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Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 188, originally published in 1968


Ground Water in the Republican River Area, Cloud, Jewell, and Republic Counties, Kansas

by Stuart W. Fader

Cover of the book; cream paper with black text.

Prepared by the United States Geological Survey and the State Geological Survey of Kansas, with the cooperation of the Environmental Health Services of the Kansas State Department of Health and the Division of Water Resources of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture.

Originally published in 1966 as Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin 188. This is, in general, the original text as published. The information has not been updated. An Acrobat PDF version (10 MB) is also available; plates available separately.

Abstract

Both surface and ground water are used for irrigation in parts of Cloud, Jewell, and Republic counties in north-central Kansas. The combination of surface-water irrigation and recharge from precipitation has caused some high ground-water levels in some of the upland areas.

In the lowland areas, alluvial deposits yield as much as 1,400 gallons a minute to wells, and about 12,300 acre-feet of ground water is pumped annually for irrigation and other uses. It is estimated that 710 acre-feet of this quantity was removed from the Republican River in 1963 by the pumping of ground water. Coefficients of transmissibility from 61 well sites were used in making the above estimate.

Ground-water recharge from precipitation in the area was estimated to be 0.6 inch and ground-water losses to evapotranspiration to be less than 0.2 inch.

Chlorides in ground water in northern Cloud County are tabulated and the areas mapped where the ground water might be unfit for use in irrigation.

Introduction

Purpose of Investigation

Irrigation of the upland areas in northeastern Jewell and western Republic counties began in 1958 with use of surface water from the Harlan County Reservoir in Nebraska and the Lovewell Reservoir in Kansas. Water levels in these areas were shallow prior to irrigation, and because the lateral permeability of the water-bearing material was low, it was expected that seepage from canals and applications of surface water probably would cause temporary detrimentally high water levels. It was necessary to collect data concerning water levels so that areas of present high water levels or potential high water levels could be delineated.

The flow of the Republican River is regulated so that there will be adequate water available for municipal sewage disposal and for navigation. Therefore, information concerning the effects on the flow of the River caused by pumping of ground water from the alluvial deposits in the river valley was needed. In some areas of northern Cloud County ground water in the alluvial deposits is highly mineralized. Information was needed regarding the chloride content of the ground water, the areal extent of the chlorides, and the change of chloride with time, if any, in water from wells.

Location and General Features of the Area

The Republican River area is included in the northern 8 miles of Cloud County, parts of the western 3 ranges of Republic County, and the northeastern part of Jewell County (Fig. 1). The area is part of the "Lower Republican River Unit" as defined by the Kansas Water Resources Board (June, 1961). The lowland area is outlined by the heavy dashed line on Plate 2.

Figure 1--Location of area described in this report, and other areas for which ground-water reports have been published by the State Geological Survey of Kansas or are in preparation.

Two maps of the state; top map shows publication number of completed studies; this study is in far north-central part of state; lower map shows regions currently under study.

The principal topographic features that are pertinent to the ground water of the area are: the high flat upland plains, similar to those in western Kansas; the gently rolling areas developed on the Dakota Formation; the broad, flat valley of the Republican River; the narrower valleys of Buffalo and White Rock creeks; the broad, flat terraces in the valleys; the deeply dissected area between the uplands and the river valleys; and the salt marshes in northern Cloud County.

There are 1,140 square miles drained by the Republican River between the gages at Hardy, Nebraska, and Concordia, Kansas (Pl. 2). Of this area, 342 square miles is above the gage at Loveland on White Rock Creek, and 330 square miles is above the gage at Jamestown on Buffalo Creek. The remainder of the area is drained by minor streams tributary to the Republican River.

Geologic Setting

[Note: The nomenclature and classification of the geologic units described in the report follow the usage of the State Geological Survey of Kansas and differ somewhat from usage adopted by the U.S. Geological Survey.]

Detailed descriptions of the geology of the Republican River area are given by Fishel (1948), Fishel and Leonard (1955), and Bayne and Walters (1959) in reports on the geology and ground-water resources of Republic, Jewell, and Cloud counties, respectively. Because this investigation does not include a detailed study of the geology, only a brief summary is given. The reader is referred to the Selected References for more detailed geologic and hydrologic information.

The rocks that crop out in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. A generalized geologic section is given in Table 1. Three geologic sections showing the relationship of the water-bearing materials are shown on Plate 3. Two diagrammatic sections (Fig. 14) showing the relationship of the brackish water to the alluvial deposits are discussed in the section on Chlorides in Ground Water.

Table 1--Generalized geologic section in the Republican River area (modified after Fishel, 1948; Fishel and Leonard, 1955; Bayne and Walters, 1959; Jewett, 1959; and Franks, 1966).

System Series Stage Stratigraphic
unit
Maximum
thickness,
ft
Physical character Remarks
Quaternary Pleistocene Recent Alluvium 130 Clay, silt, sand, and gravel, unconsolidated Yields up to 1,400 gpm of water
Wisconsinan Terrace deposits 125 Clay, silt, sand, and gravel, stream deposited; coarser materials generally in lower part of deposits Yields large quantities of water
Wisconsinan
and
Illinoisan
Eolian silts 20 Silt, mantling upland and older terrace deposits along major streams Yields no water, but some observation wells screened in this unit
Illinoisan Loveland and
Crete formations,
undifferentiated
75 Silt and clay, waterlaid, containing minor amounts of sand and gravel; generally more gravel near base Yields small to moderate quantities of water
Crete Formation 30 Sand, gravel, and silt in terrace position along some major streams. Gravel is principally limestone Lies generally above water table, but yields small quantities of water where below water table
Kansan Sappa Formation 60 Sand and gravel, locally derived, overlain by silt and clay. Occurs in deeper parts of Republican River valley Yields large quantities of water to wells in northern Republic County; water has high chloride content in part of Cloud County
Grand Island Formation
Cretaceous Upper
Cretaceous
  Carlile
Shale
Blue Hill
Shale Member
200 Fissile, noncalcareous, gray to black, marine shale; contains thin sandy zone at top and septarian and discoidal concretions Yields little or no water, but some observation wells screened in this unit
Fairport
Chalk Member
100 Shale, thin-bedded, calcareous Yields little or no water to wells
Greenhorn Limestone 90 Limestones and shales, thin-bedded, chalky; thin streaks of bentonite Yields small quantities of hard water, but some observation walls screened in this unit
Graneros Shale 40 Clay and fissile shale, noncalcareous, black and olive drab Yields small quantities of hard water, but some observation walls screened in this unit
--?-- Dakota Formation 300 Clay, shale, siltstone, and sandstone; some lignite Yields moderate to large quantities of water. High chloride content locally and in lower deposits
Lower
Cretaceous

Scope of Investigation

The author spent 3 months in the fall of 1962 and 4 months during the summer of 1963 gathering hydrologic data in the field and several months during the winters 1962-64 analyzing both field and published data. Beginning in 1956 the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation measured water levels in about 360 observation wells. These data and data collected by the author were used to prepare hydrographs and water-level maps.

Information concerning the depth, depth to water, diameter, screen and yield was collected for 101 irrigation wells in Cloud County and 86 wells in Republic County. This information, together with geologic information obtained from 25 test holes, 320 well logs furnished by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and previously published information, was used to prepare the map of saturated-thickness of unconsolidated deposits. Three geologic cross sections were prepared using the same data to show the relationship of the geology to the hydrology of the area.

It is planned that a separate report containing the basic data of the area on which this summary report is based will be prepared and will contain the tables of well data and logs of wells and test holes. Table 3 of this report will be updated and new information will be included. This report of basic data will be available to interested readers, for a reasonable fee, upon request from the State Geological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

Coefficients of transmissibility were computed or estimated from data at 61 well sites. Three detailed aquifer tests using one to four observation wells, 22 step-drawdown (single well) tests, and one single well-recovery test were used at 26 sites. At the remaining 35 sites, estimates were made from specific capacities reported by the owners.

Water samples collected prior to 1960 were analyzed for several constituents by chemists in the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory of the Kansas State Department of Health under the supervision of H. A. Stoltenberg. Samples collected after 1960 were analyzed in the field for chlorides only. The analyses of the samples collected prior to 1960 are published in Kansas Geological Survey bulletins 73, 139, and 155, and those collected after 1960 are given in this report.

