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Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 2008-9


Methodology and Data Used to Construct the Surficial Geology (M-119A) and Water-bearing Units (M-119B) Maps of the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Chase County, Kansas

by Robert S. Sawin
KGS Open-file Report 2008-9

Introduction

A better understanding of the geology and water resources of the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve is critical to long-term management of the preserve's natural resources. The first phase (springs inventory) of a two-part study designed to characterize the geology and water resources on the preserve was completed by the Kansas Geological Survey in 2001 (Sawin and Buchanan, 2001). The second phase--construction of a detailed geologic map and characterization of the hydrogeologic setting--required the gathering of surficial geologic data and mapping from aerial imagery. The geologic map (Sawin, 2008), combined with the springs data, has been used to delineate the preserve's water-bearing rock units (Sawin and Buchanan, 2008).

The geologic map, hydrogeologic map, and supporting data provide the National Park Service and The Nature Conservancy with basic, benchmark information about the nature of the preserve's geology and water resources. Because the preserve's land-use patterns (such as burning regimes, grazing, and human visitation) are changing, and will continue to change in the future, it is important to have these baseline data on the geology and hydrogeologic setting. In addition, geologic and water-resource knowledge gained at the preserve will be useful to resource managers, researchers, and others at the preserve and throughout the Flint Hills region.

Methods

Field work for the geologic map involved systematically locating outcrops by walking each drainage or investigating known outcrops or exposures that were evident on aerial imagery. In most cases, only outcrops where the contact between mappable units could be recognized were recorded. These localities are referred to as control points (hence the CP designation before each number) because they function as "ground truth" for the mapping that was done on the aerial imagery. Each control point was recorded electronically on a WalkAbout Hammerhead XRT Tablet PC with built-in GPS (global positioning system). The tablet PC utilizes ArcGIS 9 ArcMap software by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) and contains the following data sets:

Other attributes (e.g., geologic contact) were also recorded electronically (see Table 1). In addition, the outcrop and other related details were digitally photographed, and if warranted, the section was measured and described.

The electronic data collected in the field were transferred to a desktop PC that was loaded with the same software and layers as on the tablet PC. Using ArcMap, the geologic contacts were digitally drawn on the 2006 NAIP color imagery (other layers were utilized where appropriate) at scales ranging from 1:2,000 to 1:5,000 (most units were mapped at 1:3,000 or 1:3,500), depending on what scale best characterized the contact. Along with the aerial imagery and topographic map, field data, photographs, and measured sections were incorporated into the geologic interpretation.

Surficial Geology Map

The surficial geology map (Sawin, 2008) graphically shows the distribution, rock type, and age of bedrock near the earth's surface. It can be used to identify surface and subsurface lithologic units and their stratigraphic relationships, show geologic structures, delineate thick surficial materials such as alluvium, and show the spatial orientation of these features. As planning, development, and renovation continue at the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, basic geologic information about the near-surface bedrock geology at specific sites will be important. The geologic map will be useful in construction and engineering projects, in understanding ground-water characteristics, and for environmental assessments. Understanding the near-surface geology and incorporating geologic evaluations into the planning process can help prevent future construction, resource, and environmental problems.

Included with the map is a stratigraphic rock column that depicts the vertical sequence, thickness, and lithologies of the geologic units. A short, generalized description of each geologic unit is also included. East-west and north-south cross sections show the vertical relationship of the rock units.

Hydrogeologic Map

The preserve is underlain by alternating layers of limestone and mudstone. Precipitation infiltrates the subsurface and gravity moves the water downward. Fractures in the limestones, which have been widened by flowing water, are conduits for the subsurface movement of water. The mudstones are less permeable and separate the water-bearing limestones; however, the mudstones are fractured enough to allow very slow downward movement of water from one limestone to the next. Where the water-bearing limestones intersect the land surface, the water in the limestones can discharge onto the land surface as springs or seeps. These springs are classified as contact springs, the most common type of spring at the preserve and in the Flint Hills (Buchanan, Sawin, and Lebsack, 1998; Sawin, Buchanan, and Lebsack, 1999).

Delineation of water-bearing limestones associated with springs at the preserve can be generally determined by combining information from topographic and geologic maps. By superimposing the rock unit onto a topographic map, the areal boundaries (defined by the intersection of the rock outcrop with the land surface) of the water-bearing units (Sawin and Buchanan, 2008) have been determined. The distribution and occurrence of springs at the preserve were used to identify the water-bearing limestones (Sawin and Buchanan, 2001; Table 2).

Interactive Map

The geologic and hydrogeologic information that was generated in this study has been displayed as an interactive map of the geologic and water-bearing units within the preserve. The interactive map will be served over the Internet using ESRI's ArcIMS software.

