Wabaunsee Group--The Wabaunsee group as redefined by Moore includes the beds between the base of the Americus limestone and the top of the Topeka limestone. The Wabaunsee is a natural stratigraphic unit composed predominantly of shales gray to red in color. Thin but persistent limestones are also characteristic of this group. Some sandstone is found, usually in the lower part of the group.
The log of the Empire Oil and Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm well in the SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County, shows 605 feet of Wabaunsee beds. The strata logged in this well are as follows:
|Empire Oil and Refining Co. No. 1 Schwalm, SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E.||Thickness
The section of Wabaunsee beds in the Manhattan Oil Company No. 1 Steinmeyer well in the NE cor. NW SW sec. 11, T. 13 S., R. 10 E., Wabaunsee County, is very similar to that of the Schwalm well. The total thickness of the Wabaunsee group in the Steinmeyer well is 590 feet. The lithologic description is given for comparison with the Schwalm section.
|Manhattan Oil Co. No. 1 Steinmeyer, NE cor. NW SW sec. 11, T. 13 S., R. 10 E.||Thickness
Shawnee Group--This group, extending from the top of the Topeka limestone to the base of the Oread limestone, consists predominantly of limestone. The principal limestone formations, the Topeka, Deer Creek, Lecompton, and Oread, contain distinctive upper, middle and lower limestone members with intervening shale bodies where typically developed, and represent a cyclic type of sedimentation. This group ranges from 275 to 410 feet (averaging about 375 feet) in thickness in wells in various places in northeastern Kansas. The lithologic description of the Shawnee beds in the Goens et al. No. 1 Wabense, Cen. NE NW sec. 3, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Jackson county, is fairly representative of this group. The thickness of the group as shown in this well is 355 feet.
|Goens et al. No. 1 Wabense, Gen. NE NW sec. 3, T. 8 S., R. 14 E.||Thickness
|Topeka limestone (35 feet)|
|Soft gray dense limestone||35||705-740|
|Calhoun shale (30 feet)|
|Soft gray and greenish-gray shale||30||740-770|
|Deer Creek limestone (40 feet)|
|Gray dense to coarsely crystalline limestone||23||770-793|
|Soft gray shale||7||793-800|
|Gray dense to coarsely crystalline limestone||10||800-810|
|Tecumseh shale (65 feet)|
|Very soft greenish-gray shale||65||810-875|
|Lecompton limestone (39 feet)|
|Soft gray crystalline limestone||8||875-883|
|Soft dark-gray shale||17||883-900|
|Buff and gray crystalline limestone||14||900-914|
|Kanwaka shale (66 feet)|
|Soft gray shale||40||914-954|
|Buff crystalline limestone||3||954-957|
|Soft gray shale||23||957-980|
|Oread limestone (80 feet)|
|Gray to buff finely crystalline limestone||42||980-1,022|
|Soft gray shale||13||1,022-1,035|
|Gray sandy limestone, buff crystalline limestone||25||1,035-1,060|
The Shawnee group is 375 feet thick in the Manhattan Oil Company No. 1 Steinmeyer well in the NE cor. NW SW sec. 11, T. 13 S., R. 10 E., Wabaunsee County, and the section is very similar to that in the Wabense well. The Steinmeyer section is given for comparison.
|Manhattan Oil Co. No. 1 Steinmeyer, NE cor. NW SW sec. 11, T. 13 S., R. 10 E.||Thickness
|Topeka limestone (40 feet)|
|Calhoun shale (40 feet)|
|Deer Creek limestone (60 feet)|
|Tecumseh shale (35 feet)|
|Lecompton limestone (55 feet)|
|Kanwaka shale (35 feet)|
|Oread limestone (110 feet)|
Pedee-Douglas Group--The beds lying between the base of the Oread limestone and the top of the Stanton limestone belong to the Pedee-Douglas group. The Douglas group is composed predominantly of shales and sandstones and contains the Lawrence shale, Haskell limestone and Stranger formation. The Lawrence shale is often sandy and the Stranger formation is largely sandstone. The Haskell limestone is a thin limestone often mistaken for the Iatan. The Pedee group, where typically developed, is dominantly shale, and its members are the Hardesty shale, Iatan limestone, and Weston shale. The Pedee group lies between the pre-Virgil unconformity and the top of the Stanton limestone and in places is not present, the sandstones of the Stranger formation lying directly on the Stanton limestone.
The average thickness of the Pedee-Douglas beds in northeastern Kansas is about 225 feet, with a maximum of 290 feet in the Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well in the SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E., Douglas County, and a minimum of 175 feet in the Horton well, sec. 34, T. 4 S., R. 17 E., Brown county.
The lithology of the Pedee-Douglas groups in the Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well, SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E., is as follows:
|Smith et al. No. 1 Smith, SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E.||Thickness
|Soft reddish-brown shale||5||68-73|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||141||73-214|
|Fine angular sandstone, buff limestone||5||214-219|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||71||219-290|
|Fine angular micaceous sandstone||25||290-315|
|Light-gray arenaceous shale||43||315-358|
This is fairly representative of the Pedee-Douglas group as found in northeastern Kansas. The fine angular sandstone is usually present, or if not, a sandy shale is found. Thin limestone beds are usually present, but are often not recorded in the driller's log. The shale is characteristically greenish-gray in color and quite soft, but red shale is sometimes found in the upper part of the Lawrence shale. The red shale is useful as a horizon marker in subsurface work.
Bronson-Lansing Group--The Bronson-Lansing group, including the Bronson, Kansas City, and Lansing groups, is a well-defined stratigraphic unit that is composed predominantly of limestone. This lime series, formerly designated as the Kansas City-Lansing, is very important in subsurface work because it can be easily recognized. The Lansing group is chiefly limestone, and its formations are the Stanton limestone, Vilas shale, and Plattsburg limestone. The Kansas City group is the shale and limestone unit which lies between the Lansing and the Bronson groups. Formations included are the Bonner Springs shale, Wyandotte limestone, Lane shale, Iola limestone, Chanute shale, Drum limestone, and Cherryvale shale. The Bronson group is composed dominantly of limestone and is made up of the Dennis limestone, Galesburg shale, and Swope limestone.
