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Kansas Geological Survey, Irrigation Series 3, originally published in 1977


Water-Resources Reconnaissance of Ness County, West-Central Kansas

by Edward D. Jenkins and Marilyn E. Pabst

Prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Geological Survey

cover of report; gray paper with dark purple text and sketch of windmill

Originally published in 1977 as Kansas Geological Survey Irrigation Series 3. This publication is also available as an Acrobat PDF file (1.5 MB). The plate is available separately.

Executive Summary

The availability of dependable water supplies is becoming increasingly important to the economic growth of predominantly agricultural areas in western Kansas. Because perennial flow in major streams in Ness County has been depleted by pumping, the principal supply of all water uses must be obtained from ground-water sources. Therefore a study of the availability and chemical quality of ground water is of great importance in respect to continued development of municipal, industrial, and irrigation uses.

Alluvium in the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys are the most productive aquifers in Ness County, and the water is of suitable quality for most uses. Extensive development of these water sources, however, probably would impair the rights of current users. The Ogallala Formation yields water of generally suitable quality to supply as much as 250 gallons per minute to wells. This formation could be developed further for municipal, industrial, and irrigation uses. The Dakota Formation, which underlies the county at depths of 100 to 700 feet, is relatively untested. A few stock wells and one irrigation well in the Dakota produce water that is high in sodium and exceeds the recommended limit for dissolved solids in drinking water. More information is needed to evaluate the quantity and quality of water from this potential source.

Summary and Conclusions

Ness County is a 1,080 square-mile area in the eastern edge of the High Plains section of western Kansas. The altitude ranges from about 2,050 to 2,650 feet above sea level. The mean annual precipitation is 21.39 inches. The population in 1975 was 4,653.

Rocks significant as sources of water supply range in age from Early Cretaceous to Pleistocene. The principal aquifers are the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Tertiary (Pliocene) Ogallala Formation, and the Quaternary alluvium. [Note: Definitions of hydrologic terms used in this report are given in the glossary.]

The Dakota Formation is the only productive aquifer that underlies the entire county. One irrigation well (19-23W-1CCB), which was drilled to a depth of 450 feet obtains water from the Dakota aquifer between 350 and 425 feet. This well yields 800 gallons per minute of water with a drawdown of 92 feet after 54 hours pumping. The transmissivity was computed to be 2,800 feet squared per day. Several wells are drilled to the Dakota for stock use. Water from the Dakota is high in sodium and exceeds the concentration limits recommended by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for dissolved solids in drinking water. More studies are needed to test the water-yielding characteristics of the Dakota Formation and its water quality in Ness County.

The Ogallala Formation underlies the northern tier of townships, and some erosional remnants of the formation, about 15 square miles each, extend into the western part of the county. Yields of wells range from 5 to 245 gallons per minute. Seven irrigation wells irrigate 100 acres, and nine public-supply wells furnish water for a population of about 800. The saturated thickness decreases toward areas of outcrop where the formation is being drained of water along its contact with the underlying bedrock. Therefore, areas of greatest saturated thickness and potential yield are likely to be found farthest from the Ogallala outcrop. Isolated channels in the bedrock may provide increased saturated thickness where yields may exceed 245 gallons per minute, but this possibility can be verified only by test drilling. Quality of water in the Ogallala is within the recommended limits for dissolved solids in drinking water and is suitable for most uses. The Ogallala could be developed further for industrial, irrigation, or municipal uses where demands per well are less than 250 gallons per minute and where suitable quality of water is desired.

The Quaternary alluvium of Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys is the most productive aquifer and the least costly for construction of irrigation, industrial, or public-supply wells. The area underlain by the alluvium, however, is small compared to the total area of the county. Maximum yields from wells tapping the alluvium of the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys were measured as 900 and 770 gallons per minute, respectively.

The maximum thickness of the alluvium is about 127 feet in Pawnee River valley. Wells in the alluvium and unconsolidated material in smaller valleys or draws that act as catchment basins generally are adequate for domestic and stock use and yield from 1 to 140 gallons per minute. The water is very hard and slightly exceeds the recommended limit for dissolved solids in drinking water, but is suitable for most uses.

Continuous development of wells and increased pumping along the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys have lowered the water table until the streams no longer maintain base How; however, the stream channels are a source of recharge when precipitation is great enough to cause runoff. A total of about 11,000 acre-feet of ground water was pumped for irrigation and municipal uses in 1975.