A user-friendly interface has been developed to allow the user to click on a geologic unit and retrieve the name, lithology, description, and hydrogeologic characteristics of that unit. By clicking on a geologic control point or spring location, information about the outcrop (photos, measured sections, etc.) or spring (flow, chemical analysis, etc.) will be displayed.

The interactive map is a server-side application and thus will not require the user to have a high-speed Internet connection, a robust computer, or to acquire special software to make use of the application. Both the tabular and geospatial databases will be made available for download from the interactive-map web site.

The interactive-map web site is available at http://geoportal.kgs.ku.edu/tallgrass.

Digital Maps and Data

Digital versions of the hard-copy cartographic maps have been produced using ESRI's ArcGIS software. A CD has been created for the National Park Service that contains the geologic maps and supporting geospatial databases. ArcReader, which can be thought of as the Adobe Acrobat Reader for maps, allows the user to navigate through the map (pan, zoom-in, zoom-out), identify map features, toggle on/off the display of geospatial data layers, and print selected maps.

References

Buchanan, R., Sawin, R., and Lebsack, W., 1998, Kansas springs: Kansas Geological Survey, Public Information Circular 11, 4 p.

Sawin, R. S., 2008, Surficial geology of the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Chase County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Map M-119A, scale 1:12,000.

Sawin, R. S., and Buchanan, R. C., 2008, Water-bearing units of the Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Chase County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Map M-119B, scale 1:12,000.

Sawin, R., and Buchanan, R., 2001, Springs inventory--Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Chase County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 2001-40 (Revised July 2008), 17 p.

Sawin, R., and Buchanan, R., 2000, Water quality of selected springs--Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Chase County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 2000-01 (Revised July 2008), 31 p. [available online]

Sawin, R.S., Buchanan, R.C., and Lebsack, W., 1999, Flint Hills springs: Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, v. 102, no. 1-2, p. 1-31.

Table 1. Geologic Control Points. B/ = base, T/ = top.

