Evaluating Carbon Storage in Morrowan and Mississippian oil fields and Underlying Lower Ordovician Arbuckle Saline Aquifer in Southern Kansas, by Willard L. Watney, Jason Rush, Martin K. Dubois, Robinson L. Barker, Tiraz Birdie, Ken Cooper, Saugata Datta, John Doveton, Mina Fazelalavi, David Fowle, Paul Gerlach, Thomas Hansen, Dennis E. Hedke, Yevhen Holubnyak, Breanna Huff, K. David Newell, Larry Nicholson, Jennifer Roberts, Aimee Scheffer, Ayrat Sirazhiev, Raymond P. Sorenson, Georgios Tsoflias, Eugene Williams, Dana Wreath, John Youle
(3-Panel Poster, Acrobat PDF, 29 MB)
Kansas currently has no large scale source of CO2 available to support an active CCUS industry, yet oil fields in Kansas offer substantial reserves potentially recoverable by CO2-EOR (~ 2 billion bbls). Oil fields in southern Kansas also overlie a deep (>1200 m), thick (150 to 300 m) Arbuckle saline aquifer that could greatly increase CO2 storage capacity in these fields. Operation of overlying fields could also serve to monitor, verify, and account (MVA) for CO2 that is injected and aid in achieving cost-effective management of commercial scale CO2 storage (10's millions of metric tons) in the saline aquifer while reducing uncertainty.
A multi-disciplinary investigation funded by DOE and cost share from industry partners is evaluating the CO2 storage capacity in five oil fields and establishing regional storage capacity of the deep saline Arbuckle aquifer. Regional 3D seismic, digital well logs, potential fields, and remote sensing data are being used to build geomodels and conduct simulations at additional sites potentially best suited for commercial scale CO2 storage. Together field and site studies will serve to calibrate the regional model.
CO2 will be injected on a small scale in a Mississippian reservoir and the underlying Arbuckle saline aquifer in one of these fields, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. Drilling, coring, and seismic acquisition in Wellington and more recently at Cutter Field in Stevens County, Kansas has added new information about the complex hydrostratigraphic units that comprise the Arbuckle and characteristics of the overlying caprock. Geomodeling and reservoir simulations of Morrow and Chester sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas, and the Osage-Meramec dolomitic chert reservoir at Wellington Field are focused on evaluating the efficacy of CO2-EOR. This extended knowledge is being applied to gain a Class VI permit to inject CO2 into the Arbuckle at Wellington Field. The information obtained and methodologies applied in the CO2-EOR projects will assist industry in implementing optimal carbon management. Combining the oil field and underlying saline aquifer will help to minimize uncertainty and risk aided by the knowledge gained from field development and the fact that the accumulation of oil attest to the integrity of overlying sealing strata.
Sedimentologic and Stratigraphic Effects of Episodic Structural Activity During the Phanerozoic in the Hugoton Embayment, Kansas USA, by Willard L. Watney, John Youle, Dennis E. Hedke, Paul Gerlach, Raymond P. Sorenson, Martin K. Dubois, Larry Nicholson, Thomas Hansen, David Koger, Ralph Baker
(PowerPoint Slides, Acrobat PDF, 12 MB)
The 10,000 km2 Hugoton Embayment (HE) is a relatively shallow, <3 km deep, northerly extension of the Anadarko Basin, where sediment thickness is up to 12 km. The Anadarko Basin is bordered on its south by the NW-trending Amarillo-Wichita frontal fault zone with up to 10 km of total structural relief. The HE is defined by a set of regional fault zones including high angle reverse with offsets in excess of 200 m confirmed by regional 3D seismic. The timing of these northern faults, located some 120 km north of the main frontal fault system, coincides with major tectonic activity (late Mississippian through middle Pennsylvanian). Abrupt shifts in the fault systems between NW-trending and N-NE trends are sites of large (5+ by 3 km long), parallelogram-shaped horst blocks on NE sides and adjoining grabens on SW side bounded by reverse faulting down to the west and south suggesting a system of synthetic NW-trending right lateral and antithetic N-NE trending left lateral strike-slip faults.
Faulting is closely associated with a 100 km long southward draining Chester-age incised valley. While main faulting post-dates the valley incision, possible deep karst and faulting have created linear valley segments proximal to horst blocks while valleys meander in segments between. Later faulting linked to karst formed an updip trap for the Chester reservoir in Shuck Field. A NW-trending flexure north of Shuck Field separates a narrow valley system to the north from a broad, tidal dominated, siliciclastic complex to the south.
Subdued structural movement, particularly along older structural features, continued during the upper Pennsylvanian and into the upper Permian expressed as persistent flexural folding. A series of N-S trending horst blocks and satellite anticlines became the locus for stacked ooid/grainstone shoals.
Laramide and post-Laramide deformation led to additional flexure above deep structures leading to widespread dissolution of shallow (<450 m) halite beds in the Lower Permian strata. Dissolution fronts are closely related to the underlying structure and are expressed in surface geomorphology. This evaporite karst contributed to accommodation space for the Pliocene High Plains Aquifer.
The structural geometries in the HE suggest strike-slip faulting that extended from the Anadarko Basin during peak tectonism. Regional faults and flexure closely corresponds to a template of Precambrian basement structures that are revealed by multiple data types.