The altitudes of measuring points of wells and test holes were determined by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and by the Kansas District Office of the U.S. Geological Survey and the State Geological Survey of Kansas.

Well-Numbering System

The locations of wells and test holes in this report (Fig. 2) are designated according to the General Land Office Surveys in the following order: township, range, section, quarter section, quarter-quarter section, and quarter-quarterquarter section (lO-acre tract). The quarter sections, quarter-quarter sections, and quarter-quarter-quarter sections are designated a, b, c, or d in counterclockwise direction beginning in the northeast quarter section.

Figure 2--Well-numbering system used in this report. The well is in SE SE NE sec. 26, T 2 S, R 5 W.

Letter designation goes from largest to smallest while quarter calls go from smallest to largest; thus 26add (a = NE, b = NW, c = SW, d = SE) is written as SE SE NE sec. 26.

If more than one well or test hole is located in the same l O-acre tract, the location letters are followed by a serial number.

The locations of these wells and test holes and the locations of the surface-water gaging stations are shown on Plate 3.

Precipitation

The annual precipitation at Concordia, Belleville, and Burr Oak is shown in Figure 3. The normal monthly precipitation at Concordia is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 3--Annual precipitation at Concordia, Belleville, and Burr Oak. (Data from U.S. Weather Bureau.)

Annual precipitation at Concordia, Belleville, and Burr Oak.

Figure 4--Normal monthly precipitation at Concordia, Kansas, for the period 1931-61. (Data from U.S. Weather Bureau.)

Monthly precipitation at Concordia3 inches or more in May through August; less than 1 inch in Nov., Dec., Jan, Feb.

Hydrology of the Aquifers

Aquifer Tests

The quantity of water that an aquifer will yield to wells depends upon the hydrologic properties of the materials in the aquifer. The ability of an aquifer to transmit water is measured by its coefficient of transmissibility. The coefficient of transmissibility (T) of an aquifer is defined as the number of gallons of water that will move in 1 day through a vertical strip of aquifer 1 foot wide and the full thickness of the aquifer, under a hydraulic gradient of 100 percent or 1 foot per foot, at the prevailing temperature of the water. The coefficient of permeability (P) is expressed as the rate of flow, in gallons per day, through a cross-sectional area of 1 square foot under a hydraulic gradient of 1 foot per foot. The coefficient of permeability can be computed by dividing the coefficient of transmissibility by the thickness (m) of the aquifer. The coefficient of storage (S) of an aquifer is defined as the volume of water it releases or takes into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per unit change in the component of head normal to that surface. Under water-table conditions the coefficient of storage is practically equal to the specific yield, which is defined as the ratio of volume of water a saturated material will yield to gravity in proportion to its own volume.

The step-drawdown tests were analyzed by the following Theis (1935) equation:

Theis equation.

where Q = discharge of pumped well, in gpm;
s = drawdown, in feet (corrected for well loss);
T = coefficient of transmissibility, in gallons a day per foot;
S = coefficient of storage;
rw = radius of well, in feet;
t = time, in days after pumping started.

The results of the tests are given in Table 2.

Table 2--Results of pumping tests in the Republican River area, Kansas.

Well
number
Geologic
source*
Coefficient of
transmissibility,
in gpd/ft
Coefficient of
permeability,
in gpd/ft2
Type of test
Republic County
1-3W-3bc Qd 320,000 4,000 SC
1-3W-5aa Qd 190,000 4,200 SC
1-4W-17ab Qd 288,000 5,500 SC
1-5W-18ab Qd 50,000 1,500 SC
2-4W-31bc Qd 60,000 2,200 SC
3-4W-8ccb Qa 100,000 2,500 OW
3-4W-17bd Qa 72,000 2,400 SC
3-4W-17db Qa 45,000 1,000 SC
3-4W-20aa Qa 60,000 1,500 SC
3-4W-32da Qa 110,000 2,700 SC
4-4W-4bc Qa 50,000 1,560 SC
4-4W-4db Qw 175,000 4,260 SDD
4-4W-4dc2 Qw 130,000 3,000 OW
4-4W-8ad Qa 75,000 1,500 SC
4-4W-8db Qa 65,000 2,200 SC
4-4W-8dd Qa 75,000 1,700 SC
4-4W-9ab Qw 125,000 2,500 SC
4-4W-9ca Qa 150,000 3,750 SC
4-4W-15cd2 Qi 10,000   SC
4-4W-17da Qa 200,000 4,000 SC
4-4W-17dd Qa 90,000 1,800 SC
4-4W-21caa Qw 170,000 3,600 SDD
4-4W-21cab Qw 120,000 3,000 SDD
4-4W-22ca Qi 60,000 2,200 SC
4-4W-22cc Qi 95,000 2,500 SC
4-4W-27ddc Qw 70,000 2,000 SDD
4-4W-29db Qa 80,000 2,000 SC
4-4W-33aa Qw 140,000 3,500 SC
4-4W-34baa Qw 120,000 3,200 SC
Cloud County
5-1W-21cd Qw 60,000 1,500 SC
5-1W-30aac Qa 160,000 4,000 SC
5-1W-31bd Qw 185,000 3,400 SC
5-1W-32bc Qw 80,000 1,600 SDD
5-2W-19bc Qw 62,000   SC
5-2W-21ad Qa 110,000 2,750 SC
5-2W-21dd Qa, Qk 40,000 800 SDD
5-2W-25cb Qw 100,000 2,000 SC
5-2W-25cc Qw 270,000 5,700 OW
5-2W-31cc Qd 20,000 1,000 SC
5-2W-32cb Qw 100,000 3,200 SDD
5-2W-32db Qw 190,000 6,300 SDD
5-2W-34aab Qw 140,000 2,400 SDD
5-2W-36ab Qw 300,000 6,300 SC
5-2W-36bc Qw 30,000 1,800 SC
5-3W-21ca Qa 150,000 4,000 SDD
5-3W-22bc1 Qw 280,000 3,700 R
5-3W-35abc Qa 130,000 2,600 SDD
5-3W-36bb Qa 190,000 3,400 SDD
5-4W-3abd Qw 130,000 3,200 SC
5-4W-3dd Qw 90,000 2,600 SDD
5-4W-8dad Qw 100,000 2,600 SC
5-4W-9cca Qw 330,000 5,000 SDD
5-4W-13dad Qw 140,000 4,800 SDD
5-4W-15da Qa 260,000 4,300 SDD
5-4W-16dd Qw 93,000 2,300 SDD
5-4W-17aa Qw 160,000 3,800 SDD
5-4W-21ba Qw 93,000 2,200 SDD
5-4W-22ab Qw 125,000 2,400 SC
6-1W-2ca Qw,Kd 50,000 1,700 SDD
6-1W-4bc2 Qw 55,000 1,400 SDD
6-1W-12ab Qw 190,000 5,100 SDD
* Qd, Pleistocene deposits, undifferentiated; Qa, Recent alluvium; Qw, Wisconsinan terrace deposits; Qi, Illinoisan terrace deposits; Qk, Kansan deposits; Kd, Dakota Formation.
† SC, specific capacity; OW, observation wells; SDD, step drawdown; R, recovery.

Water Levels

Water levels in the area are shown by hydrographs (Fig. 5-10), by water-level contours (Pl. 2 and 3), and by the depth to water (Pl. 1). The areas of zero water level (corresponding closely to areas of waterlogging) are shown by blue lines on Plate 1 for part of the area.

Water levels in wells fluctuate in response to additions to or withdrawals from the aquifers. In general, the hydrographs show a downward trend of water levels for the period of deficient precipitation, 1953-56 (Fig. 3), and the rise after 1956 is owing to an increase in precipitation. After 1958 irrigation from surface sources has contributed to the rise in water level in some areas.

In the upland areas of western Republic and eastern Jewell counties, water levels rise during the summer months (see Fig. 5, 6, and 7) and fall during the winter months. In addition to the higher normal monthly precipitation in May and June (Fig. 4), water is applied for irrigation starting in Mayor June. Thus, a rise of groundwater levels would be expected during the summer months along with some detrimentally high ground-water levels in areas of normal shallowwater levels (Pl. 1, 2, 3).