Control Pt. Lat. (GPS) Long. (GPS) Contact Graphic Joints Strike & Dip
Core 1 38.43577 -96.56198 Threemile (surface) Core/Logs    
Core 2 38.43271 -96.55838 Easly Ck (surface) Core/Logs    
CP 1 38.43294 -96.56021 B/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 2 38.43329 -96.56061 B/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 3 38.43342 -96.55826 T/Easly Ck ls      
CP 4 38.43365 -96.55865 B/Crouse      
CP 5 38.43364 -96.55797 B/Easly Ck ls      
CP 6 38.43372 -96.55821 B/Crouse      
CP 7 38.43373 -96.55838 B/Crouse      
CP 8 38.43422 -96.55794 B/Crouse      
CP 9 38.43435 -96.55843 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 10 38.43461 -96.55870 Funston      
CP 11 38.43465 -96.55709 T/Eiss      
CP 12 38.43634 -96.55716 T/Morrill      
CP 13 38.43729 -96.55737 T/Cottonwood Meas Sect    
CP 14 38.43840 -96.55722 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 15 38.43897 -96.56205 T/Eiss      
CP 16 38.43913 -96.55841 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 17 38.43947 -96.55709 T/Eiss Meas Sect    
CP 18 38.43954 -96.55922 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 19 38.44071 -96.56222 T/Morrill      
CP 20 38.44084 -96.55956 T/Eiss      
CP 21 38.44092 -96.55715 T/Middleburg Meas Sect    
CP 22 38.44113 -96.55745 B/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 23 38.42629 -96.55671 T/Morrill Meas Sect N50°E  
CP 24 38.42913 -96.56052 T/Eiss      
CP 25 38.42961 -96.56504 B/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect N77°E  
CP 26 38.42986 -96.56762 B/Crouse Meas Sect N40°E  
CP 26a 38.43028 -96.56708 T/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 26b 38.42938 -96.56856 Upper Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 27 38.43159 -96.56899 T/Crouse      
CP 28 38.41710 -96.56155 T/Eiss      
CP 29 38.41117 -96.55759 B/Easly Ck ls      
CP 30 38.41234 -96.55777 T/Eiss      
CP 31 38.41256 -96.55883 T/Middleburg      
CP 32 38.41297 -96.56050 B/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect N53°E  
CP 33 38.40871 -96.55999 Funston Quarry      
CP 34 38.41080 -96.55936 Funston Quarry      
CP 35 38.41051 -96.55937 Funston Quarry      
CP 36 38.40786 -96.55748 B/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 37 38.40770 -96.57683 B/Easly Ck ls   N50°E  
CP 38 38.40908 -96.57342 B/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 39 38.41661 -96.58282 B/Easly Ck ls   N85°E  
CP 40 38.41477 -96.58506 B/Easly Ck ls      
CP 41 38.41700 -96.58883 B/Funston Meas Sect N33°E  
CP 42 38.41859 -96.59528 B/Threemile      
CP 43 38.41490 -96.59734 B/Threemile Meas Sect    
CP 44 38.40789 -96.58720 T/Eiss      
CP 45 38.41091 -96.58608 T/Eiss Meas Sect    
CP 46 38.41176 -96.58311 B/Easly Ck ls      
CP 47 38.41072 -96.59177 B/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 47a 38.41192 -96.59277 T/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 48 38.41257 -96.59334 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 49 38.41393 -96.58976 B/Funston      
CP 50 38.42320 -96.58564 B/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 51 38.42583 -96.58554 B/Crouse   N50°E  
CP 52 38.42733 -96.59739 Threemile   N52°E  
CP 53a 38.42768 -96.58653 B/Funston Meas Sect N40°E  
CP 53b 38.42815 -96.58846 Funston Meas Sect    
CP 54 38.42632 -96.58840 B/Funston   N50°E  
CP 55 38.42206 -96.57872 Crouse      
CP 56 38.43424 -96.58985 Threemile      
CP 57 38.44715 -96.59450 B/Threemile      
CP 58 38.44359 -96.59387 B/Threemile      
CP 59 38.44213 -96.59444 B/Threemile      
CP 60 38.44162 -96.59568 Funston      
CP 61 38.43697 -96.59722 B/Threemile      
CP 62 38.44757 -96.56392 B/Crouse      
CP 63 38.44508 -96.56447 T/Middleburg      
CP 64 38.44505 -96.56826 T/Middleburg      
CP 65 38.44624 -96.56870 B/Crouse      
CP 66 38.45031 -96.56850 Funston      
CP 67a 38.44873 -96.57514 T/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 67b 38.44931 -96.57571 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 67c 38.44994 -96.57653 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 68 38.44636 -96.57390 B/Crouse      
CP 69 38.44351 -96.57479 B/Crouse Meas Sect N53°E N18°E, 5°E
CP 70 38.44356 -96.56797 T/Eiss Meas Sect    
CP 71 38.44092 -96.56674 T/Eiss Meas Sect    
CP 72 38.43933 -96.58075 Schroyer      
CP 73 38.45257 -96.59357 T/Threemile      
CP 74 38.45353 -96.59356 B/Schroyer      
CP 75 38.45530 -96.59522 Kinney     N82°W,11°N
CP 76 38.45600 -96.59360 T/Schroyer      
CP 77 38.45850 -96.59138 T/Kinney      
CP 78 38.45568 -96.59137 Kinney      
CP 79 38.44991 -96.58645 T/Kinney      