The lithology and general sequence of beds are fairly well shown in the description of cuttings of the Bronson-Lansing strata from the Anderson Drilling Company No. 1 Stines well in the NE cor. sec. 10, T. 11 S., R. 18 E., Jefferson County.
|Andersen Drilling Co. No. 1 Stines, NE cor. sec. 10, T. 11 S., R. 18 E.||Thickness
|Lansing Group (80 feet):|
|Stanton limestone (35 feet)|
|Gray, finely crystalline limestone, fine angular sandstone||4||537-541|
|Fine angular sandstone, gray limestone||6||541-547|
|Light-gray earthy limestone||15||547-562|
|Black fissile shale||5||562-567|
|Gray finely crystalline limestone||5||567-572|
|Vilas shale (18 feet)|
|Hard greenish-gray shale||18||572-590|
|Plattsburg limestone (27 feet)|
|Gray sandy limestone, gray shale||3||590-593|
|Buff, dense and oolitic limestone||24||593-617|
|Kansas City Group:|
|Bonner Springs shale (31 feet)|
|Fine angular micaceous sandstone||19||617-636|
|Wyandotte limestone (79 feet)|
|White to buff finely crystalline limestone||79||648-727|
|Lane shale (11 feet)|
|Medium hard gray shale||11||727-738|
|Iola (?) limestone (8 feet)|
|White chalky and buff-colored limestone||8||738-746|
|Chanute-Cherryvale shale (88 feet)|
|Hard greenish-gray shale||5||746-751|
|Hard white crystalline limestone, white chert||12||751-763|
|Medium hard gray shale||19||763-782|
|Gray and buff finely crystalline limestone, fine angular sandstone||3||782-785|
|Medium hard gray shale||5||785-790|
|Gray and buff finely crystalline limestone||2||790-792|
|Soft gray shale||3||792-795|
|Hard gray and brown crystalline limestone, brown chert||10||795-805|
|Hard dark-gray shale||2||805-807|
|Hard gray and brown crystalline limestone, brown chert||20||807-827|
|Dark-gray to black shale||7||827-834|
|Dennis limestone (20 feet)|
|Gray earthy and finely crystalline limestone||18||834-852|
|Black, fissile shale||2||852-854|
|Galesburg shale (1 foot)|
|Swope to Hertha limestone (25 feet)|
|Mottled brown earthy limestone||22||855-877|
|Dark-gray to black shale||1||877-878|
|Mottled brown earthy limestone||2||878-880|
A description of these beds as they occur at the outcrop is given in a report on Wyandotte county (Newell, Norman D.: Mineral resources of Wyandotte county. Kansas Geol. Survey, Circ. 4, 1931). The thickness of the Bronson-Lansing group varies from 300 to 700 feet and averages about 350 feet.
Bourbon shale--This succession lies between the base of the Hertha formation and the pre-Missouri unconformity and is composed dominantly of undifferentiated shales and sandstones. In subsurface correlations the term Bourbon can be conveniently used for the shaly beds between the Hertha and limestones of the Marmaton group.
Des Moines Series
Marmaton Group--The Marmaton group extends from the preMissouri unconformity above the Lenapah limestone to the base of the Fort Scott limestone. However, the sandstone marking the pre-Missouri unconformity is often not present or not recorded in drilling, so the unconformity cannot always be recognized. The top of the group of limestones in the Marmaton, generally the Altamont, will arbitrarily be used as the upper limit of the Marmaton group. The Marmaton and Bourbon beds will be discussed below as a unit. The Marmaton-Bourbon interval, as recognized in subsurface correlations, varies considerably in thickness. In the eastern part of the area the thickness reaches a maximum of 272 feet in the Universal Oil Company No. 1 Harrington well in the NE cor. SW sec. 12, T. 14 S., R. 22 E., Johnson county, and averages about 245 feet in thickness. To the west the section is thinner. In the Jenkins and Scott well, No. 1 Hayden, NE NE SE sec. 8, T. 12, S., R. 14 E., Shawnee County, these beds are only 165 feet thick. The average thickness in the western part of the area is about 200 feet. The section in the Anderson Drilling Company No. 1 Stines well in the NE cor. sec. 10, T. 11 S., R. 18 E., Jefferson County, is fairly typical.
|Anderson Drilling Co. No. 1 Stines, NE cor. sec. 10, T. 11 S., R. 18 E.||Thickness
|Marmaton and Bourbon Groups:|
|Bourbon shale (98 feet)|
|Soft gray shale||20||880-900|
|Gray finely crystalline limestone (Uniontown limestone ?)||10||900-910|
|Fine angular sandstone||15||910-925|
|Gray to dark-gray shale||45||925-970|
|Altamont limestone (7 feet)|
|Gray to buff crystalline limestone||7||978-985|
|Bandera shale (55 feet)|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||55||985-1,040|
|Pawnee limestone (8 feet)|
|Buff finely crystalline limestone||8||1,040-1,048|
|Labette shale (23 feet)|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||7||1,058-1,065|
|Fort Scott limestone (7 feet)|
|Buff and gray finely crystalline limestone||7||1,071-1,078|
The section in the Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well in the SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E., Douglas County, is given for comparison.
|Smith et al. No. 1 Smith, SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E.||Thickness
|Marmaton and Bourbon Groups:|
|Bourbon shale (155 feet)|
|Fine angular sandstone||11||695-706|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||136||706-842|
|Green and red shale||5||842-847|
|Dark-gray to black shale||3||847-850|
|Altamont limestone (5 feet)|
|Buff finely crystalline limestone||5||850-855|
|Bandera shale (20 feet)|
|Pawnee limestone (5 feet)|
|Buff finely crystalline limestone||5||875-880|
|Labette shale (25 feet)|
|Fort Scott limestone (8 feet)|
|Buff dense and granular limestone||8||905-913|
The Lenapah limestone is either absent or very thin in northeastern Kansas and did not show up in the two sections described above. An important gas sand in the Marmaton group is the Peru sand. This sand is found between the Altamont and Pawnee limestones and is usually lenticular, so that it varies greatly in thickness within a small area. The sand at the base of the Bourbon group is called "stray" sand in Wyandotte county and is an important gas horizon in many localities. It is erratic in thickness and distribution.