Further development of ground water in these valleys for industrial and municipal use is attractive because of the large well yields that are obtainable, but extensive development would impair the rights of current users.

Introduction

This report presents information on the groundwater resources of Ness County. The study was begun in 1974 as part of a cooperative program between the Kansas Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey, with data and support provided by the Division of Water Resources of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture and the Division of Environment of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment.

Purpose of Study

The objective of this project is to describe the general availability and chemical quality of the ground water in Ness County with respect to municipal, industrial, and irrigation use. Increased development of water for irrigation in Ness County depends upon knowledge of the availability and chemical quality of water.

Metric Units

For readers familiar with or interested in the metric system, the English units of measurement given in this report are listed with equivalent metric units using the following abbreviations and conversion factors:

English unit Multiply by Metric unit
Length
inches (in) 2.54 centimeters (cm)
feet (ft) .3048 meters (m)
miles (mi) 1.609 kilometers (km)
Area
acres .4047 square hectometers (hm2)
square miles (mi2) 2.590 square kilometers
(km2)
Volume
gallons (gal) 3.785 liters (L)
acre-feet (acre-ft) 1.233 X 10-3 cubic hectometers
(hm3)
acre-feet (acre-ft) 1233 cubic meters (m3)
barrels
(for petroleum, 42 gal)
.1590 cubic meters (m3)
Flow
gallons per minute
(gal/min)
.06309 liters per second
(L/s)
cubic feet per second
(ft3/s)
.02832 cubic meters per second
(m3/s)
Hydraulic conductivity
feet per day (ft/day) .3048 meters per day
(m/day)
Transmissivity
feet squared per day
(ft2/day)
.0929 meters squared per
day (m2/day)
Specific capacity
gallons per minute per
foot [( gal/min)/ft]
.207 liters per second
per meter [(L/s)/m]

Description of Area

Ness County is located in the fourth tier of counties south of the Kansas-Nebraska border, and is the fifth county east of the Kansas-Colorado border (fig. 1). The bordering counties are Trego and Gove on the north, Lane on the west, Hodgeman on the south, and Hush and Pawnee on the east. The county extends from T. 16 S. through T.20 S. and from R. 21 W. through R. 26 W., and has an area of 1,080 square miles.

Figure 1--Index maps showing area discussed in this report, and other areas for which ground-water reports have been published or are in preparation.

Three Kansas maps showing KGS publications, USGS publications, and current studies.

The average population density for the county is 4.3 per square mile as compared with about 28 for the entire State. Ness County had a population of 4,653 (3107 in 2010, Kansas and Ness City, the county seat, 1,754 in 1975. [Note: Ness County population was listed as 3,107 in 2010 U.S. census, with a population per square mile of 2.9 (KU Institute for Policy & Social Research). Population density for the state was 34.9 in 2010. Ness City had a population of 1,449 in 2010.]

The average precipitation at Ness City is 21.39 inches per year (fig. 2). The climate of Ness County is characterized by abundant sunshine, moderate precipitation, high rates of evaporation, moderate to high wind velocities, and frequent and abrupt weather changes. Hot days and cool nights are typical in summer. During winter, temperatures are moderate to cold with occasional short periods of severe cold. Thunderstorms are prevalent in spring and summer, and blizzards occur in winter. Approximately threefourths of the precipitation in Ness County occurs from April through September, which coincides with the growing season. The growing season at Ness City averages 170 days.

Figure 2--Annual precipitation at Ness City.

Normal precipitation in 21.39 inches at Ness City; dry years in late 1930s and mid-1950s; wetter years in 1940s, 1958-1962.

Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the county. The principal crops are wheat, milo, corn, oats, barley, and hay. Mineral resources of the county include oil and gas, sand and gravel, and limestone, in addition to ground water. During 1974, there were 604 producing oil wells in Ness County, which produced 2,690,276 barrels (Beene, 1974).