Figure 5--Hydrographs of wells in the undifferentiated Pleistocene aquifers of Jewell County, Kansas.

Depth to water for two wells plotted from 1959 to 1964.

Figure 6--Hydrographs of wells in undifferentiated Pleistocene aquifers (3-5W-25aa). and Cretaceous (Greenhorn) aquifers (3-5W-25aa; 3-5W-22cc; and 4-5W-15dd) of upland Republic County, Kansas.

Depth to water for three wells plotted from 1956 to 1964.

Figure 7--Hydrographs of wells in Cretaceous (Greenhorn Limestone) aquifers of upland Republic County, Kansas.

Depth to water for three wells plotted from 1949 to 1964.

In the lowland areas, water levels are generally related to the local recharge from precipitation and the discharge rate of the Republican River (Fig. 8, 9, and 10). Where pumping of ground water occurs, the water level is lowered during the dry summer months. Evapotranspiration also tends to lower the water levels in the lowland area.

Figure 8--Hydrographs of wells in the Pleistocene aquifers and monthly flow in the Republican River near Hardy, Nebraska. (Qd, undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits; Qa, Recent alluvium.)

Depth to water for two wells in Pleistocene plotted from 1947 to 1964, along with the flow of Republic River.

Figure 9--Hydrographs of wells in the alluvial aquifers (Recent) and monthly flow in the Republican River at Scandia, Kansas.

Depth to water for two wells in alluvium plotted from 1950 to 1964, along with the flow of Republic River.

Figure 10--Hydrograph of well in Recent alluvial aquifer and monthly flow in the Republican River at Concordia, Kansas.

Depth to water for two wells in Recent alluvium plotted from 1949 to 1964, along with the flow of Republic River.

Ground Water in Storage

In 1963, the alluvial deposits, excepting those of Kansan age, along the lowland area of the Republican River (Pl. 4) contained about 580,000 acre-feet of water. This estimate is based on the volume of saturated material above the Kansan deposits (which is generally a poor aquifer and contains brackish water in northern Cloud County) and an assumed coefficient of storage of 0.2. However, not all of this water in storage is available for irrigation use, and should the water levels decline, the yields of the wells will decline, and a time may be reached when yields will no longer be adequate for irrigation, but yields will continue to be adequate for stock, domestic, or other uses. Because of the dissection of the upland areas, no attempt was made to compute the ground water in storage in the upland.

Recharge and Discharge

The recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by direct infiltration from precipitation in the area, by seepage from streams and ponds, and by seepage from surface-water irrigation. Most of the precipitation falling on the eroded upland areas runs off, returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration either locally from soil moisture or after reaching the water table and moving laterally to the confluence of the water table and the upland streams and drains, or by seeping downward into the Cretaceous aquifers where it moves laterally to the streams or drains. As evapotranspiration is less in the winter than the summer months, small amounts of this discharge should reach the streams to be gaged but might be delayed for as long as 6 months. When precipitation is above normal on the non-irrigated areas of the uplands, recharge is increased and a rise in water level is expected together with a slight increase of evapotranspiration and a slight increase in the lateral flow to streams. When precipitation is below normal the discharge to evapotranspiration and streams is more than the recharge and a decline of water levels results. After 1958, irrigation using surface water has resulted in additional recharge in the irrigated areas of northwestern Republic County and the adjacent areas of Jewell County (Fig. 5-7).

Ground water in the lowlands is recharged by local precipitation along the valley bottoms and terraces, by lateral flow from the Republican River, by seepage from the shales, sandstones, and limestones along the valley walls, and in the Hardy to Scandia area by irrigation with surface water. The discharge from the lowland areas is by evapotranspiration, by pumpage of ground water for irrigation, municipal, domestic, and stock uses, and by seepage to some reaches of the streams.

Estimate of Recharge

The recharge to the aquifers along the Republican River can be estimated if it is assumed that base flow in the river is from ground water and that base flow (Q80) is about 80 percent time on the flow-duration curves. Prom the curves (Furness, 1959) the Q80 at Hardy is 202 cfs (cubic feet per second) and at Concordia 235 cfs. If this base flow is assumed to be equal to recharge over the area of 1,140 square miles between the gages, the recharge would be about 0.4 inch per year. Because trees and other vegetation along the streams obtain part of their water supply from ground water, the recharge must be greater than 0.4 inch to supply both the streams and vegetation.

The recharge can also be estimated from the Base Flow Data (Busby and Armentrout, 1965). The recharge to the area would be the base flow in the streams draining the area. During the growing season, the water lost to evapotranspiration along the valley walls and streams would not reach the gage to be measured; therefore, recharge in the area would be larger than gaged on the stream. The maximum recharge to the area would approach the base flow during the non-growing season, but as factors other than evapotranspiration are involved, the recharge is between the base flow in the streams during the growing season and during the non-growing season. In this report the mean of record for the year (from Base Flow Data) was used to estimate the recharge.

The mean of record base flow for the year (Busby and Armentrout, 1965) for White Rock Creek at Lovewell, Kansas, was 7.1 0 cfs for an area of 342 square miles or 0.30 inch. In the Little Blue River near Endicott, Nebraska, the basin immediately northeast of the area, the base flow was 157 cfs for an area of 2,340 square miles or 0.84 inch. In the Solomon River, south of the area, the difference in base flow between Beloit and Niles, Kansas, was 61 cfs for an area of 1,240 square miles or 0.62 inch. The average of these was 0.59 inch and includes some loss to evapotranspiration.

An examination of the aerial photographs for the area indicated that there were about 6 square miles of cottonwood and willow trees along the valley bottom of the Republican River. About 4 square miles were between the Hardy and Concordia gages and 2 square miles between Concordia and the Clay county line. According to Blaney (1957, p. 129), the evapotranspiration rate for cottonwood trees in California was 1.15 times the pan evaporation rate for a water level of 4 feet below the land surface. The water levels under the lowland area along the Republican River are in most localities from 3 to 12 feet below the land surface, and therefore the above coefficient was reduced to 1.0. U.S. Weather Bureau Climatological Data show that the average pan evaporation for the growing season in north-central Kansas was 56 inches for the period 1959-63.

If the above figures are reasonable for north-central Kansas, there would be about 12,000 acre-feet of water used annually by trees along the river between Hardy and Concordia. There are as many trees along the upland drainages as there are along the river lowlands, so. that the total estimated evapotranspiration by trees in the area is about 25,000 acre-feet or 0.4 inch annually between Hardy and Concordia. Because the trees obtain part of their water supply from soil moisture that never reaches the water table, only part of the 0.4 inch can be considered recharge.

Another estimate of the losses to evapotranspiration can be made from the base-flow data, considering that the effects of evapotranspiration are delayed in reaching the stream gage by 3 or 4 months and the difference in mean base flow between the growing and non-growing seasons might be the maximum losses to evapotranspiration in the basin. The base flow (mean of record) at Lovewell for the months of August through January averaged 5.81 cfs and for the months of February through July averaged 11.07 cfs. This difference, 5.26 cfs (or 0.2 inch), is the maximum loss. The difference at Endicott, Nebraska was 0.25 inch. Therefore, possibly 0.2 inch should be added to the 0.4 inch (Q80) recharge between Hardy and Concordia. The recharge rate in the Republican River area, then, is probably 0.6 inch, as indicated by both methods.

It should be noted that the above computations are for near natural conditions and for the total drainage area. The recharge potential along the valley bottoms is greater than the upland areas because of more sandy soils in the valley bottoms, Therefore, the recharge is probably greater than 0.6 inch in the lowland areas and less than that figure in the upland areas.

Withdrawals of Water

In 1963 there were 86 irrigation wells in Republic County and 101 in Cloud County. There were 12,300 acre-feet of ground water pumped in the Republican River drainage area for irrigation and municipal use in 1963 (Fig. 11). Eight thousand acre-feet were withdrawn above the gage at Concordia. A small amount was pumped from the Kansan deposits in north-central Republic County, but most of the pumpage was from the alluvial deposits in the lowlands along the river.

Figure 11--Withdrawals of ground water in the Republican River drainage basin.

Withdrawals of ground water (thousands of acre-feet) in the Republican River drainage basin, 1956-1963, for Cloud and Republic counties.

