This study is dedicated to my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Joe Thomasson, whose willing cohabitation with a wide assortment of plants, animals, and rocks during my early years instilled in me an intense curiosity in nature and a desire to pursue its study as a career.
Special appreciation is extended to the many ranchers, farmers, and landowners who allowed me complete access to their land and permission to excavate fossils. I especially thank the following for their interest and special courtesies extended to me: Mr. Guy R. Bemis, Mr. Roy L. Davis, Mr. and Mrs. James E. Flinn, Jr., Mr. Robert Hall, Dr. James F. Hamburg (Director, Hamburg Research Area), Mrs. Annette Leikam, Mr. Ward Sullivan, and Mr. Darrell Sutor.
Dr. Richard W. Pohl originally introduced me to the study of fossil grasses from the High Plains, and for this I especially thank him. His continued support of this project has contributed greatly to its completion.
I thank Dr. Nels Lersten who gave advice during the light microscopy phase of this study and Dr. Harry T. Horner, and, especially, Mr. Paul Elsner who furnished advice and assistance during the scanning electron microscopy phase of this study. Advice and assistance on the geological and paleontological portions of this study were given freely by a number of persons, only a few of whom are mentioned here. Maxim K. Elias granted me complete access to his papers and collections, and, in addition, allowed many stimulating conversations during the course of this study. Drs. Carl C. Vondra, R. W. Pohl, and R. J. Zakrzewski reviewed pertinent sections of this manuscript and I appreciate their helpful comments and criticisms. Dr. J. Alan Holman identified several reptilian fossils from sites in Ellis County and Dr. Richard J. Zakrzewski identified, or aided in the identification of, many mammalian remains. Dr. C. Bertrand Schultz and Dr. Robert M. Hunt generously allowed me complete access to paleontological collections and facilities at the University of Nebraska during my studies there. Drs. Ronald L. McGregor and A. B. Leonard extended the same privileges while I studied collections at the University of Kansas. I am grateful to Dr. Richard J. Zakrzewski and Mr. Dan D. Zehr for discussions which have led to a better understanding of the Tertiary deposits in the High Plains, and especially in Ellis County. I thank Dr. John H. McAndrews, Royal Ontario Museum, Dr. M. Graham Netting, Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Erling Dorf, Princeton University, for their personal involvement in obtaining financial support from their institutions for portions of my field studies.
I am thankful to all of my colleagues, botanical, geological, and otherwise, for their patient counsel in matters relating to this study. However, the final synthesis and interpretation are my own, and others do not necessarily endorse my conclusions. In this respect any errors are mine entirely.
Assistance by Mark Mathisen during fieldwork in the summer of 1975 is gratefully acknowledged. Mr. Harold Dean Gross accompanied and assisted the author during numerous fieldtrips and for this I extend my gratitude. The author is grateful to Mr. and Mrs. Felix Giebler for their help and hospitality during three summers of fieldwork.
I thank Ms. Debbie Leikam and Mrs. Cindy Lundin who typed the manuscript.
This study was supported in part by Project No. 1833 of the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Station. During the summer of 1973 1 was given support for fieldwork by a Sigma Xi Grant-in-Aid of Research and during 1974 to 1976 by a National Science Foundation Grant for Improving Doctoral Dissertation Research in the Field Sciences BMS 7413324. The microscopic aspects of this work were done in the Bessey Microscopy Facility, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
Saving the best until last, I would like to thank my wife, Nadine, for her help and encouragement throughout this study.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1961, Code of stratigraphic nomenclature: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bull., v. 45, no. 5, p. 645-665.
Barbour, E. H., 1892, Notes on a new order of gigantic fossils. Univ. Nebr. Stud., v. 1, no. 4, p. 301-335.
Barbour, E. H., 1897, History of the discovery and report of progress in the study of Daemonelix: Univ. Nebr. Stud. v. 2, no. 2, p. 81-124.
