Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration

This web page is in support of "Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration in Arbuckle saline aquifer and by CO2-EOR at Wellington field, Sumner County, Kansas."

CO2 Sequestration Summary Pages and Web Apps

We are recording all monitoring/production data on our CO2 Data Summary Page. Users can access a variety of applets to interpret and analyze the geochemistry, production data, and earthquake events around Wellington Field in real time.


updated March 21, 2016

Photos on the CO2 Injection Project moved to their own page.


updated June 2016

Inaccuracy of End Points of CO2-Brine Relative Permeability Curves, by Mohsen FazelAlavi, Mina FazelAlavi, and Maryam FazelAlavi. Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage Conference, June 14-16, 2016, Tysons, VA. (Acrobat PDF, 4 MB)

Pilot Scale CO2 EOR at Wellington Field in South-Central Kansas, by Yevhen Holubnyak, Lynn Watney, Jason Rush, Mina Fazelalavi, and Dana Wreath. Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage Conference, June 14-16, 2016, Tysons, VA. (Acrobat PDF, 4 MB)

Lessons Learned from Waste Water Disposal in Kansas: Applications for CO2 Geological Storage, by Yevhen Holubnyak, Lynn Watney, and Tandis S. Bidgoli. Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage Conference, June 14-16, 2016, Tysons, VA. (Acrobat PDF, 5 MB)

Geologic Carbon Sequestration Research in Kansas: Subsurface Storage Capacities and Pilot Tests for Safe and Effective Disposal, by W. Lynn Watney and others. Kansas NextStep Oil and Gas Seminar, Hays, Kansas, April 5-7, 2016. (Acrobat PDF, 13 MB)

Induced Seismicity--Physical Mechanisms and Temporal Trends in Kansas, by Tiraz Birdie and Lynn Watney. Kansas Hydrology Seminar, November 20th 2015. (Acrobat PDF, 3.1 MB)

Technical Economic and Regulatory Challenges Facing Large Scale Adaption of Carbon Geologic Sequestration, by Tiraz Birdie, Lynn Watney, and Jennifer Hollenbach. Carbon Management Technology Conference, November 18th 2015. (Acrobat PDF, 3.3 MB)

Advanced Subsurface Characterization for CO2 Geologic Sequestration and Induced Seismicity Evaluations, by Tiraz Birdie, Lynn Watney, Aimee Scheffer, Jason Rush, Eugene Holubnyak, Mina Fazelalavi, John Doveton, Jennifer Raney, Saugata Datta, Dennis Hedke, and Jennifer Roberts. Carbon Management Technology Conference, November 19th 2015. (Acrobat PDF, 2.5 MB)

Advanced Subsurface Characterization for CO2 Geologic Sequestration and Induced Seismicity Evaluations, by Tiraz Birdie, Lynn Watney, Aimee Scheffer, Jason Rush, Eugene Holubnyak, Mina Fazelalavi, John Doveton, Jennifer Raney, Saugata Datta, Dennis Hedke, and Jennifer Roberts. Carbon Management Technology Conference, November 19th 2015. (Acrobat PDF, 2.5 MB)

CO2-EOR in the Wellington Field, Sumner County, South Central Kansas, by W. Lynn Watney. 2015 KU TORP Improved Oil Recovery Conference, May 4, 2015. (Acrobat PDF, 26 MB)

Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas, by W. Lynn Watney and Jason Rush. Wrap-up presentation, DOE-NETL, Pittsburgh, PA, February 12, 2015. (Acrobat PDF, 17 MB)

Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating Sequestration in Arbuckle Saline Aquifer and by CO2-EOR at Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas, by W. Lynn Watney, Jason Rush, and Jennifer Raney. Presentation given at U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory FY15 Carbon Storage Peer Review March 2-6, 2015. (Acrobat PDF, 9 MB)

Small scale field test demonstrating CO2 sequestration in arbuckle saline aquifer and by CO2-EOR at Wellington field, Sumner County, Kansas, by W. Lynn Watney, Jason Rush, and Jennifer Raney. Presentation given at NETL Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting, Aug. 12-14, 2014. (Acrobat PDF, 5 MB)

Small scale field test demonstrating CO2 sequestration in Arbuckle saline aquifer and by CO2-EOR at Wellington field, Sumner County, Kansas, presentation given at DOE Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting, Aug. 21-23, 2012. (Acrobat PDF, 4 MB)

Business Implications of A Class VI Permit--The Long View? A Kansas Perspective, presentation given in Golden, CO, April 4-5, at the Colorado School of Mines. (Acrobat PDF, 8 MB)

Quarterly Reports

May 2016

Q18_2016.pdf, May 17, 2015 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 12 MB)

