticeably shorter. Very short minor septa alternate with the major septa.
In a youthful stage the counter septum is extended to the axis, forming a moderately thick laterally compressed column. In the mature part of the corallite the column is not connected to any of the septa and has moved close to the cardinal septum. The weakly developed last septa in the counter quadrants form small pseudofossulae on the counter side of the alar septa. No tabulae are shown and dissepiments are absent.
This specimen is characterized by its rapidly expanding form and accelerated early growth. It is distinguished from Lophophyllidium magnificum, n. sp., by its more rapid development, less prominent minor septa and small axial column. The thick septa and poorly developed alar pseudofossulae separate this species from L. minutum, n. sp., and L. newelli, n. sp.
Other specimens of this type need to be examined in order to determine the significance of the migration of the axial column from a position attached to the counter septum in youth to one close to the cardinal septum in mature stage.
Seminole formation? (fossiliferous shale 50 feet below the Checkerboard limestone), Missouri series, Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous), from center north side sec. 34, T. 13 N., R. 10 E., 2 miles south of Okmulgee, Oklahoma.
Univ. Kansas no. 2166-21b.
Plate 8--All figures 3 times natural size. A higher-resolution PDF version is available.
Fig. 1, Lophophyllidium magnificum, n. sp., from the Lower Boggy shale at NW sec. 22, T. 2 S., R. 7 E., southeast of Ada, Oklahoma.--1, View of a typical specimen showing well-developed groove pattern and conical shape (Univ. Kansas no. 175-21g).
Fig. 2, Lophophyllidium proliferum (McChesney), from the beds over coal no. 8 Trivoli cyclothem, near Springfield, Illinois.--2, Side view of a complete specimen showing the curvature and well-developed grooves and ridges (Ill. State Mus. no. W4064).
Fig. 3, Lophophyllidium girtyi, n. sp., from the Wewoka formation, 1300 feet north of the SW cor. sec. 4, T. 3 N., R. 7 E., Oklahoma.--3, View of the cardinal side of a typical specimen with prominent septal grooves, wrinkles and short spines (Univ. Kansas no. 84-21d).
Fig. 4, Lophophyllidium profundum (Edwards and Haime)?, questionably from the Lower Mercer limestone of northeastern Muskingum county, Ohio.--4, Side view of a slightly crushed specimen (Ohio State Univ. no. 17850).
Fig. 5, Lophophyllidium radiatum, n. sp., from the Checkerboard limestone at the shale pit, northwest part of Coffeyville, Kansas.--5, A side view of a medium-sized specimen showing the slight curvature and distinct grooves and ridges (Univ. Kansas no. 1164-21f).
Fig. 6, Lophophyllidium compressum, n. sp., from the Millsap Lake Group, 3.5 miles east of Rochelle, Texas.--6, Side view of a typical specimen (Univ. Kansas no. 7208-21c).
Fig. 7, Lophophyllidium murale, n. sp., from the Memorial shale, at center south road, sec. 2, T. 33 S., R. 13 E., Montgomery County, Kansas.--7, A side view of a specimen with numerous wrinkles and radicles (Univ. Kansas no. 2615-21d).
Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed on web September 2005; originally published November 30, 1942.
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