Barbour, E. H., 1925, Hackberry conglomerate: Nebr. State Mus., Bull. 8, no. 1, p. 87-90.
Bass, N. W., 1926, Geologic investigations in western Kansas: Geology of Ellis Co., Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 11, p. 11-52.
Beetle, A. A., 1961, Distribution as a key to the age and origin of grasses; in, Recent advances in botany, vol. I: University of Toronto Press, Toronto, p. 111-116
Berggren, W. A., and van Couvering, J. A., 1974, The late Neogene: Biostratigraphy, geochronology and paleoclimatology of the last 15 million years in marine and continental sequences: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 16, p. 1-216.
Berry, E. W., 1928a, Stones of Celtis in the Tertiary of the Western United States: Am. Mus. Novit., no. 298, p. 1-5.
Berry, E. W., 1928b, Fossil nutlets of the genus Lithospermum: Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 73, no. 2734, p. 1-3.
Blake, S. T., 1958, New criteria for distinguishing genera allied to Panicum (Gramineae): Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, vol. 70, no. 3, p. 15-19.
Boellstorff, J., 1976, Stratigraphic and paleontologic significance of some fission track dates from Nebraska and Texas (abs.): Geol. Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 8, no. 4, p. 434-520.
Brattstrom, B. H., 1961, Some new fossil tortoises from western North America with remarks on the zoogeographic and paleoecology of tortoises: Jour. Paleontology, v. 35, no. 3, p. 543-560.
Bretz, J. H., and Horberg, L., 1949, Caliche in southeastern New Mexico. Journal of Geology, v. 57, no. 5, p. 491-511.
Breyer, J., 1975, The classification of Ogallala sediments in western Nebraska: Univ. Mich. Papers Paleontology No. 12, p. 1-8.
Carey, J. C., Frye, J. C., Plummer, N. and Swineford, A., 1952, Kansas volcanic ash resources: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 96, pt. 1, p. 1-68.
Chaney, R. W., 1925, Notes on two fossil hackberries from the Tertiary of the western United States: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pub. 349, p. 51-56.
Chaney, R. W., and Elias, M. K., 1938. Late Tertiary floras from the High Plains: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pub. 476, p. 1-72.
Clark, C. A., and Gould, F. W., 1975, Some epidermal characteristics of paleas of Dichanthelium, Panicum and Echinochloa: American Journal of Botany, v. 62, no. 7, p. 743-748.
Clark, J., Beerbower, J. R., and Kietzke, K.K., 1967, Oligocene sedimentation, stratigraphy, paleoecology and paleoclimatology in the big badlands of South Dakota: Fieldiana, Geology memoirs, v. 5, p. 5-158.
Clarke, C., 1909, Illustrations of Cyperaceae: Williams and Norgate, Covent Garden, W. C., London.
Cockerell, T. D. A., 1909, Fossil Euphorbiaceae, with a note on Saururaceae: Torreya, v. 9, no. 6, p. 117-119.
Cockerell, T. D. A., 1914, Two new plants from the Tertiary rocks of the west: Torreya, v. 14, no. 8, p. 135-137.
Cook, H. J., 1960, Late Tertiary crustal deformations in the Rocky Mountain region of North America: International Geol. Congress, Report of the 21st Sess. Regional Paleogeography 21, p. 198-212.
Cronquist, A., 1968, The evolution and classification of flowering plants: Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 396 pp.
Daily, F. K., and Thomasson, J. R., 1979, Tertiary charophytes from the Ogallala Formation of western Kansas: American Midland Naturalist, in press.
Darton, N. H., 1899, Preliminary report on the geology and water resources of Nebraska west of the One Hundred and Third Meridian: U. S. Geol. Survey, Ann. Rept. 19, pt. 4, p. 719-785.
Darton, N. H., 1920, Description of the Syracuse and Lakin quadrangles, Kansas: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Syracuse-Lakin folio (no. 212), pp. 1-10, figs. 1-7, pls. 1-6, maps.