Most of Ness County is in the Arkansas River drainage basin; a narrow strip, 4 to 8 miles wide along the north edge of the county, drains into the Smoky Hill River (fig. 3). Most of Ness County drains into Walnut Creek, which heads in Lane County and flows eastward across Ness and Hush Counties to join the Arkansas River. The southern part of Ness County drains into the Pawnee River, which begins in Finney County and joins the Arkansas River at Larned. Total relief in the county is about 600 feet. The highest point, west of Utica on the divide between the Smoky Hill Hiver and Walnut Creek, is about 2,650 feet above sea level, and the lowest point, where Walnut Creek leaves Ness County, is 2,050 feet. Physiographically, Ness County lies on the eastern edge of the High Plains. The Ogallala-capped divides between the larger streams form the eastern margin of the High Plains. Because the major drainage of the area is toward the east, the divides trend and slope eastward. The south flanks of the divides slope rather gently to the streams, but the north flanks have short steep slopes. The major streams have developed flood plains, some of which are more than 2 miles wide. The flood plains, the gently sloping south flanks, and the flat divides are utilized chiefly for cultivating wheat and corn. The steeply sloping north flanks are used mostly for grazing.

Figure 3--Drainage in Ness and adjacent counties, and location of surface-water gaging stations.

North Fork Walnut Creek runs west to east in central Ness County; Pawnee River is in far southern part of county; creeks in north drain to Smoky Hill River flowing in Trego and Ellis counties.

Well-Numbering System

The wells and test holes are numbered in this report according to the Bureau of Land Management's system of land subdivision. In this system, the first set of digits of a well number indicates the township; the second set, the range east or west of the sixth principal meridian; and the third set, the section in which the well is located (fig. 4). The first letter denotes the quarter section or 160-acre tract; the second letter, the quarter-quarter section or 40-acre tract; the third letter, the quarter-quarter-quarter section or 10-acre tract. The 160-acre, 40-acre, and 10-acre tracts are designated A, B, C, and D in a counterclockwise direction beginning in the northeast quadrant. As an example well 18-25W-33ADC is in the SW SE NE sec. 33, T. 18 S., R. 25 W. Where two or more wells are located within a lO-acre tract, wells are numbered serially, beginning with 2, according to the order in which they were inventoried.

Figure 4--System of numbering wells.

Well 18-25W-33ADC is in SW SE NE sec. 33, T. 18 S., R. 25 W. (A = NE, B = NW, C = SW, and D = SE).

Acknowledgments

Thanks and appreciation are expressed to the many county residents who permitted access to their property and supplied information on their wells, to municipal officials who provided information on city water supplies, to well drillers who supplied well and test-hole logs, and to oil and service companies who provided logs. Special acknowledgment is made to owners of wells that were used in making discharge, drawdown, and power-consumption measurements; to the Ness County Agricultural Extension Council; Soil Conservation District; and to Mr. Carlyle Thompson of the Fort Hays Experiment Station who provided information on wells and irrigation practices.

Geohydrology

The surface rocks of Ness County are of Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary age. The Cretaceous rocks, composed of the Greenhorn Limestone, Carlile Shale, and Niobrara Chalk, are the oldest rocks exposed in the area; the Tertiary (Pliocene) Ogallala Formation is the next oldest; and the Quaternary deposits, which consist of undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits and alluvium, are the most recent. The geologic map (fig. 5) shows the formations that crop out or directly underlie a very thin mantle of undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits (loess) in Ness County.

Figure 5--Geologic map.

Generalized geologic map of Ness County.

Availability of Ground Water

Rocks that are significant as sources of water supply in Ness County range in age from Early Cretaceous to Pleistocene. The Upper Cretaceous rocks, although of geologic importance, generally are not significant as aquifers. The principal aquifers in Ness County are the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Pliocene Ogallala Formation, and the Pleistocene alluvium. The Lower Cretaceous Cheyenne Sandstone is considered to be an aquifer, but is not known to have been tapped for water supply in Ness County. The physical character and the water-supply characteristics of these aquifers and other geologic units that underlie the county are described in table 1. For a more complete discussion of the geologie units listed in table 1, the reader is referred to Bass (1926, p. 84-89) and to Moss ( 1932, p. 10-42).

Table 1--Generalized section of geologic units. The classification and nomenclature of the rock units used in this report are those of the Kansas Geological Survey and differ somewhat from those of the U.S. Geological Survey.