Effects of Pumping of Ground Water on Streamflow

In Kansas there is considerable ground water available along most of the major stream valleys. Several periods of deficient rainfall have prompted farmers in these areas to. develop irrigation systems utilizing ground water. Some of the water pumped from the valley aquifers would have been naturally discharged to the streams, and where the pumping level has been lowered to a point below the level of the stream, water moves directly from the stream into the aquifer. Pumping from wells has resulted in the interception of water moving toward the stream and has caused the surface water to move into the aquifer, thus affecting the flow of the stream. The following is an estimate of this effect on the flow of the Republican River.

Theis (1941) presented a method of estimating the effect of pumping a well on the flow of a nearby stream. The formula originally given contains a complex series. Conover (1954) devised a chart (Fig. 12) that allows a simple graphical solution of the formula. The estimates given later are based on data obtained from field tests in the area as applied to the chart.

Figure 12--Determination of percentage of pumped water being diverted from a river or drain. Explanation of terms below. (After Conover, 1954.)

Determination of percentage of pumped water being diverted from a river or drain.

The following assumptions are necessary in the use of the above method: (1) that the aquifer is homogeneous and isotropic; (2) that the aquifer and the stream are in free communication with each other (the river bed contains a minimum of silt so that ground-water flow from the stream is not retarded); (3) that constant pumping rates are maintained throughout the periods of time chosen; (4) that the lowering of the water level does not change the transmissibility; and (5) that there is sufficient flow in the river to satisfy the demands of pumping during the periods of time chosen.

The information needed to use the chart (Fig. 12) is as follows: (1) the coefficient of transmissibility (T), in gallons per day per foot, from Table 2; (2) the coefficient of storage (S), assumed to be 0.2; (3) the distance (a) between the well and the stream, scaled from well-location map; (4) the time of pumping (t) in years, assumed; and (5) the pumping rate (Q), in gallons per minute for each well reduced from the measured or reported rate by an assumed 20 percent to allow for return seepage from irrigation.

To use the diagram (Fig. 12), enter it either at the left or right with the distance from the stream (a). Proceed upward to the right or downward to the left parallel to the diagonal lines to the intersection with the S/T ratio (top of diagram), then proceed horizontally across the diagram to the intersection with the time (bottom of diagram). Read the percent from the diagonal lines, interpolating between lines if necessary. For example: If a = 0.15 mile, S/T= 2 X 10-6, and t=1 year, percent=91.

Using field data and the chart (Fig. 12), the percent of each well pumping rate supplied by the river was estimated at the end of 10, 20, 62, 124, 224, and 365 days. These percentages were entered in a table (not shown) and multiplied by the pumping rate of each well. The total quantities, in gallons per minute, obtained from the stream at the assumed times were computed and plotted on Figure 13.

Figure 13--Quantity of water supplied by streams to wells in the valley alluvium.

Quantity of water supplied by streams to wells in the valley alluvium.

In summary, if all the irrigation wells in the river valley between Hardy and Concordia were pumped continuously at a constant rate of 66,000 gpm, the quantities supplied by the river would be:

Between Concordia and the Clay county line, if the total pumping rate were 38,000 gpm, the quantities supplied by the river would be:

In 1963, a year of below-normal rainfall, the average time irrigators pumped was 22 days. Figure 13 shows about 13,000 gpm or 29 cfs was being removed from the stream between Hardy and Concordia at the end of 22 days.

The area under the curves in Figure 13 is the volume pumped from the river. This would be 710 acre-feet between Hardy and Concordia and 420 acre-feet between Concordia and the Clay county line, or a total of 1,130 acre-feet if all the wells were pumped for 22 days. If these figures are correct, about 7,000 acre-feet of the 8,000 acre-feet (page 13) pumped above the gage at Concordia was removed from groundwater storage during the irrigation season. Figures 8, 9, and 10, show a decline of water level in the lowlands since 1960. However, as the aquifer was assumed to be full and water rejected for the estimate of recharge (page 13), it is estimated that the 7,000 acre-feet will be replaced by precipitation and seepage from the river during periods of higher precipitation.

Chlorides in Ground Water

Because of the history of high chloride content in water from irrigation wells in Cloud County, a sampling' program has been established to determine any changes in amount of chloride (Table 3). The chloride content increases in one or two wells during the pumping season, but there is very little change in chloride content from year to year. However, seven or more wells have been abandoned for irrigation use, owing to high chloride content. Because the abandoned wells were not pumped, comparable water samples were not available, and the changes in chloride content are not known.

Table 3--Chlorides in water from wells and-springs in the Republican River area, Kansas.