Dawson, M. R., 1958, Later Tertiary Leporidae of North America. Univ. Kans. Paleon. Contrb., Vertebrata. Art. 6, p. 1-75.
Dawson, M. R., 1967, Lagomorph history and the stratigraphic record, in, Essays in paleontology and stratigraphy, C. Teichert and E. L. Yochelson, eds.: Univ. Kansas, Dept. Geol., Spec. Pub. 2, p. 286-316.
Dix, R. L., 1964, A history of biotic and climatic changes within the North American grassland; in, Grazing in terrestrial and marine environment, D. J. Crisp, ed.: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Dorking, p. 78-89.
Dorofeev (Dorofeyev), P. I., 1958, Megaspores, seeds and fruits from Tertiary deposits of western Siberia: Sibirsk. Nauchno. Issled. Inst. Geol. Goefiz. i Mineral'n. Syr'ya Trudy. 22, p. 369-415.
Dorofeev (Dorofeyev), P. I., 1969, Some monocotyledonons plants from neogene flora of the Ukraine: Ukraine Bot. Zh. 26, no. 1, p. 3-9.
Elias, M. K., 1931, The geology of Wallace County, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 18, p. 1-254.
Elias, M. K., 1932, Grasses and other plants from the Tertiary rocks of Kansas and Colorado. Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 20, no. 20, p. 333-367.
Elias, M. K., 1934, Zones of fossil herbs in the late Tertiary of the High Plains (abs.): Geol. Society of America, Proc. 1933, p. 332.
Elias, M. K., 1935, Tertiary grasses and other prairie vegetation from the High Plains of North America: Am. J. Sci. 5th Ser. 29, p. 24-33.
Elias, M. K., 1941, Late Tertiary prairie vegetation in Nebraska; in, Guide for a field conference on the Tertiary prairie vegetation in Nebraska: Nebr. State Mus., Spec. Publ. No. 2, p. 19-20 and fig. 2 (opposite p. 6).
Elias, M. K., 1942. Tertiary prairie grasses and other herbs from the High Plains: Geol. Society of America, Spec. Pap. (Reg. Stud.) 41, p. 1-176.
Elias, M. K., 1946. Taxonomy of tertiary flowers and herbaceous seeds. American Midland Naturalist, v. 36, p. 373-380.
Engelmann, H., 1876, Appendix I. Report on the geology of the country between Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and the Sierra Nevada, near Carson Valley; in, Report of explorations across the Great Basin of the Territory of Utah for a direct wagon-route from Camp Floyd to Geneva, in Carson Valley, in 1859, J. H. Simpson: Government Printing Office, Washington, p. 243-335.
Frye, J. C., 1971, The Ogallala Formation--A review. Texas Tech. Univ., Spec. Rept. 39, p. 5-44.
Frye, J. C., Glass, H. D., Leonard, A. B., and Coleman, D. D., 1974, Caliche clay mineral zonation of Ogallala Formation, central-eastern New Mexico: New Mexico Bur. Mines and Mineral Res., Circ. 144, p. 1-16.
Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1955, Petrography of the late Tertiary volcanic ash falls in the central Great Plains: Jour. Sedimentary Petrology, v. 25, p. 243-261.
Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1957. Studies of Cenozoic geology along eastern margin of Texas High Plains, Armstrong to Howard counties: Univ. Tex. Bur. Econ. Geol., Rept. Invest. 32, p. 1-62.
Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1959. Correlation of the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) in western Texas with type localities in Nebraska: Univ. Tex. Bur. Econ. Geol., Rept. Invest. 39, p. 1-46.
Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1964. Relation of Ogallala Formation to the southern High Plains in Texas: Univ. Tex. Bur. Econ. Geol., Rept. Invest. 51, p. 1-25.
Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1972. Structure of Ogallala Formation in east-central New Mexico: New Mexico Bur. Mines and Mineral Res., Target Exploration Rept. E-6, p. 1-8.
