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Chapter I—Historical Outline of the Oil and Gas Industry in Kansas. By Erasmus Haworth

Early development

Southeastern oil and gas fields

Oil and gas in Butler county

El Dorado


Other localities

Present condition of the oil and gas industry in Kansas

Chapter II—Previous Geologic Work

Chapter III—Petroleum and Natural Gas


Properties of petroleum



Properties of natural gas



Origin of oil and gas

Inorganic hypotheses

Organic hypotheses

Other hypotheses

General conclusion

Chapter IV—General Geology of Oil and Gas


Migration of oil and gas


Capillary attraction


Gas pressure

Difference in the specific gravities of water, oil and gas

Accumulation of oil and gas

Oil and gas reservoirs

Structural relations of oil and gas

Exploration for oil and gas

Direct indications

Oil seepages

Gas springs

Outcrops of sand impregnated with bitumen

Indirect indications

Chapter V—Production of Oil and Gas



Location of wells

Drilling for oil and gas

Method of drilling


Drilling contracts

Cost of drilling

Keeping the log

Shooting the well

Management of wells

Method of recovery

Initial production and decline of oil wells

The handling of oil


Fire protection

Refining of petroleum

Refining methods

"Dry" or "cracking" distillation process

Fractional distillation

Vacuum process

Pressure distillation

Petroleum products manufactured in the Midcontinent field

Percentage of gasoline content

Condensation of gasoline from natural gas

Conditions affecting Midcontinent refineries

Chapter VI—General Stratigraphy of Kansas


Formation of the rocks of Kansas

The rock systems of Kansas

Older rocks of the Midcontinent region


Cambrian and Ordovician

Mississippian system

Pennsylvanian system

General description



Lithologic character

Effect on topography



Des Moines group

Cherokee shale

Marmaton formation

Fort Scott limestone member

Labette shale member

Pawnee limestone member

Bandera shale member

Altamont limestone member

Walnut shale member

Coffeyville limestone member

Pleasanton shale member

Missouri group

Kansas City formation

Hertha limestone member

Ladore shale member

Bethany Falls limestone member

Galesburg shale member

Winterset limestone member

Cherryvale shale member

Drum limestone member

Chanute shale member

Iola limestone member

Lansing formation

Lane shale member

Plattsburg limestone member

Vilas shale member

Stanton limestone member

Douglas formation

Weston shale member

Iatan limestone member

Lawrence shale member

Oread limestone member

Shawnee formation

Kanwaka shale member

Lecompton limestone member

Tecumseh shale member

Deer Creek limestone member

Calhoun shale member

Topeka limestone member

Severy shale member

Howard limestone member

Scranton shale member

Wabaunsee formation

Burlingame limestone member

Willard shale member

Emporia limestone member

Admire shale member

Americus limestone member

Elmdale shale member

Neva limestone member

Eskridge shale member

Permian system

General description



Lithologic character

Faunal character


Big Blue group

Council Grove formation

Cottonwood limestone member

Garrison limestone and shale member

Chase formation

Wreford limestone member

Matfield shale member

Florence flint member

Fort Riley limestone member

Doyle shale member

Winfield limestone member

Marion formation

Luta limestone member

Enterprise shale member

Herington limestone member

Pearl shale member

Abilene conglomerate member

Wellington formation

Cimarron group

Enid formation

Harper sandstone member

Salt Plain shale member

Cedar Hills sandstone member

Flowerpot shale member

Cave Creek formation

Medicine Lodge gypsum member

Jenkins shale member

Shimer gypsum member

Woodward formation

Dog Creek shale member

Whitehorse sandstone member

Day Creek dolomite member

Greer formation

Hackberry shale member

Big Basin sandstone member

Comanchean system

Cheyenne sandstone

Kiowa shale

Cretaceous system

General description



Lithologic character

Effect on topography



Dakota sandstone

Benton formation

Graneros shale member

Greenhorn limestone member

Carlile shale member

Niobrara formation

Fort Hays limestone member

Smoky Hill chalk member

Pierre shale

Tertiary and later deposits

Ogalalla formation

Quaternary deposits

Glacial deposits

Pleistocene river deposits



Sand dunes

Chapter VII—The Crystalline Rocks of Kansas


Historical note

Well records

Eastern Kansas

Central Kansas

Wells reporting crystalline rocks

Wells not reporting crystalline rocks

The crystalline rock surface

Petrography of the crystalline rocks


Kaufman well

Chase county poor-farm well

Zeandale well

Root well

Droll well

Lilly well

Quartz porphyry

Kaufman well

Chlorite schist

Kaufman well

Zeandale well

Interpretation of the crystalline rocks of Kansas

Intrusive origin

Ancient crystalline basement

Age of the crystalline rocks

Geologic history of the crystalline rock area

Archeozoic Era

Proterozoic Era

Paleozoic Era



Silurian and Devonian




Post-Paleozoic history


Chapter VIII—The Physical and Chemical Properties of Kansas Petroleums, By W. A. Whitaker, F. W. Campbell and Clarence Estes

Previous work

Present investigation

Methods used

Data obtained in the present investigation

What is gasoline?

Chapter IX—Oil and Gas Production in Kansas






Natural gas

Casing head gasoline

County reports


Allen county

Anderson county

Atchison county

Barber county

Barton county

Bourbon county

Brown county

Butler county

Chase county

Chautauqua county

Cherokee county

Cheyenne county

Clark county

Clay county

Cloud county

Coffey county

Comanche county

Cowley county

Crawford county

Decatur county

Dickinson county

Doniphan county

Douglas county

Edwards county

Elk county

Ellis county

Ellsworth county

Finney county

Ford county

Franklin county

Geary county

Gove county

Graham county

Grant county

Gray county

Greeley county

Greenwood county

Hamilton county

Harper county

Harvey county

Haskell county

Hodgeman county

Jackson county

Jefferson county

Jewell county

Johnson county

Kearny county

Kingman county

Kiowa county

Labette county

Lane county

Leavenworth county

Lincoln county

Linn county

Logan county

Lyon county

McPherson county

Marion county

Marshall county

Meade county

Miami county

Mitchell county

Montgomery county

Morris county

Morton county

Nemaha county

Neosho county

Ness county

Norton county

Osage county

Osborne county

Ottawa county

Pawnee county

Phillips county

Pottawatomie county

Pratt county

Rawlins county

Reno county

Republic county

Rice county

Riley county

Rooks county

Rush county

Russell county

Saline county

Scott county

Sedgwick county

Seward county

Shawnee county

Sheridan county

Sherman county

Smith county

Stafford county

Stanton county

Stevens county

Sumner county

Thomas county

Trego county

Wabaunsee county

Wallace county

Washington county

Wichita county

Wilson county

Woodson county

Wyandotte county


Appendix A—Form of lease contract

Appendix B—Form of drilling contract

Appendix C—Laws of Kansas relating to oil and gas

Appendix D—Refineries in Kansas


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Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed on web Aug. 10, 2018; originally published 1917.
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