Well
number
Depth,
ft
Water-
bearing
unit*
Date of
sampling
Chloride,
ppm
Republic County
1-3W-3bc 212 Qd 8-30-1962 12
1-3W-4dd 111 Qd 7-30-1942 26
1-3W-10dd 80 Qd 7-30-1942 18
1-3W-18cc 171 Qd 7-30-1942 14
1-4W-4ba 160 Qd 7-31-1942 34
1-4W-17dc 55 Qd 7-30-1942 3
1-4W-31bc 63 Qd 3-10-1942 24
1-4W-34ad 115 Qd 7-30-1942 23
1-5W-6bb ? Qa 7-30-1942 18
1-5W-14dc2 61 Qa 7-30-1942 20
1-5W-18ab 49 Qd 7-1-1963 30
1-5W-18bb 75 Qd 7-30-1942 25
1-5W-20ab 160 Qd 6-27-1963 36
2-4W-7dd 42 Qa 7-31-1942 26
2-5W-2bd1 19 Qa 7-30-1942 39
3-4W-9dd 69 Kg 7-31-1942 57
3-4W-17db 43 Qa 4-17-1942 46
3-4W-29da 13 Qa 7-31-1942 118
3-4W-32da 47 Qa 7-10-1963 138
3-5W-13dd 56 Kg 7-31-1942 78
3-5W-16dd 67 Kc 8-7-1944 168
3-5W-25bb 64 Kc 7-31-1942 640
3-5W-32bb 116 Kd 7-31-1942 1,320
4-4W-4db 59 Qa 8-28-1963 48
4-4W-8ad 60 Qa 7-9-1963 90
4-4W-8db 40 Qa 7-9-1963 30
4-4W-8dd 51 Qa 7-9-1963 42
4-4W-9ab 72 Qa 7-10-1963 54
4-4W-9ca 49 Qa 7-9-1963 90
4-4W-10cb 44 Qi 7-2-1963 48
4-4W-16dab 52 Qw 7-9-1963 36
4-4W-17da 54 Qa 7-2-1963 66
4-4W-17dd 60 Qa 7-9-1963 72
4-4W-21caa 66 Qw 7-10-1963 42
4-4W-21cab 66 Qw 7-9-1963 54
4-4W-22ca 50 Qi 7-2-1963 30
4-4W-22cc 56 Qi 7-9-1963 24
4-4W-27ddc 59 Qw 6-19-1963 43
5-25-1964 50
7-20-1964 24
4-4W-29db 53 Qa 7-10-1963 30
7-8-1964 36
4-4W-32cc2 35 Qa 7-31-1942 18
4-4W-33aa 53 Qa 7-10-1963 42
7-8-1964 48
4-4W-33da 63 Qa 7-20-1964 42
4-4W-33dc 65 Qa 7-20-1964 84
4-4W-34baa 52 Qw 8-25-1960 75
7-10-1963 30
7-8-1964 36
4-4W-34dbb 49 Qw 8-25-1960 31
8-25-1961 40
5-25-1963 33
7-20-1964 36
4-5W-7cb 42 Kg 7-31-1942 96
4-5W-23bc 128 Kd 7-31-1942 1,655
4-5W-30ba 84 Kd 7-31-1942 65
Cloud County
5-1W-15cc 200 Kd 7-21-1964 54
5-1W-26ad2 158 Kd 8-4-1954 19
5-1W-30bc   Qa 6-18-1963 24
5-1W-30dcb1 71 Qa 8-15-1961 645
5-1W-30dcb2   Qa 5-25-1964 126
7-21-1964 423
5-1W-31ac 80 Qw 7-21-1964 135
5-1W-32bc 74 Qw 8-16-1963 132
5-25-1964 51
7-21-1964 113
5-1W-32dc 90 Qw 8-16-1963 54
7-21-1964 63
5-1W-34ddd 60 Qw 1943 212
100 Kd 1943 450
5-2W-15cb 40 Kd 6-18-1963 46
5-2W-19bc 93 Qw 6-20-1963 243
5-25-1964 94
7-21-1964 243
5-2W-19cbb 71 Qa 1943 2,450
5-2W-20cca 45 Qa 7-21-1964 45
5-2W-21ad 50 Qa 8-27-1963 182
5-2W-21dd 64 Qa, Qk 8-27-1963 510
5-25-1964 610
7-21-1964 370
5-2W-22ca 55 Qa 7-21-1964 144
5-2W-25cb 65 Qw 8-15-1961 65
5-2W-25cc 72 Qw 1- -55 212
5-2W-26add 80 Qw 1943 210
5-2W-26add 99 Qw 1943 3,450
5-2W-28daa 42 Qa 1943 23
65 Qa 1943 1,300
72 Qa 1943 1,340
80 Qk 1943 2,650
5-2W-28da1 57 Qa 5-25-1964 572
7-21-1964 576
5-2W-28da2 48 Qa 5-25-1964 352
7-21-1964 387
5-2W-29ddb 57 Qa 5-25-1964 572
7-21-1961 576
5-2W-29db 48 Qa 5-25-1964 352
7-21-1964 387
5-2W-30bcd 40 Qa 6-12-1954 368
8-15-1961 765
5-25-1964 136
7-21-1964 792
5-2W-31cc 43 Qd 8-15-1963 18
5-2W-32cb 50 Qw 8-16-1963 30
5-25-1964 36
7-21-1964 45
5-2W-32db 54 Qw 8-16-1963 24
5-25-1964 34
7-21-1964 41
5-2W-34aab 81 Qw 8-29-1963 90
5-25-1964 50
7-21-1964 99
5-2W-36bc 40 Qw 6-18-1963 26
5-3W-15ab 341 Kd 10-18-1955 16,000
5-3W-17abc 100 Qi 8-25-1960 468
8-15-1961 390
7-6-1964 138
7-20-1964 372
5-3W-18bbb 100 Qi 6-18-1954 44
5-3W-19bb1 90 Kd 1943 19
121 Kd 1943 850
127 Kd 1943 1,900
5-3W-19cb 67 Qa 9- 8-1954 17
5-3W-19ddd 52 Qa 1943 21
67 Kd 1943 26
5-3W-20bbc 70 Qa 1943 58
80 Qk 1943 413
107 Qk 1943 3,760
5-3W-21ca 50 Qa 8-29-1963 24
5-3W-21cbc 50 Qw 1943 59
71 Qw 1943 880
5-3W-21dd 47 Qw 1943 48
63 Qw 1943 89
84 Qk 1943 2,880
5-3W-22bad 35 Qi 1943 230
71 Qi 1943 2,335
5-3W-22bcc 45 Qw 1943 167
50 Qw 1943 388
60 Qw 1943 1,160
87 Qk 1943 13,750
5-3W-22dcb 35 Qa 1943 331
65 Qa 1943 6,350
5-3W-24dc 55 Qa 7-21-1964 63
5-3W-25db 48 Qa 5-25-1964 108
7-21-1964 63
5-3W-28bac 36 Qa 1943 21
70 Qk 1943 86
103 Qk 1943 4,360
5-3W-28bb 51 Qa 5-24-43 23
5-3W-28bbb 50 Qa 1943 22
5-3W-28bbc 50 Qa 1943 27
5-3W-28bbd 42 Qa 1943 20
52 Qa 1943 30
74 Qa 1943 228
107 Qk 1943 5,040
5-3W-28bbd2 20 Qa 1943 14
40 Qa 1943 22
51 Qa 1943 27
76 Qk 1943 1,400
5-3W-29aac 94 Qk 1943 3,500
5-3W-29bbc 61 Qa 1943 45
5-3W-31bb 37 Qa 6-3-1954 80
5-3W-32aa1 50 Qa 1- 2-45 72
5-3W-32aa2 50 Qa 1945 80
5-3W-32aa3 50 Qa 8-4-1954 110
5-3W-35abc 65 Qa 8-15-1961 85
8-25-1963 72
5-25-1964 30
7-21-1964 90
5-3W-36ab 85 Qa 8-15-1961 65
8-16-1963 85
5-25-1964 50
7-21-1964 54
5-3W-36bb 74 Qa 8-15-1961 110
8-25-1963 84
5-25-1964 34
7-21-1964 81
5-4W-2bb   Qw 7-20-1964 18
5-4W-2ca1 48 Qw 6- 9-1964 30
5-4W-3abd 59 Qw 8-25-1960 44
8-15-1961 40
5-4W-3dd 68 Qw 8-23-1963 24
5-4W-4aac 64 Qw 7-20-1964 72
5-4W-5cb 33 Qw 6-25-1963 42
5-4W-7bd1 110 Kd 6-27-1963 660
5-4W-7dd 39 Qw 6-25-1963 120
5-4W-8ad 20 Qw 6-20-1963 238
5-4W-8bc 40 Qw 6-25-1963 198
5-4W-8cc 25 Qw 6-25-1963 144
5-4W-8dad 60 Qw 8-15-1961 200
8-14-1963 210
7-21-1964 198
5-4W-8dda 60 Qw 8-15-1961 80
7-21-1964 150
5-4W-9cca 75 Qw 5-13-1960 35
8-25-1960 13
8-24-1963 30
5-25-1964 32
5-4W-10ba 54 Qw 8-25-1960 31
5-4W-11ad1 39 Qw 7-20-1964 18
5-4W-11ad2 38 Qw 7-20-1964 36
5-4W-13bbb 39 Qw 1943 25
44 Qw 1943 43
5-4W-13bd 40 Qw 8-15-1961 35
5-25-1964 18
7-8-1964 24
7-20-1964 38
5-4W-13dad 53 Qw 8-15-1961 85
8-23-1963 90
7-7-1964 60
7-20-1964 90
5-4W-14aa 33 Qw 7-20-1964 30
5-4W-14abb 56 Qw 1943 47
5-4W-14da 48 Qw 5-25-1964 27
7-20-1964 36
5-4W-15aba 69 Qa 5-13-1960 95
8-25-1960 75
8-15-1961 78
5-25-1964 112
7-21-1964 72
5-4W-15cad 72 Qa 5-13-1960 287
8-25-1960 200
8-15-1961 300
7-10-1963 390
8-11-1963 414
5-4W-15cad     5-25-1964 336
7-21-1964 420
5-4W-15da 70 Qa 8-25-1960 144
8-15-1961 170
7-18-1963 152
7-21-1964 270
5-4W-15ddd 65 Qw 1943 450
117 Qk 1943 1,240
5-4W-16bd 83 Qw 5-13-1960 100
8-25-1960 94
8-15-1961 100
7-21-1964 90
5-4W-16ca 85 Qw, Qi 5-13-1960 435
8-25-1960 440
8-15-1961 485
7- -1963 378
7- -1963 498
7- -1963 696
5-25-1964 680
5-4W-16cb 45 Qw 5-13-1960 75
8-25-1960 75
8-15-1961 125
8-24-1963 84
5-25-1964 76
7-21-1964 96
5-4W-16dc 25 Qw 8-20-1963 42
7-21-1964 60
5-4W-16dd 60 Qw 5-13-1960 37
8-25-1960 75
8-15-1961 145
8-22-1963 78
5-4W-17aa 64 Qw 5-13-1960 81
8-25-1960 100
8-15-1961 130
8-24-1963 132
5-25-1964 100
7-21-1964 138
5-4W-18bb1 54 Qi 6-25-1963 132
5-4W-18bb2 60 Kd 6-25-1963 282
5-4W-18bc 47 Qi 6-25-1963 138
5-4W-18cb 60 Qi 6-25-1963 78
5-4W-18dd 48 Kd 6-25-1963 498
5-4W-19ad 50 Qi 6-25-1963 474
5-4W-19da 36 Qi 6-25-1963 564
5-4W-20bb 49 Qi 6-25-1963 552
5-4W-21ba 59 Qw 5-13-1960 112
8-25-1960 206
8-15-1961 260
8-22-1963 282
5-25-1964 70
5-4W-21bd2 24 Qw 6-25-1963 354
7-21-1964 432
5-4W-21db   Qw 6-25-1963 450
5-4W-22ab 68 Qw 5-13-1960 100
8-25-1960 167
8-15-1961 155
8-14-1963 150
7-21-1964 150
5-5W-4aab 80 Kd 11- 5-53 205
160 Kd 11-17-1953 16,400
402 Kd 11-17-1953 17,800
5-5W-4bb 53 Qk 10-30-1953 9,310
5-5W-7cc 55 Qk 5-18-1954 1,150
5-5W-11ad 168 Kd 6-27-1963 60
5-5W-12ad 130 Kd 6-28-1963 300
5-5W-12bc1 40 Qi 6-28-1963 96
5-5W-22da 140 Qi 7-7-1953 43
5-5W-24dd 57 Qk 5-20-1954 28
6-1W-2ca 84 Qw, Kd 8-26-1963 18
6-1W-3aa 41 Qa 6-15-1954 21
77 Qk 6-15-1954 19
6-1W-4bc2 86 Qw 8-27-1963 42
6-1W-10cc 87 Kd 3-4-1954 13
6-1W-12ab 63 Qw 8-26-1963 24
*Qd, Pleistocene deposits, undifferentiated;
Qa, Recent alluvium;
Qw, Wisconsinan terrace deposits;
Qi, Illinoisan terrace deposits;
Qk, Kansan deposits;
Kd, Dakota Formation;
Kg, Greenhorn Limestone;
Kc, Carlile Shale.