Frye, J. C., Leonard, A. B., and Swineford, A., 1956, Stratigraphy of the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) of northern Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 118, p. 1-92. [available online]
Galbreath, E. C., 1974, Stipid grass "seeds" from the Oligocene and Miocene deposits of northeastern Colorado: Trans. Illinois Acad. of Sci., v. 67, no. 3, p. 366-368.
Galusha, T., 1975, Stratigraphy of the Box Butte Formation Nebraska. Bull. Am. Mus. Hist. 156, no. 1, p. 1-68.
Gould, F. W., 1974, Nomenclature changes in the Poaceae: Brittonia v. 26, p. 59-60.
Gregory, J. T., 1942, Pliocene vertebrates from Big Spring Canyon, South Dakota: Univ. of California Publications, Bull. of the Dept. of Geol. Sciences, v. 26, p. 307-438.
Gregory, J. T., 1971, Speculations on the significance of fossil vertebrates for the antiquity of the Great Plains of North America: Abh. hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch, v. 60, p. 64-72.
Hager, M. W., 1974, Late Pliocene and Pleistocene history of the Donnelly Ranch Vertebrate site, southeastern Colorado: Univ. Wyoming, Contrib. Geol. Sp. Paper 2, p. 1-62.
Hartley, W., 1958a, Studies on the origin, evolution, and distribution of the Gramineae. I. The tribe Andropogoneae: Aust. J. Bot., v. 6, no. 2, p. 116-128.
Hartley, W., 1958b. Studies on the origin, evolution, and distribution of the Gramineae. II. The tribe Paniceae: Aust. J. Bot., v. 6, no. 4, p. 343-357.
Hartley, W., 1960, Studies on the origin, evolution, and distribution of the Gramineae. III. The tribes of the subfamily Eragrostoideae: Aust. J. Bot., v. 8, no. 3, p. 256-276.
Hartley, W., 1961, Studies on the origin, evolution, and distribution of the Gramineae. IV. The genus Poa: Aust. J. Bot., v. 9, no. 2, p. 152-161.
Hatcher, J. B., 1902, Origin of the Oligocene and Miocene deposits of the Great Plains: Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., v. 49, no. 169, p. 113-131.
Haworth, E. 1897, Physical properties of the Tertiary: Kans. Univ. Geol. Surv. 2, p. 247-284.
Hedberg, H. D., ed. 1972a, Introduction to an international guide to stratigraphic classification, terminology, and usage: Lethaia, v. 5, no. 3, p. 283-295.
Hedberg, H. D., 1972b, Summary of an international guide to stratigraphic classification, terminology, and usage: Lethaia, v. 5, no. 3, p. 297-323.
Hibbard, C. W., 1934, Two new genera of Felidae from the Middle Pliocene of Kansas: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 37, p. 239-253.
Hibbard, C. W., 1960, An interpretation of Pliocene and Pleistocene climates in North America: Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts, and Letters. Press. Address 62 Ann. Rept., p. 5-30.
Holman, J. A., 1971, Climatic significance of giant tortoises from the Wood Mountain Formation (Upper Miocene) of Saskatchewan: Canadian Jour. of Earth Sci., v. 8, no. 9, p. 1148-1151.
Hsu, Chien-Chang, 1965, The classification of Panicum (Gramineae) and its allies with special reference to the characters of lodicule, style-base and lemma: J. Faculty Sci. Univ. Tokyo 9, no. 3, p. 43-150.
Izett, G. A., 1975, Late Cenozoic sedimentation and deformation in northern Colorado and adjoining areas; in, Cenozoic history of the southern Rocky Mountains, B. F. Curtis, ed.: Geol. Soc. of America, Mem. 144, p. 179-209.
Johnson, B. L., 1945, Natural hybrids between Oryzopsis hymenoides and several species of Stipa: Amer. J. Bot. 32, no. 9, p. 599-608.