Cherokee shale--The rocks lying between the Marmaton group and the Mississippi "lime" are predominantly shale and sandstone. Thin limestone beds are sometimes present in the Cherokee shale, but are not important. Shale is by far the most predominant material. It varies from light-gray to black in color, and in a few places green and red streaks occur in the section. Lithologically the shale varies from fine clay shale to very sandy and micaceous shale. There are several sandstones in the Cherokee that are important as oil and gas reservoirs. These sandstones are lenticular and thicken and thin markedly in short distances, being absent in many wells. The uppermost sandstone is the "Squirrel sand," which lies just below the Fort Scott limestone. This sand is one of the important gas sands in Wyandotte county. The Bartlesville sand or group of sands lies approximately in the middle of the Cherokee shale and is divided into the upper and lower Bartlesville in some areas. The thickness of the Bartlesville varies greatly and often it is represented by only one thin sandstone. It is recorded in some wells as being less than one foot and in others as much as 125 feet in thickness. The Bartlesville has not been productive in northeastern Kansas thus far. Oil and gas shows have been reported in a number of Bartlesville tests, however. The Bartlesville sand is fine and angular and usually carries much mica. The Burgess sandstone, at the base of the Cherokee shale immediately overlying the "Mississippi lime," is of varying thickness and is not found in all the wells. In the Smith well, west of Lawrence, it is 60 feet in thickness, but it is commonly 20 feet or less. The Burgess is generally coarser and less angular than the Bartlesville sand. The amount of sandstone in the Cherokee increases to the north. The log of the Forest City well, which follows, shows about 35 percent of the Cherokee shale as sandstone.
|Davis Well, Forest City, Missoui (Wilson, M. E.: Occurrence of oil and gas in Missouri. Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, vol. XVI, 2d ser., pp. 196-201, 1922.)||Thickness||Depth|
|Cherokee shale (786 feet)|
|Shale, black, thin layers of coal at bottom||0||10||836||10|
|Limestone, gray, argillaceous||5||7||849||0|
|Clay, light-gray, calcareous||2||0||851||0|
|Limestone, dark-gray, fine-grained||2||0||867||11|
|Sandstone, dark bluish-gray, fine-grained||5||5||873||4|
|Shale, black, slaty||15||8||889||0|
|Coal, bony (Summit)||0||4||889||4|
|Shale, dark-gray, arenaceous||4||4||899||3|
|Limestone, greenish, argillaceous||2||2||922||0|
|Shale, green, calcareous||4||2||926||2|
|Limestone, light-gray, argillaceous||2||3||928||5|
|Sandstone, fine-grained, argillaceous, pyritiferous||7||5||944||0|
|Shale, gray, pyritiferous||6||9||993||3|
|Coal, pyritiferous (Bevier)||1||2||995||8|
|Slate, bluish-gray, micaceous||1||4||997||0|
|Sandstone, gray, soft, argillaceous||7||0||1,004||0|
|Limestone, greenish-gray, compact||0||8||1,031||3|
|Shale, slaty, calcareous||1||10||1,033||1|
|Limestone, dark, bituminous||0||11||1,034||0|
|Shale, black, slaty, carbonaceous||1||1||1,035||1|
|Limestone, brownish-black, compact||0||4||1,035||5|
|Shale, black, slaty, carbonaceous||1||9||1,037||2|
|Limestone, brownish-black, compact||0||8||1,037||10|
|Shale, black, slaty, carbonaceous||2||2||1,040||0|
|Sandstone, fine-grained, greenish||6||3||1,051||6|
|Shale, dark-gray, clayey||0||4||1,060||9|
|Sandstone, gray, fine-grained||4||0||1,064||9|
|Shale, black, slaty||5||8||1,070||5|
|Clay, brownish, very sandy||2||4||1,084||10|
|Clay, gray, pyritiferous||4||3||1,146||0|
|Shale, brown, very hard||0||5||1,146||5|
|Sandstone, dark, argillaceous||1||2||1,147||7|
|Clay, light-colored, sandy||1||11||1,160||0|
|Shale, dark-colored, arenaceous||2||6||1,170||8|
|Sandstone, light-colored, fine-grained||1||10||1,172||6|
|Sandstone, very argillaceous||0||6||1,183||0|
|Shale, dark-blue to black||3||4||1,186||4|
|Sandstone, light bluish-gray||5||3||1,227||7|
|Shale, black, slaty, carbonaceous||2||0||1,229||7|
|Clay, dark-gray, sandy||0||4||1,252||1|
|Sandstone, gray, fine-grained||5||10||1,269||6|
|Sandstone, banded, shaly||0||5||1,281||9|
|Shale, dark brownish-black||10||0||1,301||8|
|Shale, dark brownish-gray||3||5||1,361||0|
|Clay, gray, sandy at top||2||6||1,387||4|
|Clay, gray, soft||1||1||1,392||0|
|Clay, gray to black||1||4||1,394||8|
|Clay shale, dark-gray||4||0||1,444||0|
|Sandstone, brown, coarse||0||7||1,458||4|
|Shale, dark-gray to black||14||0||1,580||3|
|Sandstone, light-gray to white||4||10||1,618||2|
|Limestone, argillaceous, crystalline||0||7||1,618||9|
The general stratigraphic and lithologic character of the Cherokee shale is well shown in the description of cuttings from Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well in the SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E., Douglas County.
|Smith et al. No. 1 Smith, SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E.||Thickness
|Cherokee shale (558 feet)|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||37||913-950|
|Fine angular micaceous sandstone (Squirrel)||37||950-987|
|Soft, greenish-gray shale||38||987-1,025|
|Fine angular micaceous sandstone||8||1,025-1,033|
|Soft gray shale||34||1,036-1,070|
|Greenish-gray and reddish-brown shale||5||1,070-1,075|
|Black shale, fine sand||33||1,075-1,108|
|Soft, dark-gray shale||37||1,108-1,145|
|Reddish-brown shale, greenish-gray shale||2||1,145-1,147|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||18||1,147-1,165|
|Moderately hard dark-gray shale||55||1,165-1,220|
|Soft greenish-gray shale, fine angular sand||38||1,220-1,258|
|Moderately hard black shale, coal||19||1,258-1,277|
|Soft greenish-gray shale||18||1,277-1,295|
|Fine angular micaceous sandstone (Bartlesville sand)||4||1,295-1,299|
|Soft gray shale||26||1,299-1,325|
|Fine angular micaceous sandstone. (Bartlesville sand)||5||1,325-1,330|
|Soft gray shale||68||1,330-1,398|
|Gray sandy limestone, coarse sand||6||1,398-1,404|
|Soft black shale||7||1,404-1,411|
|Coarse angular to rounded sand (Burgess sand)||60||1,411-1,471|
The Mississippian rocks of northeastern Kansas consist of the "Mississippi lime" and the Kinderhook shale. The Chattanooga shale, found in southwest Missouri and northeast Oklahoma, has been traced into Kansas as far north as Marion county but is not present in the Forest City Basin. Sporangites huronense is diagnostic of the Lower Mississippian shales.