The Dakota Formation in most of northwestern Cloud County contains water high in chloride, 250 ppm (parts per million) or higher (Pl. 4). The water in the Dakota Formation moves into the Kansan and alluvial deposits (Fig. 14) in the subsurface, and therefore most of the Kansan deposits and the basal part of the alluvial deposits along the Republican River in Cloud County contain brackish water. In some areas (Pl. 4) along the Republican River, water from some wells contains more chloride than is tolerable for irrigation and other uses.

Figure 14--Diagrammatic cross sections D-D' and E-E', northwestern Cloud County, Kansas.

Diagrammatic sections for an area west of Concordia are presented in Figure 14. The brackish water is flowing into the area from the west almost parallel to cross section E-E'. As the wells in sec. 16, 17, and 20, T 5 S, R 4 W, are pumped, the brackish water moves northward and upward into the wells, and the chloride content of water from the southern-most wells in section D-D' will increase. However, the Republican River, which normally contains water of low chloride content, recharges the aquifer when the water level in wells is lowered below the river level. This provides water of low chloride content to the wells near the river; whereas, the water from the river is intercepted by pumping wells before reaching the southernmost wells. Thus, the southernmost wells pick up the brackish water from the lower parts of the aquifers.

In the area northeast of Concordia, brackish water from the Dakota Formation moves from the north into the alluvial deposits in the subsurface. This underflow accounts for the high chloride content in the alluvial deposits in T 5 S, R 3 W. East of Salt Creek the underflow is less brackish. As the brackish water moves eastward along the bottom of the valley alluvium, recharge from rainfall and the less brackish underflow from the north and south dilutes the brackish water, and only a small amount of brackish water occurs as a narrow strip in T 4 S, Rs 1 and 2 W. In general, most of the Kansan deposits in the Republican River valley in Cloud County contain brackish water. Thus, very few irrigation wells are drilled into these deposits. Thin clay layers in the lower parts of the alluvial deposits above the Kansan deposits may retard the upward movement of brackish water, provided the wells do not penetrate the clay layers.

Summary and Conclusions

The Republican River area is divided into two general categories in relationship to the ground-water aquifers. In the lowland areas, large quantities of water are available from the alluvial deposits. In the upland areas, water can be obtained from silts, clays, and silty gravels of Pleistocene age overlying the Cretaceous rocks or from the Cretaceous rocks. However, the application of surface-water irrigation has raised the water level in some of the upland areas causing flooding of pump pits at well sites and waterlogging of fields. Only the upper part of the Cretaceous material yields water suitable for most uses, as the water becomes more saline with depth.

Data from aquifer tests indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility ranges from 10,000 to 320,000 gpd/ft and the coefficient of permeability ranges from 800 to 6,300 gpd/ft2. Coefficient of storage was not determined from the short aquifer tests but was assumed from experience in other areas.

Water levels dropped in the upland areas during the period 1953-56, rose with increased precipitation during the period 1956-58, and rose considerably in the areas irrigated by surface water after 1958. Waterlogging has occurred in some of those areas. Water levels in the lowland areas fluctuate with the rate of discharge of the Republican River and with the local pumping rate.

The alluvial deposits above the Kansan deposits contain about 580,000 acre-feet of water in storage. If water levels are drawn down due to pumping, the aquifers become thin and no longer yield sufficient water for irrigation. Therefore, part of the water in storage is unavailable for irrigation.

Recharge from precipitation was computed from streamflow records to be about 0.6 inch per year over the area. An estimated 0.2 inch is lost to evapotranspiration before reaching the streams. Recharge in the lowland areas is probably greater than in the upland areas.

Withdrawal of ground water in the lowlands was 7,600 acre-feet in 1958 and 12,300 acre-feet in 1963. The theoretical quantity of water removed from the Republican River by the pumping of ground water between Hardy and Concordia was computed to be 710 acre-feet in 1963.

Chlorides in irrigation water are a problem in northern Cloud County. However, suitable water can be obtained from aquifers, which are stratigraphically higher than Kansan deposits, in most of the lowland areas.

Recommendations

The following recommendations are included so that sufficient data will be available for future analyses of the hydrology of the area, either by the digital computers, electronic analog models, or other methods. These types of analyses were beyond the scope of this report or the need for additional data was recognized too late to be included in the study.

The measurement of water levels in the area should be continued at the present intervals with the same areal coverage. However, four or five additional observation wells should be drilled along the upland on the east side of the Republican River for the purpose of comparing fluctuations of water levels in similar geologic formations outside the area of influence of the irrigation by surface water. The approximate locations of these wells, depending on the geology found when drilled, should be:

The measurement program of the low flows of the Republican River between Hardy and Concordia should be extended so that more accurate estimates of gains or losses in this reach are available. This may include an investigation by statistical methods as to the type or types of field data needed.

The collection of data on the chlorides in water should be continued on the present annual monitoring basis.

Logs of Wells and Test Holes

Logs of 22 test holes drilled in the Republican River area were selected to represent the different types of materials encountered. Eleven of these test holes were drilled by the State and Federal Geological Surveys and are headed "Sample log of test hole augered...." These test holes were logged by the author during drilling. Nine of the test holes were drilled and logged by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation; these are headed "Log of test hole drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation...." The remaining test holes were drilled and logged by commercial well drillers and are headed "Driller's log of test hole drilled by...."

1-3W-5bc--Driller's log of test hole in SW NW sec. 5, T 1 S, R 3 W near center of NW sec.; drilled by Don Barney for Edwin Tientjen, June 1958. Altitude of land surface, 1,662 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series, undifferentiated    
Loam 2 2
Clay, yellowish-brown 7 9
Clay, brown 8 17
Sand, brown, clay 6 23
Clay, brown 39 62
Sand, fine 23 85
Clay 1 86
Sand, fine 7 93
Clay, gray 14 107
Clay, brown, soft 6 113
Clay, brown 9 122
Sand, fine, and gravel 96 218
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, black 2 220

1-4W-31cc (U.S.B.R. 164)--Log of test hole in SW SW sec. 31, T 1 S, R 4 W, 50 feet north and 350 feet east of SW cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, October 1957. Altitude of land surface, 1,496 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Illinoisan Stage    
Crete and Loveland formations    
Silt 5 5
Sand, fine, slight amount silt 3 8
Silt 12 20
Silt and fine sand 2 22
Sand, fine, clean; loose 4 26
Sand, fine to coarse; loose 10 36
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, blue; firm 2+ 38+