Johnson, B. L., 1972, Polyploidy as a factor in the evolution and distribution of grasses; in, The biology and utilization of grasses, V. B. Younger, ed.: Academic Press, New York, p. 18-35.
Johnson, B. L., and Rogler G. A., 1943, A cyto-taxonomic study of an intergeneric hybrid between Oryzopsis hymenoides and Stipa viridula: American Journal of Botany, v. 30, no. 1, p. 49-56.
Johnson, W. D., 1901, The High Plains and their utilization: U. S. Geol. Survey, 21st Ann. Rept., pt. 4, p. 601-741.
Johnson, W. D., 1902, The High Plains and their utilization. U. S. Geol. Survey, 22nd Ann. Rept., pt. 4, p. 631-669.
Kaufman, P. B., Petering, L. B., and Smith J. G., 1970, Ultrastructural development of cork-silica cell pairs in Avena internodal epidermis: Botanical Gazette, v. 131, no. 3, p. 173-185.
Klastersky, I., 1955, The graminoid evolutionary group: Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae. Bot. 11, no. 6, p. 91-101.
Knobloch, E., 1969, Tertiäre Floren von Mähren: Muravské Museum Brno, 201 pp.
Koyama, T., 1961, Classification of the family Cyperaceae (1): J. Faculty Sci. Univ. Tokyo. Sec. III., Botany 8, pt. 1, p. 38-148.
Kral, R., 1971, A treatment of Abildgaardia, Bulbostylis and Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae) for North America: Sida 4, no. 2, p. 57-227.
Lancucka-Srodoniowa, M., 1966, Tortonian flora from the "Gdow Bay" in the south of Poland: Acta Palaeobot., v. 7, no. 1, p. 1-133.
Lanjouw, J., and Stafleu, F. A., 1964, Index herbariorum. Part 1: The herbaria of the world, 5th Ed., Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Leonard, A. B., 1958, Two new fossil plants from the Pliocene of Northwestern Texas. Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 38, p. 1393-1403.
Leonard, A. B., Frye, J. C., and Glass, H. D., 1975, Late Cenozoic mollusks and sediments, southeastern New Mexico: New Mexico Bur. Mines and Mineral Resources, Circular 145, p. 1-19.
Litke, R., 1968, Uber den Nachweis tertiärer Gramineen: Monatsberichte Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 19, no. 6, p. 462471.
Lugn, A. L., 1938, The Nebraska State Geol. Survey and the "Valentine Problem:" Am. J. Sci., 5th ser. 36, p. 220-227.
Lugn, A. L., 1939, Classification of the Tertiary System in Nebraska: Geol. Society of America, Bull. 50, p. 1245-1276.
MacGinitie, H. D., 1962, The Kilgore flora, a late Miocene flora from Northern Nebraska: Univ. of California Publications, Bull. of the Dept. of Geol. Sciences, v. 35, no. 2, p. 67-158.
Merriam, D. F., 1963, The geologic history of Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 162, p. 1-317. [available online]
Metcalfe, C. R., 1960, Anatomy of the monocotyledons. I. Gramineae: Clarendon Press, Oxford. 731 pp.
Moore, R. C., Frye, J. C., Jewett, J. M., and O'Connor, H. G., 1951, The Kansas rock column: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 89, p. 1-132. [available online]
Mudge, B. F., 1874, Pliocene Tertiary of western Kansas: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 2, p. 113-117.
Mudge, B. F., 1876, Notes on the Tertiary and Cretaceous periods of Kansas: U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. of the Territories, vol. II, 2, no. 3, p. 212-221.
Parodi, L. R., 1944, Revision de las gramineas austral. americanas del genero Piptochaetium: Revista Mus. La. Plata, Bot. Sec. 6, p. 213-310.
Pax, F., 1906, Beiträge zur fossilen Flora der Karpathen: Bot. Jahrb., v. 38, p. 272-321.