  1. Continuous CO2 injection in the Mississippian reservoir began on January 9, 2015 and weekly reporting thereof.
  2. Systematic weekly sampling of brine and gases at Wellington for up to 17 wells to understand the behavior of CO2 that is injected including quantifying interaction with the brine, oil, and reservoir rock, and accounting of the same.
  3. Develop databases for field and lab analyses using Java-based web applications with functions including importing brine data and downloading of results. Developed means to compare data by well and by date including 1) Wellington Field CO2 Brine Data Summary Page, 2) Fluid Level Data Summary Page, the latter including oil cut, % and metered CO2, fluid levels and estimated BHP.
  4. Developed additional Java applications to analyze brine and gases including 1) compute correlation matrix and perform Principal Component Analysis on-the-fly for the brine data to identify correlations and outliers of analyses for QA/QC and interpretation and 2) to normalization brine analyses via charge balance of anions and cations so that ratio to within 2% of expected 1:1 ratio.
  5. Built new and refine existing Java web applications to grid, map, and provide animated displays/movie of weekly changes in field and lab well-based measurements, displaying up to three variables using color cube algorithm.
  6. Established clearly defined analytical procedures and protocols for brines and gases involving four labs at KGS and KU for cost saving, efficiency, on-site training, and overall QA/QC.
  7. Have successfully used well based measurements to track CO2 and oil recovery including metered CO2 and incremental oil, oil cut and total fluid by well, and estimates of bottom hole pressure.
  8. Have identified the location of the primary CO2 plume that still lies within the producing wells nearest the injection well, #2-32. CO2 produced amounts to less than 15% of the CO2 has been injected.
  9. Volumetric analysis indicate that the bank of CO2 has extended to the entire ~70 ft thick porous and permeable portion of the Mississippian reservoir that also contains ~23% residual oil saturation.
  10. Compositional fluid flow simulation recently performed has focused on the temperature effects of injecting cold CO2 suggest that a mixed phase plume has developed in the inner ring of wells within 660 ft of the CO2 injection well. CO2 varies from an inner core of cool liquid CO2 and warmer supercritical phase that likely has become miscible with oil.
  11. New analyses of 3D seismic analysis include new sequence stratigraphic interpretation successfully integrating the 3D seismic, well log, and core. Model is consistent with progradation of high frequency parasequences exhibiting transgressive, maximum flooding, highstand and lowstand systems tracks comprising a single large depositional sequence encompassing the entire preserved Mississippian strata at Wellington Field.
  12. The depositional model is consistent with a large regional cool water ramp that occupies large portions of southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma bordering the Anadarko and Arkoma basins.
  13. Faulting along the ramp and at Wellington Field occurred syndepositionally with the Mississippian strata, locally influencing the progradational system and affecting reservoir lithofacies across a medial NE-SW trending fault in Wellington Field.
  14. New AVO (amplitude vs. offset) analysis of the 3D indicates results consistent with the Petrel inversion of porosity. The AVO further indicates that the CO2 is confined to the more higher porous contiguous portion of the reservoir surrounding the CO2 injection well. Results also show the porosity barrier present along the syndepositional fault that bisects the field.
  15. Increased pressure and presence of CO2 noted in well #63 across a small medial fault located to the east of the injection well. The show of CO2 indicates that the fault and associated lithofacies change act as a baffle between CO2 injection well and this producer and are consistent with earlier pulse test and interpretation of 3D seismic imaging.
  16. Seismology team has continued to build and refine earthquake catalog from Wellington seismometer array reporting weekly updates. Magnitude of Completeness established to verify that all events can be identified equal to or great than 1.4 M, a value that will continue to decrease over time as the catalog expands.
  17. Capabilities of existing Java web applications pertaining to earthquakes have expanded to include 1) monthly summary of earthquakes as CO2 Seismic Array Data Summary Page, and 2) 3D Animation/Movie of existing maps and 2D and 3D plots of earthquakes to illustrate by location, magnitude, and time. User can limit events to be shown by time and define what appears on the map.

Q17_2016.pdf, Feb. 9, 2016 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 13 MB)

  1. Completed installation of on-site CO2 storage equipment and injection skid.
  2. Begin CO2 injection into the Mississippian reservoir.
  3. Installed equipment to monitor injection and recovery of CO2.
  4. Began systematic monitoring of brine and gases at Wellington to understand the behavior of CO2 and interaction with brine, oil, and reservoir rocks.
  5. EPA's determination of the absence of a USDW for the Class VI permit application.
  6. Submitted and received response from EPA refined conservative AoR model (Revised Section 5 of the Class VI permit.
  7. Received portions of draft Class VI permit to review
  8. Received requirements for the Financial Assurance and the Post Injection Site Care.
  9. Refined and verified 18-seismometer array at Wellington with nearby earthquakes begin updating the earthquake catalog on a weekly basis.
  10. Workflow in place to report notable earthquakes within 24 hours to ensure location and magnitude.
  11. Participate in continued discussion and presentation on induced seismicity in the context of a safe and effective CO2 injection at Wellington.