1-4W-31dc--Sample log of test hole in SW SE sec. 31, T 1 S, R 4 W, 20 feet north and 100 feet east of S2 cor. sec.; augered, November 29, 1962. Altitude of land surface, 1,514 (estimated) feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Illinoisan Stage    
Crete and Loveland formations, undifferentiated    
Topsoil, black 4 4
Clay, bluish-black 2 6
Clay, tan 5 11
Clay, silty, tan 9 20
Kansan Stage    
Grand Island and Sappa formations, undifferentiated    
Clay, silty, dark-brown 4 24
Sand, fine to medium, tannish-brown 2 26
Clay, brownish-red 3 29
Gravel and clay strips 6 35
Sand, coarse, tan 5 40
Sand, coarse, and pea-sized gravel 4 44
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, bluish-black, hard 1 45

1-5W-9ddd--Sample log of test hole in SE SE SE sec. 9, T 1 S, R 5 W, 20 feet north and 30 feet west of SE cor. sec.; augered, June 1963. Altitude of land surface, 1,501 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Recent Stage (alluvium)    
Sand, fine, silty, tannish-brown 5 5
Sand, coarse, tan 5 10
Sand and gravel, bluish-gray 8 18
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, black; drilled hard 1+ 19+

1-5W-10aaa--Sample log of test hole in NE NE NE sec. 10, T 1 S, R 5 W, 40 feet south and 35 feet west of NE cor. sec.; augered, June 1965. Altitude of land surface, 1,550 (estimated) feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan and Illinoisan stages    
Peoria and Loveland formations, undifferentiated    
Topsoil, brown 1 1
Clay, silty, black 5 6
Clay, silty, brown 2 8
Pleistocene fluvial deposits, undifferentiated    
Sand, coarse, brownish-tan; hard to drill 13 21
Sand and pea-sized gravel, tannish-brown 4 25
Clay, gravel, and sand layers, blue 2 27
Sand, coarse, and gravel, blue; with some clay 15 42
Gravel, and blue clay; drilled hard 21 63
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, black 2+ 65+

1-5W-16ccc--Log of test hole in SW SW SW sec. 16, T 1 S, R 5 W, near SW cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, May 1961. Altitude of land surface, 1,510 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series, undifferentiated    
Silt, dark-brown; drilled easy 5 5
Silt, light-brown; drilled easy 4 9
Clay, silty, dark-gray; drilled easy 3 12
Clay, silty, light-gray; drilled easy 3 15
Sand, very fine, gray; loose 8 23
Sand, fine to medium, gray; loose 10 33
Sand, fine to coarse, bluish-gray; loose 5 38
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, blue; firm 2+ 40+

1-5W-36dc (U.S.B.R. 163 F)--Log of test hole in SW SE sec. 36, T 1 S, R 5 W, 100 feet north and 1,180 feet west of SE cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, January 1958. Altitude of land surface, 1,486 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Illinoisan Stage    
Crete and Loveland formations    
Silt 4 4
Sand, fine, silty; loose 2 6
Silt 1 7
Sand, fine, silty; loose 1 8
Silt; small amount fine sand 9 17
Silt 1 18
Clay, silty, compact 1 19
Sand, fine; small amount silt 1 20
Silt 2 22
Sand, fine, silty 3 25
Sand, fine to coarse; loose 3 28
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, blue; firm 2 30

1-5W-35dd (U.S.B.R. 162 B)--Log of test hole in SE SE sec. 35, T 1 S, R 5 W, 100 feet north and 160 feet west of SW cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1957. Altitude of land surface, 1,478 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Recent Stage (alluvium)    
Sand, very fine, silty; loose 2 2
Sand, very fine, some silt; loose 2 4
Sand, fine 7 11
Sand, fine to coarse; loose 6 17
Sand, fine to coarse; silty, small pieces weathered shale 7 24
Sand, fine to coarse, some small gravel, small pieces weathered shale 2 26
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, blue; firm 2 28

2-4W-5bbb--Sample log of test hole in NW NW NW sec. 5, T 2 S, R 4 W, 20 feet south and 15 feet east 01 NW cor. sec.; augered, June 1963. Altitude of lane surface, 1,545 (estimated) feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan and Illinoisan stages    
Peoria and Loveland formations, undifferentiated    
Silt, tan 10 10
Clay, silty, tannish-yellow 6 16
Sand, very fine, tannish-white; drilled hard 9 25
Sand, medium, tan 9 34
Sand, medium, silty; grayish-tan 5 39
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, sandy, black; drilled hard 2+ 41+

2-5W-1ba (U.S.B.R. 163)--Log of test hole in NE m sec. 1, T 2 S, R 5 W, 10 feet south and 1,300 feet east of NW cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 1957. Altitude of land surface, 1,476 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Recent Stage (alluvium)    
Sand, very fine, silty; loose 5 5
Sand, fine; loose 3 8
Sand, fine to medium; loose 11 19
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, blue; firm 2 21

2-5W-20aa--Log of test hole in NE NE sec. 20, T 2 S, R 5 W, near NE cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1955. Altitude of land surface, 1,554 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan and Illinoisan stages    
Peoria and Loveland formations, undifferentiated    
Silt, clayey, dark-brown 2 2
Clay, silty, brown 1 3
Silt, light-gray, rusty streaks 8 11
Silt, dark-brown 5 16
Clay, silty, light grayish-brown 9 25
Clay, silty, brown 4 29
Pleistocene Series, undifferentiated    
Clay, light-yellow, and weathered shale 11 40

3-4W-8cc3--Sample log of test hole in SW SW sec. 8, T 3 S, R 4 W, 100 feet northeast of well 8cc1; augered, November 1962. Altitude of land surface, 1,437 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Recent Stage (alluvium)    
Topsoil, black 2 2
Sand, coarse, brown 20 22
Sand, coarse, and gravel, bluish-gray 27 49
Clay, blue 1+ 50+

3-5W-16bb--Log of test hole in NW NW sec. 16, T 3 S, R 5 W, near NW cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1956. Altitude of land surface, 1,511 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan and Illinoisan stages    
Peoria and Loveland formations, undifferentiated    
Clay, clark-brown 2 2
Clay, dark-gray 2 4
Silt, light rusty-brown 7 11
Pleistocene Series, undifferentiated    
Clay, dark-gray 5 16
Clay, light-brown 12 28
Clay, silty, light-brown 7 35
Clay, yellowish-brown 13 48
Chalk, weathered, yellow 18 66
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Carlile Shale    
Shale, blue 1+ 67+

3-5W-20ad--Log of test hole in SE NE sec. 20, T 3 S, R 5 W, near E2; cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1961. Altitude of land surface, 1,499 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan and Illinoisan stages    
Peoria and Loveland formations, undifferentiated    
Clay, silty, dark-brown 4 4
Silt, light grayish-brown, rusty streaks 6 10
Clay, silty, reddish-brown 25 35
Clay, yellow, and chalk fragments 1 36
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Greenhorn Limestone    
Chalk, weathered, yellow 1+ 37+

4-4W-4dc2--Sample log of test hole in SW SE sec. 4, T 4 S, R 4 W, 0.1 mile north and 0.1 mile east of S2; cor. sec.; augered, November 1962. Altitude of land surface, 1,431 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan Stage (terrace deposits)    
Topsoil 5 5
Clay, silty, black 9 14
Clay, silty, tan 2 16
Silt, tan, and fine sand 7 23
Sand, fine, silty, grayish-tan 7 30
Sand, medium to coarse, silty, gray 10 40
Sand, coarse, gray 5 45
Sand, coarse, and fine gravel, gray 5 50
Gravel and coarse sand, gray 17 67
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Graneros Shale    
Shale, yellowish-brown; drilled hard 6+ 73+

4-4W-21cab--Driller's log of test hole in NW NE SW sec. 21, T 4 S, R 4 W; drilled by Ben Lervold, at irrigation well for Lloyd Blosser, April 1954. Altitude of land surface, 1,412 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan Stage (terrace deposits)    
Loam 8 8
Clay and sand 14 22
Gravel, medium, and sand 8 30
Gravel, coarse 38 68
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Graneros Shale    
Clay, blue 22 90+