"Mississippi lime" is the term commonly used to designate the cherty limestones of the upper part of the Mississippian in Kansas. These cherty limestones are probably Burlington-Keokuk in age, but since the correlation is not definite the name "Mississippi lime" will be used.
The classification of the lower part of the Mississippian system of the Mississippi Valley is as follows (Laudon, L. R.: Stratigraphy of the Kinderhook series of Iowa. Iowa Geol. Survey, vol. XXXV, p. 341, 1931):
|Classification of Lower Mississippian of Mississippi Valley|
|Mississippian||Lower Chester||Paint Creek
The general classification of the Mississippian of Iowa (Laudon, L. R., Op. cit., p. 341) is given below.
|General classification of the Mississippian of Iowa|
The Mississippian limestones found in deep wells in the Forest City Basin of southwestern Iowa have not been differentiated in most cases. In some of the wells the Mississippian section has been divided into the Meramec, Osage, and Kinderhook series, but not into formations (Norton, W. H.: Deep wells of Iowa. Iowa Geol. Survey, vol. 33, 1928). It is probable that the upper part of the Mississippian section is the St. Louis limestone of the Meramec series, and that the Burlington and Keokuk limestones constitute the major part of the "Mississippi limestone." The Kinderhook series contains limestones at the top, but these are usually included with the Osage and Meramec series, and the shale in the lower part of the Mississippian section is designated as Kinderhook shale.
The most accurate well by which to correlate the Mississippian of northeastern Kansas with that of southwestern Iowa is the Forest City well at Forest City, Missouri. The Mississippian system in this well is described and classified as follows:
|Forest City Well, Forest City, Missouri||Thickness||Depth|
|St. Louis limestone (39 ft. 3 in.)|
|Limestone, gray to brownish-gray, cherty||11||7||1,633||6|
|Limestone, gray, dense||9||10||1,643||4|
|Limestone, dark-gray, fine-grained||17||10||1,661||2|
|Warsaw shale (40 ft. 4 in.)|
|Limestone, light-gray, fine-grained||5||0||1,666||2|
|Dolomite, gray, soft, argillaceous||1||6||1,667||8|
|Shale, dark greenish-gray||4||5||1,672||1|
|Sandstone, blue-green, calcareous||1||3||1,673||4|
|Sandstone, light, argillaceous, calcareous||1||7||1,680||0|
|Shale, dark greenish-gray||1||9||1,692||8|
|Limestone, fine-grained, very arenaceous||5||4||1,698||0|
|Sandstone, very fine-grained, argillaceous||1||6||1,701||6|
|Burlington and Keokuk limestones (119 ft. 7 in.)|
|Limestone, light to dark-gray, cherty||112||2||1,813||8|
|Kinderhook group (220 feet)|
|Dolomitic limestone, light-gray||16||0||1,837||1|
|Chert, light and dark-gray||1||9||1,838||10|
|Shale, blue-gray to greenish||39||6||1,953||5|
|Hematite, dark-red, flat oolites resembling typical "flaxseed" iron ore||4||1||1,957||6|
|Shale, bluish-gray, pyritiferous||83||7||2,041||1|
The relation of the section in this well to our northeastern Kansas section can be seen in Plate II.
Barwick in his paper on the Salina basin calls the "Mississippi lime" Unit 1 in his classification of pre-Pennsylvanian beds and states that it is a white to gray cherty limestone ranging from a few to 300 feet in thickness (Barwick, J. S.: Salina Basin of north-central Kansas. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 177-199, 1928). He states further that studies by Van Tuyl in Iowa and Buchanan in Oklahoma indicate that the Boone cherty limestone member of the Mississippian pinches out to the northwest in those states and that in the same direction the St. Louis cherty limestone member makes up the greater portion of the "Mississippi lime." McClellan states that the upper part of the Mississippian in Kansas consists of cherty white to light-tan, fine crystalline limestone, which ordinarily shows evidence of prolonged weathering and concentration of chert at the top (McClellan, Hugh: Subsurface distribution of pre-Mississippian rocks of Kansas and Oklahoma. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 14, No. 12, p, 1547, 1930).
The foregoing discussions of the "Mississippi lime" apply in a general way to the Upper Mississippian limestones in central and western Kansas, but are applicable to those of northeastern Kansas, there being no marked difference between the "Mississippi lime" east and west of the Granite Ridge.
The "Mississippi lime" varies from 145 feet to 400 feet in thickness in the northeastern part of Kansas. The Mississippian beds seem to be unevenly eroded, for the thickness varies markedly in short distances. The "Mississippi lime" in the Ramsey et al. No. 1 Kaul well in sec. 2, T. 11, S., R. 11 E., is 145 feet thick, while in Kansas Oil Corporation's No. 1 Wille well in sec. 5, T. 11 S., R. 11 E., about three miles west, it is 280 feet thick. Similarly, in the Garvin et al. No. 1 Lutz well in sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 15 E., the limeis 265 feet thick, while six miles away, in the Goens et al. No. 1 Wabense well in sec. 3, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., it is only 182 feet. There seems to be a general thinning of the Mississippian limestones to the west, but the lack of data coupled with the variable thicknesses makes the compilation of an isopach map of the "Mississippi lime" inadvisable.