CP 80 38.44998 -96.58377 T/Threemile      
CP 81 38.45005 -96.58168 B/Threemile      
CP 82 38.45087 -96.57954 Funston      
CP 83 38.45845 -96.58587 T/Threemile Meas Sect    
CP 84 38.45928 -96.58808 Kinney      
CP 85 38.45907 -96.58177 B/Threemile      
CP 86 38.45941 -96.57958 Funston      
CP 87 38.46037 -96.57655 Funston Meas Sect    
CP 88 38.46021 -96.57531 T/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 89 38.45876 -96.57835 B/Threemile      
CP 90 38.45833 -96.57761 Funston      
CP 91 38.46202 -96.57345 B/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 92 38.46217 -96.57107 B/Middleburg Meas Sect    
CP 93 38.46220 -96.56365 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 94 38.46087 -96.55955 B/Morrill      
CP 95 38.45593 -96.56486 Middleburg      
CP 96 38.45582 -96.56692 Crouse      
CP 97 38.46085 -96.56655 T/Eiss      
CP 98 38.46597 -96.58935 T/Threemile      
CP 99 38.46526 -96.58518 B/Threemile      
CP 100 38.46250 -96.57647 B/Crouse Meas Sect N55°E  
CP 101 38.46437 -96.57060 B/Eiss      
CP 102 38.46427 -96.57189 T/Eiss Meas Sect   N35°W, 2°S
CP 103 38.46756 -96.57363 B/Easly Ck ls      
CP 104 38.46728 -96.57686 B/Easly Ck ls   N34°E  
CP 105 38.46904 -96.57743 B/Crouse      
CP 106 38.46842 -96.57971 T/Crouse      
CP 107 38.46910 -96.58152 B/Funston      
CP 108 38.46985 -96.58815 B/Threemile      
CP 109 38.47076 -96.59196 B/Kinney      
CP 110 38.47087 -96.58650 B/Threemile Meas Sect    
CP 111 38.47279 -96.58826 T/Threemile Meas Sect    
CP 112 38.47379 -96.58896 Schroyer Meas Sect    
CP 113 38.47446 -96.58958 Schroyer      
CP 114 38.47671 -96.59047 B/Kinney Meas Sect    
CP 115 38.47745 -96.59024 T/Kinney Meas Sect    
CP 116 38.46791 -96.59438 T/Kinney Meas Sect    
CP 117 38.46099 -96.59694 Kinney   N55°E  
CP 118 38.46158 -96.59303 B/Kinney      
CP 119 38.47102 -96.57842 T/Crouse      
CP 120 38.47340 -96.57905 B/Funston      
CP 121 38.47752 -96.58331 B/Threemile      
CP 122 38.47841 -96.58479 T/Threemile      
CP 123 38.47635 -96.57985 B/Threemile      
CP 124 38.47469 -96.57203 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 125 38.47371 -96.57148 T/Crouse      
CP 126 38.47281 -96.56988 T/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 127 38.47234 -96.56861 T/Middleburg      
CP 128 38.47218 -96.56755 T/Eiss      
CP 129 38.47714 -96.56927 B/Crouse      
CP 130 38.48300 -96.57237 B/Crouse      
CP 131 38.48190 -96.57224 T/Crouse      
CP 132 38.47996 -96.57334 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 133 38.48184 -96.57749 T/Funston      
CP 134 38.48169 -96.57979 B/Threemile      
CP 135 38.48881 -96.56846 T/Crouse      
CP 136 38.48903 -96.57870 B/Crouse      
CP 137 38.48736 -96.58450 T/Funston      
CP 138 38.49126 -96.58336 T/Funston      
CP 139 38.49046 -96.59136 B/Threemile      
CP 140 38.48797 -96.59130 B/Threemile      
CP 141 38.48599 -96.59159 B/Threemile      
CP 142 38.48433 -96.59105 B/Threemile      
CP 143 38.48292 -96.58928 T/Threemile      
CP 144 38.48135 -96.58851 T/Schroyer      
CP 145 38.48001 -96.58815 B/Kinney      
CP 146 38.47964 -96.59095 Blue Sp      
CP 147 38.49587 -96.56833 B/Funston      
CP 148 38.48997 -96.57379 T/Funston      
CP 149 38.49157 -96.56805 B/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 150 38.49159 -96.57814 B/Funston      
CP 151 38.49267 -96.58042 Funston      
CP 152 38.49236 -96.58480 Funston      
CP 153 38.49193 -96.59519 B/Threemile      
CP 154 38.49293 -96.59431 B/Threemile      
CP 155 38.49187 -96.59746 B/Threemile      
CP 156 38.49432 -96.58355 B/Threemile      
CP 157 38.43694 -96.54820 T/Morrill      
CP 158 38.43603 -96.54839 B/Cottonwood      
CP 159 38.43586 -96.55503 B/Cottonwood      
CP 160 38.43735 -96.55419 B/Cottonwood Meas Sect    
CP 161 38.41787 -96.55603 B/Morrill      
CP 162 38.41641 -96.55148 Cottonwood      
CP 163 38.41349 -96.55638 T/Eiss      
CP 164 38.40684 -96.55616 T/Eiss      
CP 165 38.40678 -96.55416 T/Eiss      
CP 166a 38.40848 -96.55385 T/Cottonwood Meas Sect    
CP 166b 38.40763 -96.55467 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 167 38.40222 -96.55194 T/Cottonwood      
CP 168 38.40226 -96.55282 Morrill      
CP 169 38.40307 -96.55423 T/Eiss      
CP 170 38.40033 -96.55973 B/Cottonwood      
CP 171 38.39879 -96.55124 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 172 38.40065 -96.54092 T/Cottonwood      
CP 173 38.40257 -96.54366 T/Cottonwood      
CP 174 38.40255 -96.54266 T/Morrill      
CP 175 38.41132 -96.54260 T/Morrill   N43°E  
CP 176 38.41550 -96.54708 T/Eiss Meas Sect    