System Series Geologic unit Thickness
(feet)
Physical character Water supply
Quaternary Pleistocene Alluvium 0-127 Stream-laid deposits ranging from clayey silt to coarse sand and gravel that occur along principal stream valleys. Yields to wells commonly range from 85 to 900 gal/min in principal valleys and 1 to 40 gal/min in tributary valleys. Chemical quality of water may be objectionable for some uses in localities where thin deposits of alluvium are in contact with Upper Cretaceous rocks.
Undifferentiated
deposits
0-15 Silt and fine sand, mostly eolian (loess), mantle most of the upland and mask much of the valley walls. Most of the deposits are above the water table, but locally yield small quantities of water to wells.
Tertiary Pliocene Ogallala
Formation
0-100 Sand, gravel, silt, clay, and caliche, largely unconsolidated but cemented locally by calcium carbonate or silica. Yields 30 to 245 gal/min of water to wells in north and west parts of the area; may yield 5 gal/min or less to wells or springs along edges of outcrop. Water quality generally suitable for most uses.
Cretaceous Upper
Cretaceous
Niobrara
Chalk
0-370 Upper unit (Smoky Hill Chalk Member) consists of yellow to orange-yellow chalk and light- to dark-gray beds of chalky shale that locally weather to ochre-yellow. Lower unit (Fort Hays Limestone Member) consists of a white to yellow massive chalky limestone; contains thin beds of dark-gray to brownish-gray chalky shale. Not known to yield significant amounts of water to wells.
Carlile
Shale
0-300 Upper part consists of dark-gray to bluish-black noncalcareous to slightly calcareous shale that locally is interbedded with calcareous silty very fine-grained sandstone. Lower part consists of very calcareous dark-gray shale and thin interbedded limestone. Not known to yield significant amounts of water to wells.
Greenhorn
Limestone
0-120 Alternating light- to dark-gray thin-bedded chalky limestone and calcareous shale. Contains layers of bentonite. Not known to yield significant amounts of water to wells.
Graneros
Shale
20-40 Dark-gray calcareous shale interbedded with black noncalcareous shale. Contains thin beds of bentonite, gray limestone, and fine-grained silty sandstone. Not known to yield significant amounts of water to wells.
Lower
Cretaceous
Dakota
Formation
150-300 Brown to gray fine- to medium-grained sandstone interbedded with gray sandy shale and varicolored shale. Locally sandstone beds are cemented with calcium carbonate or iron oxide. Yields as much as 800 gal/min to wells tapping loosely cemented sandstone beds, but locally may yield only small quantities from cemented beds. Water from Dakota is more mineralized than from Ogallala Formation and alluvium.
Kiowa
Formation
60-170 Dark-gray to black shale interbedded with tan and gray sandstone. Not known to yield significant amounts of water to wells.
Cheyenne
Sandstone
50-220 Gray to brown fine- to medium-grained sandstone interbedded with dark-gray shale. The sandstone beds, although untested, may be a potential aquifer. Water probably too highly mineralized for most uses.

Cheyenne Sandstone

The Cheyenne Sandstone is a gray to brown fine- to medium-grained sandstone interbedded with shale. It lies below and is separated from the Dakota Formation by the Kiowa Formation as indicated in table 1. No information was collected concerning the Cheyenne Sandstone during this study, but from an examination of oil-well geophysical logs, it is estimated to range in thickness from 50 to 220 feet in Ness County.

Dakota Formation

The Dakota Formation is the oldest formation from which water is pumped for irrigation in Ness County. It is composed of lenticular brown to gray sandstone, gray sandy shale, and varicolored shale. The sandstone beds are commonly interbedded with shale. The sandstone may be cemented with calcium carbonate or with iron oxide. The beds that are cemented with iron oxide are generally harder than others.

Only one large-capacity well, described at the end of this report (table 4) as well number 19-23W-1CCB, pumped water for irrigation from the Dakota aquifer in 1975. The well is used to irrigate 120 acres of corn, milo, and wheat. The depth of the well is 450 feet, and the casing is screened opposite sandstone from 350 to 425 feet. The aquifer is confined and the static water level stood at a depth of 82 feet below land surface in July 1975. The well was pumped at 800 gal/min in July 1975 with a drawdown of 88 feet after 24 hours pumping and 92 feet after 54 hours pumping. The specific capacity, therefore, was 9.1 (gal/min)/ft after 24 hours and 8.7 (gal/min)/ft after 54 hours, as given in table 4. The transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were computed to be 2,800 ft2/day and 37 ft/day respectively, from the aquifer-test results illustrated in figure 6.

Figure 6--Aquifer-test data from well 19-23W-1CCB.

Drawdown vs. time for a large capacity well.

