This report describes the geography, geology, and ground-water resources of Marshall County in northeastern Kansas. The county has an area of 911 square miles and had a population of 17,926 in 1950. Large areas of the county have till plains, gently undulating divide areas, and deep dissection along the major streams. The normal annual precipitation at Blue Rapids in Marshall County is 28.30 inches.
The rocks that crop out in this area range in age from Pennsylvanian to Recent. The oldest formation cropping out in the county is the Pony Creek shale, which is exposed in a few places in eastern Marshall County. The bedrock is blanketed by Kansas glacial till and loess of the Sanborn formation in large areas of the county. The valleys of the major streams of the area are underlain by alluvial deposits of Recent age.
The principal water-bearing formations in the county are alluvium, terrace deposits, and the Barneston limestone. Glacial till and associated deposits generally do not yield large quantities of water to individual wells, but because of the large number of wells obtaining water from them, they probably should be considered the principal aquifers in the county. The Wreford, Beattie, and Grenola limestones yield moderate quantities of water to wells in the county, and the Winfield, Bader, Red Eagle, and Foraker limestones yield small to moderate quantities. Ground water in Marshall County is generally hard, but except for individual wells that are contaminated by surface seepage, the water is suitable for most uses. Ground water is used in Marshall County for municipal supplies, for domestic and stock supplies, and for industrial and air conditioning purposes. No irrigation with ground water is practiced in Marshall County.
This report contains a map showing the areas of outcrop of the geologic formations, a map showing ground-water regions and the location of wells and test holes for which records are given, and cross sections of the area showing the character and thickness of the unconsolidated deposits overlying the Pennsylvanian and Permian bedrock. The field data upon which this report is based are given in tables; they include records of 248 wells, chemical analyses of water from 30 representative wells, logs of 60 test holes, and 9 measured stratigraphic sections.
Kansas Geological Survey, Geologic History of Kansas
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Web version March 2004. Original publication date March 1954.