CP 177 38.41534 -96.54811 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 178 38.41450 -96.54351 T/Easly Ck ls      
CP 179 38.41289 -96.54248 T/Eiss      
CP 180 38.40245 -96.53922 T/Morrill      
CP 181 38.40955 -96.54116 T/Eiss      
CP 182 38.41667 -96.53872 B/Crouse      
CP 183 38.42310 -96.53915 B/Crouse      
CP 184 38.42185 -96.54180 B/Middleburg Meas Sect    
CP 185 38.41976 -96.53913 B/Threemile      
CP 186 38.42203 -96.54424 T/Eiss      
CP 187 38.42098 -96.54481 T/Morrill      
CP 188 38.41953 -96.54435 T/Middleburg      
CP 189 38.41969 -96.54601 T/Morrill      
CP 190 38.41971 -96.54637 T/Cottonwood      
CP 191 38.41914 -96.54715 T/Cottonwood      
CP 192 38.40466 -96.53924 T/Eiss      
CP 193 38.40375 -96.53925 B/Eiss      
CP 194 38.43711 -96.54720 T/Eiss      
CP 195 38.43892 -96.53935 B/Threemile (est)      
CP 196 38.43837 -96.54431 B/Crouse (est)      
CP 197 38.43871 -96.54566 T/Middleburg      
CP 198 38.42400 -96.54832 T/Cottonwood      
CP 199 38.42667 -96.54846 T/Eiss      
CP 200 38.42780 -96.54789 T/Morrill Meas Sect    
CP 201 38.42824 -96.54791 T/Cottonwood Meas Sect    
CP 202 38.42846 -96.54649 T/Morrill      
CP 203 38.42728 -96.54487 T/Eiss      
CP 204 38.42703 -96.54330 B/Crouse      
CP 205 38.42880 -96.53985 B/Crouse      
CP 206 38.42953 -96.53941 T/Middleburg      
CP 207 38.43290 -96.53922 T/Eiss      
CP 208 38.43128 -96.54367 T/Morrill      
CP 209 38.42994 -96.54766 T/Cottonwood      
CP 210 38.43174 -96.54920 B/Cottonwood      
CP 211 38.40735 -96.53919 B/Easly Ck ls      
CP 212 38.40658 -96.53387 Easly Ck ls      
CP 213 38.40807 -96.53407 B/Crouse      
CP 214 38.40857 -96.53426 T/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 215 38.41021 -96.53373 Upper Funston      
CP 216 38.41082 -96.53320 B/Threemile      
CP 217 38.40799 -96.53124 T/Crouse      
CP 218 38.40705 -96.53119 B/Crouse      
CP 219 38.40665 -96.53165 Easly Ck ls   N75°W  
CP 220 38.40624 -96.52914 B/Crouse      
CP 221 38.40581 -96.52651 Upper Funston      
CP 222 38.40762 -96.52753 B/Funston      
CP 223 38.41001 -96.52370 B/Schroyer      
CP 224 38.41313 -96.52984 B/Funston      
CP 225 38.41391 -96.53071 B/Crouse      
CP 226 38.41333 -96.53440 B/Crouse      
CP 227 38.41328 -96.53648 T/Eiss      
CP 228 38.41440 -96.53525 B/Middleburg      
CP 229 38.41571 -96.53321 B/Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 230 38.41674 -96.53165 Easly Ck ls      
CP 231 38.41739 -96.53127 B/Crouse      
CP 232 38.41860 -96.52988 T/Crouse      
CP 233 38.41963 -96.53005 B/Funston      
CP 234 38.41653 -96.53548 B/Crouse      
CP 235 38.41514 -96.53464 T/Middleburg      
CP 236 38.41417 -96.52461 B/Threemile (est)      
CP 237 38.41479 -96.52435 T/Threemile (est)      
CP 238 38.41519 -96.52429 B/Schroyer (est)      
CP 239 38.41531 -96.52341 T/Schroyer      
CP 240 38.41376 -96.52620 T/Funston (est)      
CP 241 38.41481 -96.52987 B/Funston      
CP 242 38.41759 -96.52688 B/Threemile (est)      
CP 243 38.42067 -96.51054 B/Crouse      
CP 244 38.42052 -96.50865 T/Middleburg Meas Sect    
CP 245 38.41798 -96.50576 T/Eiss      
CP 246 38.41777 -96.50643 T/Middleburg      
CP 247 38.41197 -96.50606 B/Middleburg      
CP 248 38.41430 -96.50892 B/Crouse      
CP 249 38.41552 -96.51073 B/Funston      
CP 250 38.41190 -96.50898 Easly Ck ls Meas Sect    
CP 251 38.41160 -96.51058 B/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 252 38.41112 -96.51103 T/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 253 38.41020 -96.51134 B/Funston      
CP 254 38.41198 -96.51385 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 255 38.41442 -96.51414 B/Funston      
CP 256 38.41520 -96.51424 Near T/ Funston      
CP 257 38.41548 -96.51723 Near T/Funston      
CP 258 38.41667 -96.51927 B/Threemile      
CP 259 38.41165 -96.51802 Near T/Funston      
CP 260 38.41220 -96.52012 B/Threemile      
CP 261 38.41035 -96.50687 B/Crouse      
CP 262 38.40951 -96.50592 u. Funston      
CP 263 38.40683 -96.52199 Near T/Funston      
CP 264 38.40768 -96.51758 B/Funston      
CP 265 38.40886 -96.51878 B/Threemile      
CP 266 38.40888 -96.51656 T/Funston      
CP 267 38.40803 -96.51540 B/Funston      
CP 268a 38.39977 -96.52364 B/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 268b 38.39939 -96.52503 T/Funston Meas Sect    
CP 269 38.40712 -96.50310 B/Crouse      
CP 270 38.40744 -96.50476 B/Funston      
CP 271 38.42017 -96.50225 B/Crouse      
CP 272 38.41900 -96.50224 T/Middleburg      
CP 273 38.41835 -96.50228 T/Eiss      
CP 274 38.41175 -96.50226 B/Crouse Meas Sect    
CP 275 38.41032 -96.55746 B/Crouse      
USGS BM 38.43731 -96.55707 Box culvert      