The Dakota Formation which ranges in thickness from about 150 to 300 feet, underlies all Ness County at depths ranging from about 100 to 700 feet below land surface (fig. 7). The map showing the depth to the top of the Dakota Formation in Ness County (fig. 7) was adapted from a map prepared in 1973 by K. M. Keene, Kansas Geological Survey (written commun.). It indicates that the Dakota is near land surface in the southeastern part of Ness County, but becomes increasingly deeper to the northwest. Several domestic wells have been drilled to this aquifer where shallower aquifers are missing or inadequate.

Figure 7--Generalized depth to top of the Dakota Formation.

Dakota as deep as 700 feet  in NW, 500 in NE, rising to 200 feet in south near Pawnee River.

Considerable interest exists in testing the Dakota Formation for adequate irrigation supplies. Owing to differences in lithology, the hydraulic conductivity of the sandstone is variable, and yields differ from place to place. Analysis of several test holes drilled in the vicinity of the Clouston well (19-23W-1CCB) showed that not only does the lithology of the sandstone differ within a few hundred feet, but also the depth and thickness of sandstone lenses in the Dakota Formation are unpredictable.

A well tapping the Dakota Formation anywhere in the county could be expected to yield about 20 gal/ min, but only sufficient test drilling will show where a well capable of yielding more than 100 gal/min can be constructed.

Ogallala Formation

The Ogallala Formation, which consists chiefly of alluvial deposits, is the principal aquifer in western Kansas. Unfortunately, the Ogallala aquifer in Ness County is thin and largely drained by valleys cut into the bedrock. The eastern edge of the Ogallala Formation occurs as erosional remnants in the western part of Ness County and thins to the east probably owing to a lesser amount of original deposition. The Ogallala Formation is as much as 100 feet thick in northwestern Ness County. One remnant extends across two-thirds of the northern tier of townships and the other remnants, of about 15 square miles each, extend into the western part of the county (see fig. 5).

The Ogallala Formation consists of sand, gravel, silt, clay, and caliche and is largely unconsolidated, but cemented by calcium carbonate locally into "mortar beds." The materials composing the Ogallala deposits were derived from erosion of older rocks to the west, chiefly from the flanks of the Rocky Mountain uplift; however, subsequent erosion has completely removed any connection with the Rocky Mountains.

The Ogallala aquifer does not yield sufficient water in Ness County for large-scale development of irrigation, industrial, or municipal uses, but it may be a source of supply where demands are less than 250 gal/min. Reported depths of wells drilled through the Ogallala Formation range from 34 to 100 feet. The saturated thickness of the Ogallala ranges from 0 to 30 feet and the yield to irrigation wells commonly ranges from 30 to 245 gal/min. Isolated channels may exist in the bedrock where the saturated thickness is greater than 30 feet, and the yield might be greater than 245 gal/min, but none were reported during the study. Seven irrigation wells pumped from the Ogallala Formation in 1975 to irrigate about 100 acres. Nine public-supply wells furnish water for the towns of Brownell, Hansom, and Utica, which have a total population of about 800.

Domestic and stock wells generally yield 5 gal/min where the Ogallala aquifer has at least 5 feet of saturated material. Where the Ogallala is drained, residents use cisterns, haul water, or drill to the Dakota Formation for a water supply.

Alluvium

Alluvium underlies the flood plains and occurs along valleys of major streams and their tributaries. The principal valleys are the Pawnee River in the southern part, and Walnut Creek, which flows eastward across the center of the county (see fig. 5). The alluvium of the two valleys supplies more water for irrigation and municipal use than any other source in Ness County. However, the area underlain by the alluvium is small compared to the total area of the county.

The alluvium consists predominantly of sand, gravel, and lesser amounts of silt and clay, derived from the Ogallala Formation and Niobrara Chalk. The upper few feet of the alluvium consists predominantly of silt, clay, and sand; however, these finer deposits do not limit or seriously hinder recharge by precipitation or streamflow. The deposits are as much as 127 and 82 feet thick in Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys, respectively, but only 90 feet or less of the alluvium is saturated in the Pawnee River valley and 40 feet or less in Walnut Creek valley. For a more detailed discussion of the ground-water resources of Pawnee Hiver valley, the reader is referred to Fishel (1952).

Measured yields from wells along the Pawnee River valley and its tributaries range from 125 to 900 gal/ min, but yields of as much as 1,800 gal/min were reported (see table 4). Yields of 85 to 770 gal/min were measured along Walnut Creek valley.