Q16_2015.pdf, Oct. 12, 2015 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 13 MB)

  1. Decision was made in July to build a compositional simulation of the Arbuckle saline aquifer in STOMP, the software used by EPA evaluate the AoR to facilitate the conversion from CMG simulation used by KGS to software platform used by EPA. After consultation with the developer of STOMP at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a methodology was developed to import the domain built in the Petrel geomodel into STOMP. The conversion process that was creating difficulties in sharing the CMG model to STOMP was subsequently solved and confirmed with EPA. Employing STOMP at the KGS will facilitate future updates. CMG is now uses the parameters, processes, and rock properties to confirm the AoR with a conservative model. The same domain and input parameters will be used in STOMP.
  2. Existing and new samples of brine from the Mississippian oil reservoir were completed in August and results and displays using java applications are now online with a methodology to normalize the data to account for systematic changes so the results can be mapped. Systematic error of the major constituents, while within the analytical tolerance of ±5%, can assignment of either spatial or temporal anomalies that could be within the real changes in the brine as the reservoir is swept by CO2.
  3. The Mississippian reservoir was revisited and updated in July and August to incorporate new data from the KGS #2-32 drilled in the previous quarter. The core obtained and the log data made a compelling case for slightly inclined stratification of high-frequency depositional cycles. Seismic was reexamined to trace this cyclicity and confirm that the small dip of a few degrees was depositional dip, not structure.

Q15_2015.pdf, Aug. 12, 2015 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 4 MB)

  1. The review of the Class VI application has made significant progress, and is nearing the final stages to be approved by EPA.
  2. Freshwater monitoring boreholes have been sampled and indicate no presence of a USDW at the Wellington site.
  3. CO2 suppliers have been secured.
  4. Performed workovers and obtained baseline sampling on surrounding Mississippian Boreholes for production and MVA during CO2-EOR.
  5. MVA components in place to monitor the Mississippian CO2-EOR injection, and revisited design and updated costs to fabricate U-Tube and CASSM for Arbuckle monitoring.
  6. Conducted pulse test at KGS 2-32 Mississippian well.
  7. Installed three new broadband seismometers near injection borehole.
  8. Establish Protocols for InSAR data collection.

Q14_2015.pdf, May 15, 2015 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 12 MB)

  1. Participated in DOE peer review in Pittsburgh on March 5.
  2. Class II application was filed with Kansas Corporation Commission in January and approved in February 2015.
  3. Continued conference calls and written communications with EPA regarding review of Class VI application. Submitted responses to requests from EPA for additional information (RAI) in regards to the application. Responded to inquiries regarding evaluation of surface water with drilling, completion, testing, and analyses fit for purpose to evaluate the presence of a USDW.
  4. Drilled and completed three shallow water wells and conducted extensive sampling, pumping, and lab work to evaluate surface waters in AOR. Findings to date is that the shallow bedrock in the AOR is primarily a low yield, brine saturated aquiclude that overlies and is in equilibrium with diffusive dissolution from the underlying shallow Hutchinson salt. Surface water in AOR and immediately vicinity is limited to thin surficial colluvium and alluvial lenses.
  5. Drilled Berexco Wellington KGS #2-32 in March 2015. Surface sampling and wireline logging above surface casing enhanced understanding of the presence of surface aquifer and aquitard system. The Mississippian oil reservoir was cored, evaluated with modern wireline logs, and is undergoing testing. The reservoir at #2-32 consists of an evenly porous (20-25% porosity) interval that is ~60 ft thick. The upper 40 ft is at residual oil saturation indicating that location has been effectively waterflooded and is in communication with one or more injection wells.
  6. KGS #2-28 will be further tested, cores will be analyzed, and models will be adjusted to determine how the reservoir is re-pressured and what the anticipated CO2 plume will be.

Q13_2015.pdf, Feb. 16, 2015 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 3 MB)

  1. Kickoff meeting with team on October 15, 2014 to implement plans for BP2.
  2. Teleconferenced with Region 7 EPA in Lenexa, KS Washington office during the quarter to respond to questions Wellington Class VI application.
  3. Obtained completion plans, drilled, and began testing of two of the shallow water wells to evaluate presence of USDW.
  4. Started processing of data obtained from cGPS data to provide baseline for InSAR.
  5. Instituted cost-center based billing through discussions with KGS, KUCR, and DOE to expedite invoicing and justification for DOE.
  6. 15 seismometers seismic array from IRIS-PASSCAL were placed on a cellular network.