The lithologic description of the samples from the "Mississippi lime" of the Empire Oil and Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm well in the SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County, is given as a typical section for northeastern Kansas.
|Empire Oil and Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm, SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E.||Thickness
|"Mississippi lime" (295 feet)|
|Gray dense limestone, dark shale||5||2,510|
|Gray granular limestone||25||2,535|
|Hard sandy dolomitic limestone||10||2,545|
|Hard white crystalline limestone, white chert||6||2,551|
|Soft gray coarsely crystalline limestone, white chert||14||2,565|
|Hard white chert, gray crystalline limestone||17||2,582|
|Hard white chert, gray dolomitic limestone||11||2,593|
|Buff colored dolomitic limestone, chert||17||2,610|
|White coarsely crystalline limestone, dolomite||15||2,625|
|Hard white dense chert, buff dolomitic limestone||12||2,637|
|Buff crystalline limestone, white chert||17||2,654|
|Dense white and brown chert, little limestone||51||2,705|
|White crystalline limestone||5||2,710|
|White crystalline limestone, dense white chert||25||2,735|
|White coarsely crystalline limestone||14||2,756|
|Brown, dolomitic limestone||7||2,763|
|Soft white and buff earthy limestone||37||2,800|
As can be seen in the above lithologic description, the "Mississippi lime" is predominantly a light-colored crystalline limestone associated for the most part with chert in varying amounts. Some parts of the section are predominantly chert. It is worthy of note that there are some dolomitic limestones found in the section.
The "Mississippi lime" section of the Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well in the SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 12 E., Douglas County, is included here as it shows both the general characteristics of the lime section and the weathered chert zone at the top.
|Smith et al. No. 1 Smith, SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 12 E.||Thickness
|"Mississippi lime" (331 feet)|
|White weathered chert, coarse sand||19||1,490|
|Coarse subangular to rounded, frosted sand||8||1,498|
|White weathered chert, gray crystalline limestone||17||1,515|
|Coarse subangular to rounded, frosted sand||10||1,525|
|Light-gray, finely crystalline limestone, white chert||50||1,575|
|White coarsely crystalline limestone, white chert||27||1,602|
|Buff colored dolomitic limestone, white chert||12||1,614|
|Dead white chert, buff dolomitic limestone||16||1,630|
|Dull white chert, soft white crystalline limestone||20||1,650|
|Soft buff-colored crystalline limestone, white chert||20||1,670|
|Soft white coarsely crystalline limestone, white chert||20||1,690|
|Gray finely crystalline dolomitic limestone||25||1,715|
|White to brown chert, buff dolomitic limestone||10||1,725|
|Gray crystalline limestone, dull gray chert||20||1,745|
|Dull gray chert, gray limestone||10||1,755|
|Gray crystalline limestone, dull gray chert||25||1,780|
|Gray crystalline limestone||22||1,802|
Kinderhook shale--The general classification of the Kinderhook series in the Mississippi Valley as given in the discussion of the "Mississippi lime" shows Chattanooga shale at the base. The classification of the Mississippian system of Iowa contains no Chattanooga shale in the Kinderhook series. The Kinderhook series, as it occurs in Iowa and Missouri, contains some limestone beds along with the shale, but these limestones are generally grouped with the "Mississippi lime" and the shale is designated as the Kinderhook shale. [The correlation of the Forest City well is an exception to this general practice and while the limestones of the Kinderhook are not named, they are included in the Kinderhook and not in the Burlington-Keokuk above.] As previously mentioned in the text, the Chattanooga shale of Mississippian age is associated with the Kinderhook in southern Kansas and has been traced from Oklahoma as far north as Marion county, Kansas. North of that the Chattanooga has not been identified and has presumably pinched out leaving the Kinderhook shale occupying the entire shale series between the base of the "Mississippi lime" and the pre-Mississippian beds below. Barwick calls this shale series unit 2 in his classification and suggests the name Skelton because of the uncertainty as to the exact age (Barwick, John S.: Op. cit.).
The Kinderhook shale ranges from 90 feet in thickness in the Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well in the SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E., Douglas County, to 240 feet in the Goens et al. No. 1 Wabense well in the Cen. NE NW sec. 3, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Jackson County, and shows no regularity throughout the area under consideration.
The Kinderhook is predominantly shale, the shales usually being soft and of a gray and greenish-gray color. In the Ramsey et al. No. 1 Kaul well in the SE cor. NE NE sec. 2, T. 11 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County, the upper 15 feet was light pinkish-gray shale, but this is not usually found (Edson, F. C.: Op, cit.). It may be noted in Plate I that the Kinderhook becomes increasingly calcareous to the east. The presence of thin limestones within this interval makes it difficult to recognize.
Sporangites huronense, a small brown translucent plant spore, is very abundant in the Kinderhook shale as well as in the Chattanooga shale and makes an excellent criterion for their identification.
Silurian and Devonian System
Siluro-Devonian Formation--The limestone beds immediately underlying the Kinderhook shale in the central part of the Forest City Basin will be designated as the Siluro-Devonian formation in this report. The beds occupying the same position in southwestern Iowa have been considered as Silurian and Devonian, but not definitely correlated. There is considerable disagreement as to the exact correlation of these limestones. They have been called Hunton formation by some geologists because they occupy the same relative position with respect to the Mississippian and the Ordovician as does the Hunton formation in Oklahoma. However, Ulrich's correlation of these beds in the Forest City well (given later in this discussion) is not in accord with the Hunton theory. Ulrich considers these beds to be Middle Silurian and Middle and Upper Devonian, whereas the members of the Hunton formation in Oklahoma are Lower Silurian and Lower Devonian in age. This disagreement led Barwick to suggest the name Younkin (Barwick, John S.: Salina Basin of north-central Kansas. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Bull., vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 177-199, 1928). The name has been used by a few geologists, but is not commonly accepted. Barwick states that the lithology and position of this zone suggests a correlation with the Silurian and Devonian rocks penetrated by deep wells in southeastern Nebraska and southwestern Iowa.