Table 2. Spring Data (from Sawin and Buchanan, 2001). Spring numbers in ( ) are from Sawin and Buchanan, 2000. Data was collected in April 2001.

Spring No. Lat. (GPS) Long. (GPS) Est. Flow Geologic Unit Misc
1-1 38.49592 -96.56844 5 Funston  
1-2 38.49353 -96.57417 <1 Funston  
1-3 38.49375 -96.57684 4 Funston  
1-4 38.49470 -96.57671 2 Threemile  
1-5 38.49533 -96.57724 2 Threemile  
1-6 38.49563 -96.57728 2 Threemile  
1-7 38.48694 -96.58694 <1 Threemile  
1-8 38.48763 -96.58451 <1 Funston  
1-9 38.48939 -96.57813 <1 Crouse  
1-10 38.48944 -96.57617 1 Funston  
1-11 38.48937 -96.56897 1 Funston  
1-12 38.48822 -96.57022 1 Funston  
1-13 38.48451 -96.58178 <1 Funston  
1-14 38.48421 -96.58268 5 Funston  
1-15 38.48333 -96.58329 1 Threemile  
1-16 38.48613 -96.59304 1 Threemile  
1-17 38.48490 -96.59174 2 Threemile  
1-18 38.49408 -96.59376 25 Threemile  
1-19 38.49593 -96.59532 3 Threemile  
1-20 38.49530 -96.58692 10 Threemile  
1-21 38.49187 -96.59001 2 Funston  
2-1 38.48362 -96.57487 <1 Funston  
2-2 38.47724 -96.56919 <1 Crouse  
2-3 38.47246 -96.56893 15 Easly Ck  
2-4 38.47241 -96.57051 10 Crouse  
2-5 38.47282 -96.57238 <1 Funston  
2-6 38.47326 -96.57340 <1 Funston  
2-7 38.47567 -96.57272 1 Funston  
2-8 38.47546 -96.57381 3 Funston  
2-9 38.48151 -96.57676 3 Funston  
3-1 38.47750 -96.58322 3 Threemile  
3-2 38.46958 -96.57664 2 Funston  
3-3 38.46872 -96.57728 3 Easly Ck  
3-4 38.47060 -96.58290 1 Funston  
3-5 38.47386 -96.58902 2 Threemile  
3-6 38.47071 -96.58864 2 Threemile  
3-7 38.46862 -96.58372 <1 Funston  
3-8 38.46504 -96.57301 1 Middleburg  
3-9 38.46282 -96.57688 2 Crouse  
3-10 38.46468 -96.58656 <1 Threemile  
3-11 38.45914 -96.58181 2 Threemile  
3-12 38.45958 -96.57911 5 Funston  
3-13 38.45694 -96.57997 5 Threemile  
3-14 38.46363 -96.56648 3 Eiss  
3-15 38.46103 -96.56637 1 Eiss  
3-16 38.45945 -96.56729 2 Crouse  
3-17 38.45800 -96.57670 <1 Threemile  
3-18 38.47427 -96.57930 7 Funston  
4-1 38.46345 -96.59527 <1 Wymore  
5-1 38.43699 -96.59535 <1 Threemile  
5-2 38.43535 -96.59683 2 Threemile  
5-3 38.43693 -96.59718 1 Threemile  
5-4 38.44226 -96.59269 <1 Threemile  
5-5 38.44257 -96.58823 <1 Schroyer  
5-6 38.44366 -96.59023 2 Threemile  
5-7 38.44498 -96.59341 <1 Threemile  
5-8 38.44840 -96.59322 <1 Threemile  
5-9 38.45159 -96.59350 <1 Threemile  
5-10 38.45827 -96.59153 <1 Kinney  
5-11 38.43103 -96.59573 1 Threemile  
5-12 38.43080 -96.59670 1 Threemile  
5-13 38.42730 -96.59754 <1 Threemile  
6-1 (CS-F) 38.44256 -96.56775 20 Eiss Developed
6-2 38.44101 -96.57104 <1 Crouse  
6-3 38.44141 -96.57111 2 Crouse  
6-4 38.44111 -96.57351 1 Funston  
6-5 38.43922 -96.57171 2 Funston  
6-6 38.45254 -96.58061 <1 Threemile  
6-7 38.45119 -96.58043 1 Funston  
6-8 38.45107 -96.57970 10 Funston  
6-9 38.45015 -96.58174 1 Threemile  
6-10 38.44969 -96.58427 1 Schroyer  
6-11 38.45515 -96.58647 <1 Wymore  
6-12 38.45405 -96.58493 <1 Schroyer  
6-13 38.45208 -96.58165 3 Threemile  
6-14 38.45095 -96.57811 <1 Funston  
6-15 38.44685 -96.58347 <1 Schroyer  
6-16 38.44522 -96.58210 2 Threemile  