Q12_2014.pdf, Nov. 4, 2014 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 3 MB)

  1. First formal meeting on August 20th with Region 7 EPA in Lenexa, KS and tele-connection with Washington office to discuss the Wellington Class VI application. Introduce Wellington team and reaffirm tight schedule and commitment to work closely with EPA to meet requests.
  2. Completed review of Berexco subcontract and permission received from DOE on September 22nd to begin field activities associated with BP2.
  3. 15 seismometers seismic array from IRIS-PASSCAL are installed and operational. Installation completed using KGS funds prior to start BP2 and system is now operational. DOE funds are being used to install cellular network and for acquisition and processing of the microseismic data. Resolution of recording appears to be excellent.
  4. cGPS installed and operational as instrumentation. cGPS is necessary to obtain baseline x-y-z ground motion to calibrate InSAR.

Q11_2014.pdf, revised Sept. 5, 2014 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 4 MB)

  1. Class VI application submitted and accepted by EPA and Deliverable in Subtask 1.8 "Arbuckle Injection Permit Application Review go/no go Memo" was submitted. Permit application was submitted to EPA and accepted on June 19th.
  2. CO2 suppliers have been secured. Praxair and Linde Group have been secured as vendors to supply CO2 under the Berexco subcontract.
  3. Science further enhanced with receipt of 15 seismometers for IRIS-PASSCAL Seismic array deployment and three active 3-component active seismometers purchased with KGS funds to compliment other monitoring including high-resolution seismic, high-resolution cGPS/InSAR, and downhole U-tube sampling and CASSM.
  4. Important science questions directed toward to improved prediction and evaluation of dynamic changes in the CO2 plumes are anticipated using recent refinements in existing Petrel-CMG models.
  5. Increased relevancy of this project to the DOE Portfolio.
  6. With submittal of the Class VI application, securing CO2 supply, and level of scientific study related to the Mississippian injection, DOE agreed to proceed with plans for Mississippian injection ahead of the Arbuckle.

Q9_2014r.pdf, March 11, 2014 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 3 MB)

  1. Completed Well Drilling and Installation Plan Subtask 1.5. (See Appendix A-1 Drilling and Well Installation Plan
  2. Completed Subtask 1.6. MVA Plan (See Appendix A-2 Testing and Monitoring Plan) Completed Subtask 1.7. Public Outreach Plan (See Appendix A-3 Wellington Public Outreach)
  3. Completed Subtask 1.8. Arbuckle Injection Permit Application Review go/no go Memo (See Appendix A-4 Permit Application)
  4. Completed Subtask 1.10. Site Development, Operations, and Closure Plan (Please see Appendix A-5 Operations and Closure Plan and Appendix A-6 Post-Injection Site Care and Site Closure Plan)

Q8_2013.pdf, Nov. 5, 2013 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 2 MB)

  1. Continued progress of Milestone 2 (Task 3) -- Site characterization of Mississippian Reservoir for CO2 EOR - Wellington Field.
    • Ran new Petrel model of Mississippian
    • Ran new CMG simulations to refine location of Mississippian CO2 injector
    • Geomodel includes new petrophysical facies for the Mississippian (Mina), and stratigraphic interpretation of Lynn with inverted seismic with both phi and k properties distributed through the model by Jason.
  2. Arbuckle Injection Permit Application--The permit application consists of 14 chapters (sections). Drafts for all section were completed by KGS on October 10 and forwarded to DOE and Berexco for review. The executive summary of the permit application is included below relay the content. The permit document contains an extensive amount of raw, processed, and analyzed technical information along with model simulation results which summarizes the suitability of the Wellington site for conducting not only the small-scale pilot test, but potentially long-term commercial scale carbon capture and sequestration.

Q7_2013.pdf, May 6, 2013 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 925 kB)

Q6_2013.pdf, May 6, 2013 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 485 kB)

Q5_2013.pdf, Jan. 31, 2013 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 241 kB)

Q4_2012r2.pdf, Nov. 12, 2012 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 3 MB)

Q3_2012r.pdf, Revised Sept. 5, 2012 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 3.4 MB)

Q2_2012.pdf, May 2012 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 1.4 MB)

Q1_2012rev.pdf, March 2012 (Adobe Acrobat PDF file, 2.7 MB)

Cutter KGS 1 well

updated July 11, 2013

Info on the Cutter KGS 1 well moved to its own web page.

[July 11, 2013] New photos, well report from reperforating work.

[Oct. 5, 2012] Released rig at 12:00 am on 10/5/12. Rig down.

Overview for Cutter KGS 1 site visit, Sept. 10-11, 2012. (Acrobat PDF, 14 MB)

Field Trip; Schedule, updated Sept. 7. (Acrobat PDF, 1 MB)


South-central Kansas CO2 Project is a DOE-funded project of the Kansas Geological Survey. More ...