The lower part of the Forest City well, Forest City, Missouri, was correlated by E. O. Ulrich as follows: (Wilson, M. E.: Occurrence of oil and gas in Missouri. Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, vol. XVI, 2d ser., p. 201, 1922.)
|Forest City Well, Forest City, Missouri||Thickness||Depth|
|Shale, dark bluish-gray||5||11||2,062||8|
|Upper Devonian Series:|
|Limestone, light to dark gray||71||10||2,134||6|
|Middle Devonian Series:|
|Chert, partly decomposed and chalky||1||8||2,234||3|
|Dolomite, cherty in part||130||10||2,365||1|
|Silurian System (Lockport group of Niagaran series):|
|Dolomite, bluish-gray, crystalline to shaly||134||11||2,500||0|
As can be seen in Plate II the Silurian and Devonian in the Forest City well correlates with the Siluro-Devonian of the northeastern Kansas wells.
Figure 2 shows the extent of the Siluro-Devonian (Hunton-Younkin) east of the Granite Ridge in the Forest City Basin.
The Siluro-Devonian formation has a maximum thickness of 459 feet in the Forest City well, Forest City, Missouri. The thickest reported section in eastern Kansas is 240 feet in the Ramsey et al. No. 1 Kaul well in the SE cor. NE NE sec. 2, T. 11 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County. Empire Oil and Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm, SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County, logged 217 feet of Siluro-Devonian formation. The beds thin away from the axis of the Forest City Basin, three wells in Shawnee County showing about 120 feet of the formation.
The Siluro-Devonian formation consists of white, gray, and brown limestones and dolomites. Sand, ranging from fine to coarse, is present in parts of most sections, and chert in varying amounts is associated with the limestones and dolomites. The description of the samples from the Siluro-Devonian of the Empire Oil and Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm well in the SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County, is herewith given as typical of the formation.
|Empire Oil and Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm, SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E.||Thickness
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomite, white crystalline limestone||20||3,015|
|Soft gray fissile shale||5||3,020|
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomite||11||3,031|
|White finely crystalline limestone, white earthy chert||9||3,040|
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomite, white earthy chert||13||3,053|
|Brown and white coarsely crystalline dolomite, coarse angular to frosted sand||11||3,064|
|White coarsely crystalline dolomite||38||3,102|
|White coarsely crystalline dolomite, coarse angular sand||23||3,125|
|Buff colored coarsely crystalline dolomite, coarse angular sand, white chert||30||3,155|
|White coarsely crystalline dolomite||17||3,172|
|White to buff coarsely crystalline dolomite, white earthy chert||13||3,185|
|Yellowish-brown coarsely crystalline dolomite||27||3,212|
Very interesting and useful results have been obtained in the study of the insoluble residues of the Siluro-Devonian formation and the Galena-Platteville limestone (McQueen, H. S.: Insoluble residues as a guide in stratigraphic studies. Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, Appendix I, 56th Bien. Rep., 1931). A detailed report has been prepared by the writer on this phase of subsurface work (Insoluble residues of the Hunton and Viola limestones of Kansas. Jour. Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 43-47, 1931). The Siluro-Devonian formation is characterized by a white, finely dolocastic chert that is found in several zones in the formation (Dolocast: Casts or impressions of dolomite crystals preserved in the insoluble chert, shale, glauconite, pyrite, limonite. By H. S. McQueen (op. cit.)). This chert is usually of delicate structure, the casts being tiny and the walls very thin, giving the material a lace-like appearance. Another distinctive residue of the Siluro-Devonian is the soft green to greenish-gray shale which occurs in very friable thin flakes. This shale is usually without dolocasts, but a few fragments show fine dolocasts. In addition a small amount of oolitic chert is present which was not found in the Galena-Platteville residues. Granular or sucrose chert, both brown and white, and granular quartz are more abundant in the Siluro-Devonian residues than in the Galena-Platteville residues.
Because of the scarcity of fossils in this formation the use of insoluble residues will be a valuable aid and the results to date are excellent.
Maquoketa Shale--Below the Siluro-Devonian formation is found the Maquoketa shale. This shale by its lithology and stratigraphic position has been correlated with the Sylvan shale of Oklahoma by some geologists. Barwiok suggested the name Engle shale for this shale interval, principally because of the fact that the Maquoketa shale is Upper Ordovician and the Sylvan is considered by some to be Lower Silurian (Barwick, John S.: Salina Basin of north-central Kansas. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Bull., vol. 12, No. 2, p. 184, 1928). Gould however, classifies the Sylvan shale as Upper Ordovician (Richmond) (Gould, Chas, N.: Index to the stratigraphy of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geol. Survey, Bull. 35, p. 16, 1925).
The greatest recorded thickness of the Maquoketa in eastern Kansas is 78 feet in the Jenkins and Scott No. 1 Hayden well in the NE NE SE sec. 8, T. 12 S., R. 14 E., Shawnee County, and 70 feet was logged in the Empire Oil & Refining Co. No. 1 Schwalm well in the SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County.
Lithologically the Maquoketa shale is very similar to the Kinderhook shale, and when the Siluro-Devonian formation is not found between it is practically impossible to determine the contact between the two shales. The Maquoketa shale is in most cases gray and greenish-gray in color and quite soft.
Galena-Platteville Limestone--The limestone overlying the St. Peter sandstone correlates approximately with the Viola limestone of Oklahoma, but is dissimilar from the two members of the Viola present in northern Oklahoma. Correlations with deep wells in the northern part of the Forest City Basin in southwestern Iowa have led to assigning the name Galena-Platteville to this limestone. The Decorah shale, which lies between the Galena and Platteville, is not always present or recognizable. Barwick'" considers the Galena-Platteville to be equivalent to a part of the Plattin-Kimmswick section of Missouri and the Galena-Platteville section of Iowa, and suggested the name Urschel for this limestone (Barwick, John S.: Op, cit.). McClellan states that in Riley County, northern Kansas, there is about 30 feet of light-brown dolomite overlying 20 feet with a coarsely crystalline phase, below which is 110 feet of both dense and finely crystalline cherty limestone, and that, if a correlation on the basis of lithology can be relied upon, this suggests that the upper bed and the Fernvale (coarsely crystalline phase) are thinning toward the north and an older bed, probably Galena in age, appears and thickens toward the north (McClellan, Hugh: Subsurface distribution of pre-Mississippian rocks of Kansas and Oklahoma. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Bull., vol. 14, No. 12, p. 1544, 1930).