4-4W -30cc--Sample log of test hole in SW SW sec. 30, T 4 S, R 4 W, 160 feet north and 30 feet east of SW cor. sec.; augered, November 1962. Altitude of land surface, 1,424 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Recent Stage (alluvium)    
Topsoil (and road fill), black 10 10
Clay, brown 2 12
Clay, silty, brown 8 20
Clay, brown, and silty clay layers 7 27
Sand, fine, brown 1 28
Clay, brown, and silty clay layers 11 39
Clay, silty, brown 27 66
Clay, silty, brown; drilled hard 4 70
Clay, silty brown; layers of fine yellow sand 8+ 78+

4-5W-16cc--Log of test hole in SW SW sec. 16, T 4 S, R 5 W, near SW cor. sec.; drilled by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1956. Altitude of land surface, 1,500 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan and Illinoisan stages    
Peoria and Loveland formations, undifferentiated    
Silt, brown 5 5
Clay, silty, brown 3 8
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Greenhorn Limestone    
Chalk, weathered, yellow; some hard layers 14+ 22+

4-5W-19bbb--Sample log of test hole in NW NW NW sec. 19, T 4 S, R 5 W, 30 feet south and 35 feet east of NW cor. sec.; augered, June 1963. Altitude of land surface, 1,396 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series, undifferentiated    
Topsoil, black 2 2
Clay, tan, silty; drilled hard 8 10
Clay and fine silty sand layers 9 19
Clay, blue 3 22
Silt, bluish-gray, clayey 12 34
Clay and silt, bluish-gray 7 41
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Graneros Shale    
Sandstone and shale, blue 2+ 43+

4-5W-32da--Sample log of test hole in NE SE sec. 32, T 4 S, R 5 W, 35 feet south and 35 feet west of E2 cor. sec.; augered, June 1963. Altitude of land surface, 1,395 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series, undifferentiated    
Topsoil, black 2 2
Clay, silty, gray 3 5
Silt, sandy, brown 3 8
Silt, gray 4 12
Sand, very fine, gray 4 16
Silt, gray 4 20
Silt, brown, and fine sand layers 7 27
Clay, brown 5 32
Silt and very fine sand 6 38
Sand, very fine, silty, brownish-tan 14 52
Silt, gray 7 59
Cretaceous System    
Upper Cretaceous Series    
Graneros Shale    
Shale, blue; drilled hard 4+ 63+

5-4W-26bc--Sample log of test hole in SW NW sec. 26, T 5 S, R 4 W, 60 feet east of W2 cor. sec.; augered, November 1962. Altitude of land surface, 1,375 feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan Stage (terrace deposits)    
Topsoil, black 5 5
Sand, fine, brown 3 8
Clay, gray 2 10
Sand, fine, brown 8 18
Clay, silt, and fine sand, gray 5 23
Silt and fine sand, gray 7 30
Sand, very fine, silty, brown 5 35
Sand, very fine, silty, bluish-gray 13 48
Sand, coarse, and fine gravel 3 51
Cretaceous System    
Lower (?) Cretaceous Series    
Dakota Formation    
Shale, weathered, blue 4 55
Shale, blue 2+ 57+

5-5W-2cd--Sample log of test hole in SE SW sec. 2, T 5 S, R 5 W, 30 feet north and 0.45 mile west of SE cor. sec.; augered, June 1962. Altitude of land surface, 1,432 (estimated) feet. Thickness,
feet
Depth,
feet
Quaternary System    
Pleistocene Series    
Wisconsinan Stage (terrace deposits)    
Topsoil, black, and silty clay loam 3 3
Clay, silty, tan 8 11
Sand, very fine, silty, clayey; some sandstone chips, tannish-white 7 18
Clay, brown, hard 1 19
Silt and sand, very fine, tan 8 27
Clay and silt layers 3 30
Silt and very fine sand, tan 3 33
Silt and very fine sand, tan; some layers drilled hard 4 37
Cretaceous System    
Lower (?) Cretaceous Series    
Dakota Formation    
Clay, blue, and tan sandstone stringers 5+ 42+

Plates

Plate 1--Map of Republican River area, Kansas, showing depth to water, 1962
available as an Acrobat PDF file, 5 MB
Plate 2--Map of Republican River area, Kansas, showing configuration of water table, 1962
available as an Acrobat PDF file, 4 MB
Plate 3--Map of Republican River area, Kansas, showing configuration of the water table, June-July, 1963; locations of data sites; and geologic cross sections A-A', B-B', C-C'
available as an Acrobat PDF file, 5 MB
Plate 4--Map of Republican River area, Kansas, showing saturated thickness of unconsolidated deposits in the valleys and chloride content of ground water
available as an Acrobat PDF file, 5 MB

References

Bayne, C. K., and Walters, K. L., 1959, Geology and ground-water resources of Cloud County, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 139, p. 1-144. [available online]

Blaney, H. F., 1957, Relation of pan evaporation to evapotranspiration by phreatophytes and hydrophytes: Phreatophyte Subcommittee of Pacific Southwest Inter-Agency Committee, Symposium on Phreatophytes, Sacramento, Calif., Feb. 14-15, p. 1-52.

Buck, L. P., Van Horn, Richard, and Young, R. G., 1951, Construction materials in Cloud County, Kansas: U.S. Geol. Survey, Circ. 88, p. 1-20.

Busby, M. W., and Armentrout, G. W., 1965, Kansas streamflow characteristics, pt. 6A, Base flow data: Kansas Water Resources Board Tech. Rept, no. 6A, p. 1-207.

Byrne, F. E., Houston, M. S., and Mudge, M. R., 1950, Construction materials in Jewell County, Kansas: U.S. Geol. Survey, Circ. 38, p. 1-21.

Conover, C. S., 1954, Ground-water conditions in the Rincon and Mesilla valleys and adjacent areas in New Mexico: U.S. Geol. Survey, Water-Supply Paper 1230, p. 1-200, fig. 1-15.

Cooper, H. H., Jr., and Jacob, C. E., 1946, A generalized graphical method for evaluating formation constants and summarizing well-field history: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 27, p. 526-534, fig. 1-5.

Darton, N. H., 1905, Preliminary report on geology and underground water resources of the central Great Plains: U.S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 32, p. 1-433.

Fishel, V. C., 1948, Ground-water resources of Republic County and northern Cloud County, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 73, p. 1-194.

Fishel, V. C., and Leonard, A. R., 1955, Geology and ground-water resources of Jewell County, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 115, p, 1-152. [available online]

Franks, P. C., 1966, Petrology and stratigraphy of the Kiowa and Dakota formations (basal Cretaceous), north-central Kansas: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Geol., Univ. Kansas, v. 1, 218 p., v. 2, plates.

Furness, L. W., 1959, Kansas streamflow characteristics, part 1, flow duration: State of Kansas Water Resources Board Tech. Rept. no. 1, p. 1-213.

Hatten, D. E., 1962, Stratigraphy of the Carlile Shale (Upper Cretaceous) in Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 156, p. 1-155. [available online]

Haworth, Erasmus, 1913, Special report on well waters in Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 1, p. 1-103.

Jewett, J. M., 1959, Graphic column and classification of rocks in Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, chart, 1 sheet.

Kansas Water Resources Board, 1961, Preliminary appraisal of Kansas water problems, sec. 9 Lower Republican Unit: Kansas Water Resources Board, State Water Plan Studies, pt. A, p. 1-99.

Logan, W. N., 1897, The upper Cretaceous of Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, v. 2, p. 199-234, fig. 10-11, pl. 28-34.

Moore, R. C., Lohman, S. W., Frye, J. C., Waite, H. A., McLaughlin, T. G., and Latta, Bruce, 1940, Groundwater resources of Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 27, p. 1-112.

Plummer, Norman, and Romary, J. F., 1942, Stratigraphy of the pre-Greenhorn Cretaceous beds of Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 41, pt. 9, p. 313-348. [available online]

Schoewe, W. H., 1952, Coal resources of the Cretaceous System (Dakota Formation) in central Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 96, pt. 2, p. 69-156. [available online]

Theis, C. V., 1935, The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface and the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-water storage: Am. Geophys, Union Trans., v. 16, pt. 2, p. 519-524.

Theis, C. V., 1941, The effect of a well on the flow of a nearby stream: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 22, pt. 3, p. 734-738.

Wing, M. E., 1930, The Geology of Cloud and Republic Counties, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 15, p. 1-49. [available online]


Kansas Geological Survey
Placed on web March 26, 2013; originally published in April 1968.
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