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Kansas Geological Survey, PIC 11--Kansas Springs, Part 5 of 5
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Bailey, E. H. S., 1902, Special Report on Mineral Waters, v. 7: University Geological Survey of Kansas, 343 p.

Bouwer, H., 1978, Groundwater Hydrology: New York, McGraw-Hill, 480 p.

Buchanan, R., Sawin, R., and Lebsack, W., 2000, Water of the Most Excellent Kind--Historic Springs in Kansas: Kansas History, v. 23, p. 128-141.

Chapelle, F. H., 1997, The Hidden Sea--Ground Water, Springs, and Wells: Tucson, Arizona, Geoscience Press, 237 p.

Domer, D., 1996, Water in Willow Springs Township: Kansas History, v. 19, no. 1, p. 64-80.

Ferrington, L. C. Jr., Kavanaugh, R. G., Schmidt, F. J., and Kavanaugh, J. L., 1995, Habitat Separation among Chironomidae (Diptera) in Big Springs: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, v. 68, no. 2, p. 152-165.

Goodin, D. G., Mitchell, J. E., Knapp, M. C., and Bivens, R. E., 1995, Climate and Weather Atlas of Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Educational Series 12, 24 p.

Gress, B. and Potts, G., 1993, Watching Kansas Wildlife--A Guide to 101 Sites: Lawrence, University Press of Kansas, 104 p.

Meinzer, O. E., 1923, Outline of Ground-water Hydrology, with Definitions: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper, no. 494, p. 48-59. [available online]

Schoewe, W., 1949, The Geography of Kansas--Part II, Physical Geography: Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, v. 52, no. 3, p. 261-333.

Schoewe, W., 1953, The Geography of Kansas--Part III, Hydrogeography: Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, v. 56, no. 2, p. 131-147, 187-190.

Webb, D. W., Wetzel, M. J., Phillipee, L. R., Reed, P. C., and Young, T. C., 1997, Illinois Springs: Illinois Natural History Reports, no. 345, p. 2-3.


Aquifer: A geologic formation capable of holding and yielding significant amounts of ground water.

Artesian aquifer: An aquifer in which ground water is confined under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric pressure. This pressure, called artesian pressure, is generally due to the weight of water at higher levels in the same zone and is sufficient to cause water to rise above the level of the aquifer in a well or natural fissure. An artesian aquifer is bounded above and below by confining beds of less permeable rock. Syn: confined aquifer.

Contact: A plane or surface between two different types, or ages, of rock.

Contact spring: A type of gravity spring whose water flows to the land surface from permeable rocks that are underlain by less permeable rocks, preventing the downward movement of water.

Ground water: Underground water that is generally found in the pore space of rocks or sediments.

Permeable: Permeability is a measure of the ease with which a fluid will move through a porous material (e.g., sand and gravel or rock). A geologic unit is permeable if ground water moves easily through it.

Seep: A discharge of water that "oozes out of the soil or rock over a certain area without distinct trickles or rivulets" (Bouwer, 1978).

Spring: A place where ground water flows naturally from the earth into a body of surface water or onto the land surface, at a rate sufficient to form a current.

Surface water: Water found at the earth's surface, usually in streams or lakes.

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Kansas Geological Survey, Public Outreach
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Web version October 1998