This idea is substantiated by the correlation of the limestone above the St. Peter (Simpson formation) in the Raytown well, sec. 7, T. 48 N., R. 32 W., Jackson County, Missouri, as Joachim (?) by E. O. Ulrich (Wilson, M. E.: Occurrence of oil and gas in Missouri. Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, vol. XVI, 2d ser., p. 143, 1922). The Joachim is Lower Ordovician in age and is much older than the Viola of Oklahoma.
The records of the Bonner Springs well, sec. 20, T. 11 S., R. 23 E., Bonner Springs, Wyandotte county, show 190 feet of Galena-Platteville limestone, and the Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well in the SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E., Douglas County, logged 185 feet. The average thickness over the area under discussion is somewhat less, being about 110 feet.
The Galena-Platteville series consists of white to brown dolomite and limestone, very often cherty and in some instances sandy. The description of the Galena-Platteville in the Smith et al. No. 1 Smith well in the SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E., Douglas County, will serve to give the detailed lithology of these beds.
|Smith et al. No. 1 Smith, SW cor. SE sec. 28, T. 12 S., R. 19 E.||Thickness
|Galena-Platteville limestone (185 feet)|
|Gray and brown dense limestone||5||1,895|
|White to cream colored dense limestone, greenish shale||25||1,920|
|Coarse rounded frosted sand, white' limestone||10||1,930|
|White to cream colored crystalline limestone||10||1,940|
|Coarse rounded frosted sand, fine angular sand||15||1,955|
|Hard bluish chert, dull white chert, white limestone||15||1,970|
|Brown translucent chert, brown dolomitic limestone||5||1,975|
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomitic limestone, brown chert||35||2,010|
|Dense white chert, white crystalline dolomitic limestone||5||2,015|
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomitic limestone, white chert||25||2,040|
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomitic limestone||35||2,075|
The Galena-Platteville limestone of the Empire Oil and Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm well in the SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E., Wabaunsee County, is somewhat different and is recorded here to show the variations.
|Empire Oil & Refining Company No. 1 Schwalm, SE cor. sec. 19, T. 12 S., R. 11 E.||Thickness
|Galena-Platteville limestone (118 feet)|
|White very coarsely crystalline dolomitic limestone||18||3,300|
|Brown very coarsely crystalline dolomitic limestone||19||3,319|
|Brown translucent chert, brown dolomitic limestone||7||3,326|
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomitic limestone, brown chert||14||3,340|
|Soft gray fissile shale||12||3,352|
|Cream colored to brown crystalline dolomitic limestone||37||3,389|
|Soft gray fissile shale||7||3,396|
|Brown coarsely crystalline dolomitic limestone||4||3,400|
The Galena-Platteville beds have been studied by means of insoluble residues. Their characteristic residues are brown mottled chert and brown and green dolocastic shales. The chert is abundant throughout the formation and ranges from light- to very dark-brown in color with a mottled appearance as a general rule. Some of the chert shows fairly coarse dolocasts widely spaced, giving the chert a pitted rather than a porous appearance. The shales are characteristically dolocastic, the casts being very fine and giving the shale a finely porous appearance. The shales are brown, green and gray in color and more compact than those found in the Siluro-Devonian residues. Granular quartzose cavity fillings are also distinctive in the Galena-Platteville residues.
St. Peter sandstone--Overlying the Siliceous limestone in northeastern Kansas is a sand series that has been variously called "Wilcox," Simpson, and St. Peter. The name "Wilcox" is not suitable because Edson has shown by her petrographic work that the true "Wilcox" of the Simpson formation is not extensive in Kansas, probably not extending north of the EI Dorado field in Butler County (Edson, F. C.: Pre-Mississippian sediments in central Kansas. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Bull., vol. 13, No. 5, pp, 449-452, 1929). McClellan states: "Since the 'Wilcox' sand closely resembles several similar sands in the Simpson formation, the oil fraternity commonly applies the name to any Simpson sand. For this reason, would it not be well to abandon the name entirely?" (McClellan, Hugh: Subsurface distribution of pre-Mississippian rocks of Kansas and Oklahoma. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Bull., vol. 14, No. 12, pp. 1540-1541, 1930.)
The name St. Peter is suggested by Barwick, who states that this horizon is very similar lithologically to the St. Peter sandstone of Minnesota, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Missouri, Arkansas and northeast Oklahoma, and appears to occupy the same stratigraphic position (Barwick, John S.: Salina Basin of north-central Kansas. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Bull., vol. 12, No. 2, p. 185, 1928). Correlation with wells in southwestern Iowa indicates that the St. Peter sandstone extends into northeastern Kansas in the Forest City Basin.
The Simpson formation in northeastern Oklahoma was differentiated into the following three parts by White: Burgen sand, Tyner formation, and "Wilcox" sand (White, Luther H.: Subsurface distribution and correlation of the pre-Chattanooga ("Wilcox" sand) series of northeastern Oklahoma. Okla. Geol. Survey, Bull. 40, vol. I, pp. 21-40, 1928.). McClellan's map shows the Burgen pinching out before it reaches Kansas and the Tyner formation extending only into Cowley and Sumner counties, Kansas (McClellan, Hugh: Op. cit.). Edson made many heavy mineral analyses of the Simpson formation of Kansas (Edson, F. C.: Op. cit.). Her analyses show that the upper Simpson or "Wilcox" is very restricted in Kansas. She finds that the middle zone of the Simpson formation is the most extensive in this state. The middle zone is stratigraphically lower than "Wilcox" sand and is the zone called Tyner by White (White, Luther H.: Op, cit.). The lowest member of the Simpson formation, the so-called "Hominy" sand or the Burgen sand, was found by Edson in only a very few Kansas wells.
The St. Peter sandstone is composed of rounded to angular sand, often frosted. Minor amounts of green shale and gray dolomite occur in zones in the formation. Locally, thin beds of "oolitic" hematite are found. The sand is in general "Wilcox" type sand, a moderately coarse rounded frosted sand, and is usually easily recognized. It ranges from 60 to 100 feet in thickness in northeastern Kansas. The record of the Leavenworth well, Leavenworth, Kansas, shows an abnormal thickness of St. Peter, 160 feet, and at the same time a subnormal thickness of Galena-Platteville limestone, 30 feet, which suggests that some of the Galena-Platteville dolomites may have been called sand and put in with the St. Peter sandstone (Hinds, Henry, and Greene, F. C.: Geol. Atlas of the United States, Leavenworth-Smithville Folio (No. 206). U. S. Geol. Survey. 1917).
