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Ground-water Quality in Lincolnville

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Appendix V--Sampling and Storage Procedures

Samples were usually collected from a faucet closest to the well. In many cases this involved an outside faucet either at the well house, the house, or from a frost-proof hydrant in the yard. Some samples were collected from faucets inside the house, where necessary, and when sampling for examination of bacteria. In cases where a softener was being used, a tap before the softener was used. Generally such a tap was located at the kitchen sink to provide drinking water.

The well was pumped for a period considered sufficient to obtain representative formation water. The water temperature was measured until it stabilized, serving as an indication of the representativeness of the water. Generally the domestic wells were used on a daily basis, therefore a long pumping period was not required.

When outside faucets were used, water was usually allowed to run into a plastic five-gallon bucket in order to calculate approximate discharge rate and to observe the water for sediment, odor, discoloration, and dissolved gases.

For monthly sampling and analysis of chloride and nitrate concentrations and specific conductance, 500-ml polyethylene bottles were filled, numbered, stored on ice and transported either to a nearby motel room or to laboratory facilities at the Analytical Services Section of the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), housed in Moore Hall at the University of Kansas, in Lawrence, Kansas. There, measurement of nitrate concentration was usually conducted within 2~ hours using a portable colorimeter (Hach Co., Model DR/lA, Ames, IA.). However, on a few occasions some samples were held longer, as much as 55 hours before analysis. Several acidified duplicate samples were collected for nitrate determination by the KGS Analytical Services Section. Results showed relatively good agreement in concentration values with the Hach method, especially for samples analyzed within 24 hours.

In most cases samples collected did not require filtration, with the exception of several samples from Clear Creek and well L26. Samples from these sources were filtered prior to analysis using filtration equipment at the KGS Analytical Services laboratory.

After the nitrate determinations were complete, the samples were stored at room temperature for several days to two weeks until the chloride analysis and measurement of specific conductance could be performed.

Samples collected for analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) (as volatile, VOC, and nonvolatile organic carbon NVOC), and the dissolved gases methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide (May 8 and August 15, 1985), were collected from the same taps as were used for the monthly samplings, after temperatures of the discharging ground water had stabilized. The discharge rate from the faucet was substantially reduced prior to sample collection in order to obtain an undisturbed sample to reduce the potential loss of VOC's, if present. However, because all of the wells used in the study area were equipped with variable displacement pumps, degassing probably affected the concentrations of VOC's and dissolved gases that were obtained (Barcelona, et al., 1984). Two 100-ml glass serum bottles were filled slowly until overflowing. A Teflon-lined septum was then inserted in an aluminum seal and carefully placed over each bottle and crimped into place. If at this point any air bubbles were present in a serum bottle, the seal was removed, the sample recollected, and the sealing process repeated until a sample was obtained that contained no air bubbles. The two samples (per well) were marked, stored on ice and transported to the University of Kansas in Lawrence within 24 to 48 hours. One of the samples was delivered to the C.L. Burt laboratory housed at Learned Hall for analysis of TOC (as VOC and NVOC) by Dr. Stephen J. Randtke. The second sample (May sampling only) was delivered to the Mass Spectrometry laboratory housed in Malott Hall for determination of dissolved methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide by Dr. Charles Judson. Because there were no detectable amounts (> 0.02 mg/l) of VOC in the August 1985 samples, analyses for the dissolved gases were not conducted.

Sampling for the standard inorganic chemistry analyses (September 24, 1984 and May 8, 1985), involved pumping the well until one well-bore volume of water had been discharged. Then field measurements of temperature, pH (portable meter--Model 607, Fisher Scientific Co., St. Louis, Mo.), and specific conductance (portable meter--Lectro-MHO Meter Model MC-1, Mark 4, Lab-Line Instr. Co., Melrose Park, Il.) were made on several grab samples until these parameters had stabilized. One 500-ml polyethylene bottle was then filled for determination of pH, specific conductance, and major anions and cations. Also, a 250-ml polyethylene bottle containing 2 ml of redistilled 6N hydrochloric acid was filled to 200 ml for measurement of trace metals, nitrate, and ammonium. These bottles were marked, stored on ice, and transported to the Analytical Services Section laboratory of the KGS where the analyses were performed by the Section staff under the supervision of Dr. Lawrence Hathaway.

Sampling for the examination of fecal coliform and fecal Streptococcus bacteria (December 17, 1984 and May 20, 1985), was as per instructions from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The procedure involved running water for at least five minutes through a nonaerated faucet, preferably inside the house or building. Samples were collected in specially marked plastic bottles provided by the KDHE. The samples were stored on ice and transported to the Environmental laboratory, located in Forbes Building 740 in Topeka, Kansas within 24 hours to be examined for the presence of fecal coliform and fecal Streptococcus bacteria. The results were then interpreted and reported by the KDHE.

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Kansas Geological Survey, Geohydrology
Placed on web March 16, 2016; originally published 1998.
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