Penhallow, D. J., 1908, Report on Tertiary plants of British Columbia. Canada Dept. Mines, Geol. Survey Branch 1013, p. 1-167.
Phipps, J. B., 1967, Studies in the Arundinelleae (Gramineae). VIII. The phylogeny--a hypothesis: Blumea 15, p. 477-493.
Popov, M. G., 1953, Boraginaceae; in, Flora SSSR, Vol. 9. Tubiflorae, B. K. Shishkin, ed.: Izdatel' stvo Akad. Nauk. SSSR. Moscow, p. 97-691.
Prat, H., 1932, L'Epiderme des graminees: Ann. des Sci. Nat., Bot., 14, p. 117-324.
Prat, H., 1936, La systematique des graminees: Ann. des Sci. Nat., Bot., 18, p. 165-258.
Prat, H., 1960, Vers une classification naturelle des graminees: Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 107, p. 32-79.
Ronfinger, J. M., 1962, Taxonomy of Setaria (Gramineae) in North America: Illinois Biological Monographs 29.
Rosengurtt, B., Arrillaga de Maffei, B. R., and Izaguirre, P., 1970, Gramineas Uruguayas: Univ. de la Republica, Montevideo. 489 pp.
Ross, H. H., 1970, The ecological history of the Great Plains: Evidence from grassland insects; in, Pleistocene and recent environments of the central Great Plains, W. Dort and J. K. Jones, eds.: Univ. Kansas Dept. of Geol., Spec. Publ. 3, p. 225-240.
Russell, W. L., 1929, Stratigraphy and structure of the Smokey Hill Chalk in western Kansas: Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., Bull., v. 13, no. 6, p. 595-609.
Schimper, W. P., 1869-1874, Traité de paléontologie vegétále ou a flore du monde primitif: Paris. J. B. Bailliere et fils, v. 1, p. 1-740 (1869); v. 2, p. 1-522 (1870); v. 2, p. 523-968 (1872); v. 3, p. 1-896 (1874).
Schultz, C. B., 1942, A review of the Daemonelix problem: Nebr. Univ. Studies Sci. and Tech. 2, p. 1-30.
Schultz, C. B., and Martin, L. D., 1975, A new Kimballian Peccary from Nebraska: Univ. Nebr. State Mus. Bull. 10, no. 1, Pt. 3, p. 35-46.
Schultz, C. B., and Stout, T. M., 1961, Field conference on the Tertiary and Pleistocene of western Nebraska: Univ. Nebr. State Mus. Sp. Publ. 2, p. 1-55.
Schultz, C. B., Schultz, M. R., and Martin, L. D., 1970. A new tribe of Saber-Toothed Cats (Baraourofelini) from the Pliocene of North America: Univ. Nebr. State Mus. Bull. 9, no. 1, p. 1-31.
Schuyler, A. E., 1971, Scanning electron microscopy of achene epidermis in species of Scirpus (Cyperaceae) and related genera: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 123, no. 2, p. 29-52.
Segal, R. H., 1965, New fossil fruit (Compositae) from the Pliocene of western Kansas: American Midland Naturalist, v. 73, p. 430- 432.
Segal, R. H., 1966a, Taxonomic study of the fossil species of the genus Cryptantha (Boraginaceae): The Southwestern Naturalist, v. 11, no. 2, p. 205-210.
Segal, R. H., 1966b, A review of some Tertiary endocarps of Celtis (Ulmaceae): The Southwestern Naturalist, v. 11, no. 2, p. 211-216.
Segal, R. H., 1966c, Biorbia (Boraginaceae) in the central U. S. Pliocene: Unib. Kans. Sci. Bull. 46, no. 15, p. 495-508.
Selva, S. B., 1976, A biostratigraphic study of late Tertiary freshwater diatoms from the Ogallala of western Kansas: Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State Univ., 184 p.