"Siliceous Lime"--The thick dolomitic limestone series below the St. Peter sandstone is composed of beds that are Early Ordovician and Upper Cambrian in age. These dolomitic beds are also known as Arbuckle limestone after the Arbuckle Mountain section of southern Oklahoma, but that name will not be used here because of a closer relationship to the Early Ordovician and Upper Cambrian beds encountered in wells in northwestern Missouri and south-western Iowa. The classification of these lower beds in Iowa follows (Norton, W. H.: Deep wells of Iowa. Iowa Geol. Survey, vol. XXXIII, p. 24, 1928).
|Prairie du Chien||Shakopee
The classification of the Lower Ordovician and Cambrian beds in Missouri is given for comparison with the Iowa classification (McQueen, H. S.: Insoluble residues as a guide in stratigraphic studies. Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, 56th Bien. Rep., 1931).
|Ordovician System||St. Peter|
The detailed study of the lithology of the "Siliceous lime" along with the study of the insoluble residues derived from them has led to the correlation of zones of the "Siliceous lime" with certain formations of the Missouri Cambro-Ordovician series. Mr. C. Brewer and the writer have examined the residues from all of the available "Siliceous lime" samples in northeastern Kansas and by comparison with McQueen's descriptions of residues have correlated quite definitely three zones in the "Siliceous lime" with the Cotter, Roubidoux and Bonneterre of the Missouri section, respectively (McQueen, H. S.: Op. cit.). The Cotter equivalent of the "Siliceous lime" is the upper part and is characterized by abundant chert, much of it oolitic. The Roubidoux equivalent is characterized by abundant quartz sand, and the Bonneterre equivalent (the basal portion of the "Siliceous lime") is marked by brown and green dolocastic shale. These correlations, based on insoluble residues, establish quite specifically the age of the "Siliceous lime" as Late Cambrian and Lower Ordovician. While the study of insoluble residues in the Kansas Cambro-Ordovician has been limited by lack of samples, it indicates that this method of correlation will prove to be of decided help in identifying the pre-Pennsylvanian limestones.
The "Siliceous lime" thins to the north and west and ranges from 760 feet in the Universal Oil Company No. 1 Harrington well in the NE cor. SW sec. 12, T. 14 S., R. 22 E., Johnson county, to 450 feet in the Forrester et al. No. 1 Hummer well in the cen. SW sec. 14, T. 11 S., R. 16 E., Shawnee County.
Lithologically the "Siliceous lime" consists of dolomitic limestones which are locally cherty, and thin beds of rounded quartz sand. The description of the section in the Forrester et al, No. 1 Hummer well in the cen. SW sec. 14, T. 11 S., R. 16 E., Shawnee County, shows the detailed lithology of the beds.
|Forrester et al. No. 1 Hummer, cen. SW sec. 14, T. 11 S., R. 16 E.||Thickness
|"Siliceous lime" (430 feet)|
|White and buff crystalline dolomite, chert, and sand||40||2 590|
|White crystalline dolomite||100||2,690|
|White crystalline dolomite, white chert||20||2,710|
|White crystalline dolomite, fine angular sand||25||2,735|
|White crystalline dolomite, white limestone||25||2,760|
|White and buff crystalline dolomite, white earthy chert||50||2,810|
|Gray crystalline dolomite, greenish shale||55||2,865|
|Gray and buff crystalline dolomite, greenish shale||25||2,890|
|Buff-colored crystalline dolomite||40||2,930|
|Gray coarsely crystalline dolomite, rounded frosted sand||30||2,980|
Basal Sand--The majority of the wells that were drilled to granite in northeastern Kansas encountered a coarse, arkosic sand that has been called the basal sand by some and Reagan sand by others. It is apparently equivalent to the Reagan sand of Oklahoma and the Lamotte sand of Missouri. However, this correlation is only applicable when the "Siliceous lime" section is complete, and in places where Ordovician or younger rocks are immediately above the basal sand it can be much younger than Cambrian in age. In northeastern Kansas the lower part of the "Siliceous lime" appears to be present, thus making the basal sand Cambrian in age.
The sand is the product of the erosion of the pre-Cambrian rocks and is usually coarse and angular and often quite arkosic. It varies greatly in thickness throughout the state, but in northeastern Kansas it is comparatively thin. In the Green et al. No. 1 Ripley well in the NW cor. NE sec. 12. T. 12 S., R. 16 E., Shawnee County, only 8 feet of basal sand was reported, and in the Universal Oil Company No. 1 Harrington well in the NE cor. SW sec. 12, T. 14 S., R. 22 E., Johnson county, 35 feet of basal sand was penetrated before reaching the pre-Cambrian rocks.
Many of the wells drilled in northeastern Kansas reached the preCambrian basement rocks and several were drilled into the crystalline rocks a considerable distance because of failure to recognize them as being pre-Cambrian in age.
In a report on the pre-Cambrian rocks of Kansas, Kenneth K. Landess" describes the various kinds of rocks making up the preCambrian basement, and gives several cases of useless drilling into the crystalline rocks that resulted from insufficient knowledge of their texture and composition (Landes, Kenneth K.: A petrographic study of the pre-Cambrian of Kansas. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Bull., vol. 11, No.8, pp, 821-824, 1927). Landes states that most of the wells east and west of the Granite Ridge struck granite or gneiss, but that schist is not uncommon. The Beattie well in Marshall county penetrated nearly 2,000 feet of pre-Cambrian schists and the Greitkreutz well in northern Greenwood county penetrated 650 feet of schist which was logged as shale. In addition to granite or gneiss and schist, quartz porphyry and quartzite are reported to have been found in wells that struck the pre-Cambrian.
The common conception is that the pre-Cambrian is granite and often when schist is encountered it is not recognized as being preCambrian. The amount of drill-steel in the cuttings is often useful in this respect in that the pre-Cambrian rocks are usually hard to drill and as a consequence the percentage of drill-steel in the cuttings is usually higher than it is in cuttings from the sedimentary beds.
Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed on web Jan. 27, 2014; originally published May 1935.
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