Sixty-seven irrigation wells pump from the alluvium of Walnut Creek valley to irrigate about 2,100 acres, and 70 irrigation wells pump from the alluvium of the Pawnee River valley to irrigate about 4,800 acres. One irrigation well in Pawnee River valley was used only as an observation well in 1975. Eighteen public-supply wells furnish water for the towns of Bazine and Ness City, which have a total population of about 2,150. Smaller yielding 6-inch diameter wells supply water from the alluvium of the principal valleys and their tributaries for many domestic and stock uses.

The number of irrigation and public-supply wells is increasing each year as new wells are drilled in the alluvium of Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys to supplement decreasing yields that occur late in the summer. Decreasing yields result from well interference and declines in water levels.

Yields from wells in the alluvium of smaller valleys, tributaries, and draws are considerably less than in the two major valleys because of the presence of finer, less permeable materials. As a result, wells generally are adequate for only domestic or stock use, and yield 1 to 140 gal/min. These smaller valleys are underlain, to a large part, by the Carlile Shale. Because groundwater storage in the smaller valleys is limited, water levels fluctuate primarily in response to rainfall. Sometimes wells go dry after prolonged periods of little precipitation.

Chemical Quality of Ground Water

Chemical character of ground water in Ness County is indicated by analyses of water collected from 2 wells tapping the Dakota Formation, 2 wells tapping the Ogallala Formation, and 21 wells tapping alluvium of the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys. The chemical character of water from the Cheyenne Sandstone is inferred by analysis of data from adjacent counties. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in water from wells are listed in table 5.

In the analyses of water samples for selected chemical constituents (table 5), values also are listed for dissolved solids, hardness, sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR), and specific conductance. Water containing more than 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) of dissolved solids generally is objectionable for most uses. Hardness of water, expressed in terms of CaCO3 (is classified Durfor and Becker, 1964) as: soft, less than 60 mg/L, moderately hard, 61-120 mg/L, hard, 121- 180 mg/L, and very hard, more than 180 mg/L. The suitability of water for irrigation described here is based on the classification by the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff (1954). The salinity hazard of waters used for irrigation is determined on the basis of specific conductance, and the sodium hazard is determined on the basis of the sodium-adsorption ratio.

Analysis of water samples collected from wells tapping the Cheyenne Sandstone and examination of electric logs from adjacent counties to the east and south indicate that the water is high in dissolved-solids concentration. It probably would be unsatisfactory for most irrigation, industrial, and public-supply uses.

The Dakota Formation yields a mixed sodium bicarbonate sulfate type or a sodium chloride bicarbonate type water, based on predominant ions. The analyses of the two samples of water from the Dakota show a dissolved-solids concentration of 684 and 1,420 mg/L. This water, which has a high to very high salinity hazard and a very high sodium hazard, is considered to be marginal for irrigation of most crops and for most soil conditions. Water in the Dakota (ranging in hardness from 40 to 64 mg/L) is soft to moderately hard, but it contains more dissolved solids than water in the Ogallala and alluvium.

Wells developed in the Ogallala Formation in northwestern Ness County yield a calcium chloride bicarbonate type water. The two samples analyzed from wells 16-26W-23ABB and 16-26W-35CCD contained 297 and 446 mg/L of dissolved solids. This water, having a medium salinity hazard and a low sodium hazard, is considered to be suitable for irrigation. The water (with hardness of 208 and 334 mg/L) is very hard.

Water from the alluvium in Ness County is of the calcium bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentrations range from 404 to 794 mg/L. This water generally has a high salinity hazard and a low sodium hazard when used for irrigation. The water (ranging from 233 to 565 mg/L) is very hard.

Water from the alluvium would probably require some special practices to keep the soil salinity to a low enough level unless an excess of irrigation water is applied to cause leaching. While similar to the water from the alluvium, the water from the Ogallala Formation has a lower leaching requirement. Water from the Dakota Formation probably would cause difficulty if used for irrigation because of both soil salinity and poor tilth created by the high sodium concentration.