Shobe, W. R., and Lersten, N. R., 1967, A technique for clearing and staining gymnosperm leaves: Botanical Gazette, v. 128, no. 2, p. 150-152.
Shotwell, J. A., 1961, Late Tertiary biogeography of horses in the northern Great Basin: Jour. Paleontology, v. 35, no. 1, p. 203-217.
Skinner, M. F., Skinner, S. M., and Gooris, R. J., 1968, Cenozoic rocks and faunas of Turtle Butte, south-central South Dakota: Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., v. 138, p. 379-436.
Smith, H. T. U., 1940, Geological studies in southwestern Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 34, p. 1-212.
Soderstrom, T, R., and Calderón, C. E., 1974, Primitive forest grasses and evolution of the Bambusoideae: Biotropica, v. 6, no. 3, p. 141-153.
Stebbins, G. L., Jr., 1947, Evidence on rates of evolution from the distribution of existing and fossil plant species. Ecol. Mono. 17, no. 2, p. 149-158.
Stebbins, G. L., Jr., 1956, Cytogenetics and evolution of the grass family: American Journal of Botany, v. 43, p. 890-905.
Stebbins, G. L., Jr., 1972, The evolution of the grass family; in, The biology and utilization of grasses, V. B. Younger, ed.: Academic Press, New York, p. 1-17.
Stebbins, G. L., Jr., 1975, The role of polyploid complexes in the evolution of North American grasslands: Taxon, v. 24, no. 1, p. 91-106.
Svenson, H. K., 1929, Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis: Rhodora, v. 31, p. 122-242.
Svenson, H. K., 1932, Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis--II: Rhodora, v. 36, p. 193-203, 215-227.
Svenson, H. K., 1934, Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis--III: Rhodora, v. 36, p. 377-389.
Svenson, H. K., 1937, Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis--IV: Rodora, v. 39, p. 210-231, 236-273.
Svenson, H. K., 1939, Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis--V: Rhodora, v. 41, p. 1-19, 43-77, 90-110.
Svenson, H. K., 1957, Eleocharis: North American Flora, v. 18, p. 509-40.
Swineford, A., and Frye, J. C., 1946, Petrographic comparison of Pliocene and Pleistocene volcanic ash from western Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 64, pt. 1, p. 1-32. [available online]
Swineford, A., Leonard, A. B., and Frye, J. C., 1958, Petrology of the Pliocene pisolitic limestone in the Great Plains: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 130, pt. 2, p. 97-116. [available online]
Tallan, M. E., 1978, Systematics and biostratigraphy of the early Hemphillian Bemis local fauna, Ellis County, Kansas: Fort Hays State Univ., Unpubl. M.S. Thesis.
Thomasson, J. R., 1976a, Cyperacites richardsii (Cyperaceae), a new fossil plant from the Pliocene of western Kansas: American Midland Naturalist, v. 95, no. 1, p. 239-242.
Thomasson, J. R., 1976b, Tertiary grasses and other angiosperms from Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado: Relationships to living taxa: Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State Univ., 412 p.
Thomasson, J. R., 1977, Late Cenozoic grasses, borages, and hackberries from southwestern Nebraska: Univ. Wyoming Contrib. to Geol., v. 16, no. 1, p. 39-43.
Thomasson, J. R., 1978a, Observations on the characteristics of the lemma and palea of the late Cenozoic grass Panicum elegans Elias: American Journal of Botany, v. 65, no. 1, p. 34-39.
Thomasson, J. R., 1978b, Epidermal patterns of the lemma in some fossil and living grasses and their phylogenetic significance: Science, Vol. 199. no. 4332, p. 975-977.
Voorhies, M. R., 1971, Paleoclimatic significance of crocodilian remains from the Ogallala group (Upper Tertiary) in northeastern Nebraska: Jour. Paleontology, v. 45, no. 1, p. 119-121.