6-17 38.44468 -96.58209 1 Threemile  
6-18 38.44426 -96.58007 4 Funston  
6-19 38.44128 -96.57746 1 Funston  
6-20 38.44101 -96.57855 <1 Threemile  
6-21 38.43938 -96.58066 <1 Schroyer  
6-22 38.44448 -96.57325 2 Easly Ck  
6-23 38.44393 -96.57369 20 Easly Ck  
6-24 38.44781 -96.57548 25 Crouse Developed
6-25 38.45047 -96.57318 2 Funston  
6-26 38.45114 -96.57017 <1 Funston  
6-27 38.45099 -96.56781 <1 Funston  
6-28 38.44059 -96.56565 <1 Eiss  
6-29 38.44171 -96.56071 <1 Eiss  
7-1 38.45592 -96.56843 <1 Funston  
7-2 38.45435 -96.56332 1 Eiss  
7-3 38.45443 -96.56753 1 Funston  
7-4 38.43785 -96.55435 <1 Cottonwood  
8-1 38.41239 -96.58337 <1 Easly Ck  
8-2 38.41375 -96.58138 2 Crouse Developed
8-3 38.42562 -96.57697 <1 Funston  
8-4 38.42626 -96.58315 <1 Crouse  
8-5 38.42700 -96.58311 <1 Crouse  
8-6 38.42919 -96.58154 <1 Funston  
8-7 38.43316 -96.57993 <1 Threemile  
8-8 38.43396 -96.58025 <1 Threemile  
8-9 38.41880 -96.58626 <1 Crouse  
8-10 38.42197 -96.58896 <1 Funston  
8-11 38.41886 -96.59137 <1 Funston  
8-12 38.42218 -96.59462 <1 Threemile  
8-13 38.41846 -96.59503 <1 Threemile  
8-14 38.41803 -96.59232 1 Funston  
8-15 38.41276 -96.58818 2 Easly Ck  
8-16 38.41460 -96.59145 1 Funston  
8-17 38.41481 -96.59713 1 Threemile  
8-18 38.41074 -96.58803 <1 Middleburg  
8-19 38.43658 -96.58641 <1 Schroyer  
8-20 38.43699 -96.58782 <1 Schroyer  
8-21 (CS-A) 38.42314 -96.58554 100 Easly Ck Red House (developed)
8-22 38.43505 -96.58891 <1 Threemile  
8-23 38.43210 -96.59140 <1 Threemile  
8-24 38.43375 -96.59296 <1 Schroyer  
8-25 38.42807 -96.59324 <1 Schroyer  
8-26 38.42691 -96.59211 2 Threemile  
8-27 38.43018 -96.58688 2 Funston  
8-28 38.42543 -96.58569 2 Easly Ck  
8-29 (CS-C) 38.41365 -96.57946 <1 Threemile  
8-30 (CS-B) 38.41796 -96.57846 10 Funston Developed
8-31 (CS-G) 38.41478 -96.58501 5 Easly Ck Developed
9-1 38.43014 -96.57487 <1 Threemile  
9-2 38.42912 -96.57263 1 Funston  
9-3 38.42848 -96.56739 <1 Crouse  
9-4 38.42691 -96.56880 <1 Funston  
9-5 38.42810 -96.57039 <1 Funston  
9-6 38.43057 -96.56124 <1 Eiss  
9-7 38.42969 -96.56059 10 Eiss  
9-8 38.42946 -96.56311 2 Middleburg  
9-9 38.42909 -96.56393 2 Middleburg  
9-10 38.43108 -96.56796 2 Crouse  
9-11 38.43163 -96.57199 1 Funston  
9-12 38.43319 -96.57288 3 Funston  
9-13 38.43421 -96.57259 5 Funston  
9-14 38.43639 -96.56805 1 Funston  
9-15 38.43278 -96.56235 10 Middleburg  
10-1 38.40873 -96.56434 3 Funston  
10-2 38.40818 -96.56149 5 Crouse  
10-3 38.40725 -96.56357 <1 Funston  
10-4 38.40662 -96.56106 6 Crouse  
10-5 38.40740 -96.55868 <1 Middleburg  
10-6 38.41240 -96.55906 <1 Middleburg  
10-7 38.41179 -96.55973 <1 Easly Ck  
10-8 38.41296 -96.56134 15 Eiss  
10-9 38.41219 -96.56441 1 Funston  
10-10 38.41729 -96.56689 1 Crouse  
10-11 38.41561 -96.56720 <1 Funston  
10-12 38.41662 -96.56575 2 Crouse  
10-13 38.41667 -96.56595 1 Crouse  
10-14 38.41831 -96.55981 <1 Eiss  
10-15 38.41788 -96.56715 17 Crouse  
10-16 38.42215 -96.56896 <1 Funston  
10-17 38.42276 -96.56926 2 Funston  
10-18 38.42157 -96.57163 5 Funston  