Maximum concentrations for use in drinking water recommended by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment are shown as follows:

Constituent Recommended limits
in milligrams per liter
Dissolved solids 500
Iron (Fe) .3
Manganese (Mn) .05
Sulfate (SO4) 250
Chloride (Cl) 250
Fluoride (F) 1.5
Nitrate (NO3) 45

Availability of Surface Water

Most of Ness County is within the Arkansas River drainage basin. Walnut Creek drains all Ness County except the strip on the north edge and another along the south edge. Walnut Creek begins in Lane County and flows eastward across the county into Rush County and joins the Arkansas River about 50 miles east of the Ness County border. Only a narrow strip, 4 to 8 miles wide along the north edge of Ness County drains into the Smoky Hill River to the north, as shown in figure 3. The southern part of Ness County drains into the Pawnee River, which begins in Finney County and joins the Arkansas River at Larned.

Numerous seeps and pot holes containing water were observed along the Walnut Creek drainage where it intersects the Ogallala Formation in the western and northern part of the county. The seeps act as drains along the eastern edge of the Ogallala Formation. The ground-water contribution to streamflow is not great in anyone drainage because transpiration and evaporation consume this supply within a few miles downstream, but the amount of water contributed to all the tributaries could amount to a significant figure.

Ten surface-water rights have been appropriated to divert water from Walnut Creek and two have been appropriated from Pawnee River in Ness County. In 1974, only 17 acre-feet was diverted to irrigate 25 acres along Walnut Creek and none was diverted along the Pawnee River. In 1975, no water was diverted from either stream because both the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek had no flow for many days during the 1975 irrigation season.

The status of streamflow was observed at temporary station sites (fig. 3) from July 15, 1975 to February 3, 1976, and both streams were dry until January 26, 1976. Sometime between January 26 and February 3, 1976, Walnut Creek began to flow and on February 3, 1976, had a flow of 0.48 ft3/s at temporary station 1, but the Pawnee River at temporary station 2 remained dry.

The annual discharge of principal streams that flow through Ness County is given in table 2. Locations of gaging stations are shown in figure 3.

Table 2--Annual discharge of principal streams that flow through Ness County.

Water
Year1
Station 07141780
Walnut Creek
near Rush Center
(12 mi. east
of Ness County)
(acre-feet)
Station 07141200
Pawnee River
near Larned (14
mi. southeast of
Ness County)
(acre-feet)
Station 07140700
Guzzlers Gulch
near Ness City
(acre-feet)
1970 17,350 27,650 243
1971 12,250 26,050 1,900
1972 17,800 33,000 636
1973 62,730 84,320 3,360
1974 16,820 26,120 2
1975 14,130 11,230 1,440
Average 23,4702 54,9903 1,7104
1 12-month period, October 1 through September 30 of the year shown.
2 6 years.
3 51 years.
4 14 years.

Residents along the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys report that prior to pump irrigation, these streams flowed continually with enough water to support fish and to fill depressions in the stream channel that made good swimming holes. Subsequently, wells along the Pawnee River valley, both in Ness County and in counties upstream, have pumped water from the alluvium. Pumping by wells has lowered the water table below the creek bed so that water moves from the stream to the aquifer during periods of streamflow resulting from precipitation. The loss to the stream is a gain to the aquifer as recharge. Pumping along the valley also intercepts ground water that would have moved toward the stream, thereby resulting in a depletion or reduction in base flow. Likewise, pumping by wells depletes streamflow along Walnut Creek.

Better farm management in the upland dryland farming areas has reduced runoff to the streams. Terracing, farm retention dams, and tillage retard runoff and make more water available for seepage into the ground for plant use. The use of large machinery has resulted in better cultivation practices that have increased infiltration of precipitation. Yields of dryland crops have increased over the years by development of better varieties and by use of fertilizers. However, increased yields consume more of the water that has been made available, to a large part, by improved farming practices.

Ground-water Development

Ground-water development for irrigation began in the 1930's along the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys. Early development occurred along the valleys because water levels were shallow, generally less than 30 feet, and depths to bedrock were less than 100 feet; therefore, the cost of constructing wells and pumping water was not as great in comparison to other areas where water levels exceeded 100 feet and depths to bedrock exceeded 300 feet. About 50 irrigation and public-supply wells were constructed before 1950, about 30 in the 1950's, 60 in the 1960's, and 45 during 1970-75, as shown in figure 8. All irrigation and publicsupply wells are equipped with deep-well-turbine or submersible-turbine pumps. The power units for the pumped wells are electric motors or internal-combustion engines.

Figure 8--Cumulative number of irrigation and public-supply wells constructed during 1930-75.

From 0 wells in 1930, rose to almost 200 wells in late 1970s. Growth picked up in mid 1960s.