Voorhies, M. R., 1974, Fossil pocket mouse burrows in Nebraska: American Midland Naturalist, v. 91, no. 2, p. 492-497.
Wanless, H. R., 1923, The stratigraphy of the White River beds of South Dakota: Amer. Philos. Soc., Proc. 62, p. 190-269.
Webb, S. D., 1969, The Burge and Minnechaduza Clarendonian mammalian faunas of north-central Nebraska: Univ. of California Publications, Bull. of the Dept. of Geol. Sciences, v. 78, p. 1-190.
Weber, W. A., 1957, A new intergeneric natural hybrid involving Oryzopsis and Stipa (Gramineae): Rhodora, v. 59, no. 707, p. 273-277.
Wells, P. V., 1970, Historical factors controlling the vegetation patterns and floristies of North America; in, Pleistocene and recent environments of the central Great Plains, W. Dort and J. K. Jones, eds.: Univ. Kansas Dept. of Geol., Spec. Publ. 3, p. 211-221.
Williams, D. L., 1975, Piptochaetium (Gramineae) and associated taxa: Evidence for the tertiary migration of plants between North and South America: Jour. Biogeography 2, p. 75-85.
Wilson, R. L., 1969, Systematics and faunal analysis of a lower Pliocene vertebrate assemblage from Trego County, Kansas: Univ. Mich. Mus. Paleont. Contrib. 22, no. 7, p. 75-126.
Wood, A. E., 1940, The mammalian fauna of the White River Oligocene: Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 28, no. 3, p. 289-316.
Zehr, D. D., 1974, The mammals from an early Pliocene Local Fauna in Ellis County, Kansas: Fort Hays Kansas State Univ., Unpubl. M.S. Thesis, 80 pp.
Zeller, D. E., 1968, The stratigraphic succession in Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 189, p. 1-81. [available online]
Description of measured section at site 9a
Site 9a is located on the east wall of the northern-most roadcut on the WL SW NW NW Sec. 3, T. 12 S., R. 20 W. (Pl. I); see Hill City 4 SE, Kansas Quadrangle, U.S.G.S. topographic map, 1963.
Although the lithology of this site has been previously reported (Frye, Leonard, and Swineford, 1956; Zehr, 1974), subsequent study at the location has resulted in the modified section that follows:
|? Kimball and ? Ash Hollow Members, undifferentiated|
|5||Granule to medium pebble conglomerate, gray, extremely poorly sorted, well cemented, calcareous, weathers to prominent "mortar bed" at nearby outcrops.||1.0|
|4||Fine-medium sand and silt, reddish-tan, mostly well sorted, massive, lower 1/2 with abundant densely cemented pippy concretions; upper 1/2 uncemented, but with thinly laminated (? organic) matter; flat and finger "Daemonelix" organic matter (see Barbour, 1897) throughout.||3.3|
|3||Diatomite, creamish-white, some poorly sorted silt and fine-coarse sand, well cemented, calcareous. Level of charophyte remains of Daily and Thomasson, 1979; molluscan fauna of Frye, Leonard, and Swineford, 1956; cyperaceous plant remains of Thomasson, 1976a; rare vertebrate remains of Zehr, 1974; some ostracods.||.7|
|2||Medium to coarse sand, reddish tan to gray, poorly sorted, moderately cemented in upper 5-6 feet, calcareous, unconsolidated in lower 5-6 feet; weathers to form "mortar bed." Tuff lithofacies located at north end of exposure at the level of this bed consisting of a densely cemented, gray ash, relatively pure at base. Contains abundant poorly sorted fine to coarse sand, forms a prominent mortar bed.||3.7|
|1||Clay, silt, and fine sand, greenish-gray, poorly to extremely well sorted, abundant white carbonate nodules in upper levels. Level of fish, amphibian, and reptilian remains reported by Zehr (1974).||2.0|
Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed on web May 1, 2009; originally published September 1979.
Comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
The URL for this page is http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/218/07_ref.html