10-19 38.42065 -96.57121 <1 Funston  
10-20 38.40900 -96.55508 1 Eiss  
11-1 38.43599 -96.54855 2 Cottonwood  
11-2 38.43657 -96.54461 2 Crouse  
11-3 38.43631 -96.54268 1 Funston  
11-4 38.42955 -96.53947 2 Middleburg  
11-5 38.42621 -96.54156 1 Funston  
11-6 38.42647 -96.54315 2 Easly Ck  
11-7 38.42846 -96.54608 4 Eiss  
11-8 38.42867 -96.54622 4 Eiss  
12-1 38.41853 -96.54397 2 Crouse  
12-2 38.41795 -96.54363 1 Funston  
12-3 38.41949 -96.54483 7 Eiss  
12-4 38.42163 -96.54450 15 Eiss  
12-5 38.41976 -96.53937 1 Threemile  
12-6 38.42187 -96.54182 15 Middleburg  
12-7 38.42154 -96.54251 5 Eiss  
12-8 38.42145 -96.54294 3 Eiss  
12-9 38.42117 -96.54334 8 Eiss  
12-10 38.42099 -96.54377 10 Eiss  
13-1 38.40515 -96.54308 2 Eiss  
13-2 38.40979 -96.54337 5 Morrill  
13-3 38.40912 -96.54250 2 Eiss  
13-4 38.40965 -96.54138 2 Eiss  
13-5 38.40857 -96.53979 1 Easly Ck  
13-6 (CS-E) 38.41359 -96.53507 3 Middleburg  
13-7 38.41274 -96.53376 1 Funston  
13-8 38.41298 -96.53076 1 Funston  
13-9 38.41191 -96.52565 1 Threemile  
13-10 38.41434 -96.52440 <1 Threemile  
13-11 38.41376 -96.52907 3 Funston  
13-12(CS-D) 38.41756 -96.52693 15 Threemile Developed
13-13 38.41816 -96.52704 1 Funston  
13-14 38.41939 -96.52796 <1 Funston  
13-15 38.41984 -96.52993 12 Funston  
13-16 38.42036 -96.53036 12 Funston  
13-17 38.41779 -96.53053 1 Crouse  
13-18 38.41629 -96.53265 4 Easly Ck  
13-19 38.41518 -96.53458 1 Middleburg  
13-20 38.41277 -96.54239 <1 Eiss  
13-21 38.41661 -96.53948 1 Crouse  
13-22 38.41662 -96.53883 2 Crouse  
13-23 38.41439 -96.54336 2 Easly Ck  
13-24 38.41491 -96.54573 2 Funston  
13-25 38.41325 -96.54703 10 Eiss  
13-26 38.41706 -96.54789 1 Eiss  
14-1 38.41495 -96.51589 10 Funston  
14-2 38.41546 -96.51711 12 Funston  
14-3 38.41692 -96.51956 1 Threemile  
14-4 38.41871 -96.51343 <1 Funston  
14-5 38.41855 -96.51194 2 Crouse  
14-6 38.41896 -96.51072 <1 Crouse  
14-7 38.42046 -96.51063 <1 Crouse  
14-8 38.42032 -96.50648 10 Eiss  
14-9 38.42032 -96.50566 3 Eiss  
14-10 38.41861 -96.50591 2 Eiss  
14-11 38.41432 -96.50885 <1 Crouse  
14-12 38.41221 -96.51222 11 Easly Ck  
14-13 38.40753 -96.50292 1 Crouse  
14-14 38.40685 -96.50512 1 Funston  
14-15 38.41033 -96.50687 1 Crouse  
15-1 38.40831 -96.51520 1 Funston  
15-2 38.40880 -96.51651 1 Funston  
15-3 38.40769 -96.51757 4 Funston  
15-4 38.40819 -96.52157 1 Threemile  
16-1 38.40694 -96.52596 <1 Funston  
16-2 38.40910 -96.52599 1 Funston  
16-3 38.40925 -96.52445 <1 Threemile  
16-4 38.40859 -96.52804 <1 Funston  
16-5 38.40983 -96.53096 1 Funston  
16-7 38.40708 -96.53391 4 Easly Ck  
16-8 38.40801 -96.52738   Funston  
17-1 38.40642 -96.56863 1 Speiser  
17-2 38.41117 -96.57170 <1 Funston  
17-3 38.41152 -96.57526 <1 Funston  
17-4 38.41389 -96.57374 <1 Funston  
17-5 38.41414 -96.57540 2 Funston  
17-6 38.41054 -96.57743 1 Funston  

Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed online Oct. 3, 2008
Comments to webadmin@kgs.ku.edu
The URL for this page is http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/OFR/2008/OFR08_9/index.html