Location

Location of irrigation, public-supply, and selected stock wells are shown on plate 1. Included are observation wells used to measure annual or quarterly water levels.

The most intensively developed areas are along the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys. There are 71 irrigation wells located in a 24-square-mile area along the Pawnee River with 7 wells in sec. 28, T. 20 S., R. 22 W. The greatest concentration of wells along Walnut Creek is near Bazine, in sec. 31, T. 18 S., R. 21 W., where 11 irrigation and public-supply wells have been drilled.

Records of 191 wells in Ness County are presented in table 4. Included are 159 irrigation, 3 observation, 27 public-supply, and 2 stock wells. Several irrigation wells also are used as observation wells. Table 4 and plate 1 were intended to include all irrigation and public-supply wells, however, a few may not have been located. Yields listed in table 4 were measured under the operating conditions of the day of measurement and do not necessarily indicate the maximum yield of the well. Well yields generally differ during the irrigation season, and are higher in the spring after water levels have recovered a large percentage of their past season's decline. A decrease in the yield of irrigation wells in the alluvial valleys occurs during the summer because of generally lowered water levels and local well interference.

Withdrawals

Yields from irrigation wells differ because of differences in the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of the water-bearing materials (aquifer). Measured yields ranged from 85 to 900 gal/min; estimated withdrawal was 0.4 to 4 acre-feet per day. An estimate of annual pumpage from irrigation and public-supply wells for 1975 is given in table 3.

Table 3--Estimated quantity of water pumped from irrigation and public-supply wells.

Area Aquifer Number
of wells
Acres
irrigated
Population
served
Withdrawal1
in 1975
(acre-feet)
Pawnee River Alluvium 70 4,800   7,200
Walnut Creek Alluvium 67 2,100   3,150
Walnut Creek Alluvium 18   2,1502 480
Uplands Ogallala 7 100   150
Uplands Ogallala 9   8003 180
Uplands Dakota 1 120   180
        TOTAL 11,340
1 Assuming: 1.5 feet of water applied annually per acre; 200 gallons daily use per person.
2 Number of persons served in Bazine and Ness City.
3 Number of persons served in Brownell, Ransom, and Utica.

Energy Consumption

Energy for irrigation and public-supply wells is from electricity, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), diesel, or gasoline. The most common sources of energy in Ness County are electricity and LPG. The amount of electricity or fuel to pump 1 acre-foot of water was determined by measuring the rate of discharge and the amount of electricity or fuel used per unit of time at selected wells.

Electrical records can be obtained from utility companies that maintain records of consumption by month and year. Invoices of other fuels are supplied to purchasers by vendors at the time of purchase. The amount of water pumped per well or area is directly related to the amount of energy consumed. Therefore, a record of the amount of electricity or fuel used for irrigation can be used to estimate the amount of water pumped per month or year.

Electrical-energy input to pump an acre-foot of water is determined by applying the equation:

Ee = [(1.955 X 104) R Kh] / Q te

where Ee = kilowatt-hours to pump 1 acre-foot of water (Kwhr/acre-ft);
R = revolutions of meter disc in t, seconds;
Kh = constant for each meter (generally stamped on nameplate of the instrument) giving watt-hours represented by one revolution of meter disc;
Q = pump discharge, in gallons per minute;
te = time, in seconds, for the meter disc to make H revolutions.

Example:

R = 10 revolutions in te seconds;
te = 40 seconds;
Kh = 24;
Q = 1,000 gallons per minute;
Ee = (1.955 X 104 X 10 X 24) / 1,000 X 40
= 117 kilowatt-hours per acre-foot,

The amount of fuel-energy input to pump an acre-foot of water is determined by applying the equation:

Ef = [(5.431 X 103) tf] / Q

where Ef = gallons of fuel to pump 1 acre-foot of water (gal/acre-ft);
Q = pump discharge in gallons per minute;
tf = gallons of fuel consumed per hour.

The amount of electricity to pump an acre-foot of water in the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys, as measured at 43 wells, ranged from 97 to 416 Kwhr and averaged 160 Kwhr; the amount of LPG fuel, measured at 14 wells, ranged from 14 to 59 gallons and averaged 34 gallons; and the amount of diesel fuel was 12 and 18 gallons, as measured at two wells. Fifty-four gallons of LPG fuel were consumed per acre-foot of water pumped from the Dakota Formation.

The quantity of water pumped from irrigation wells, for which energy-consumption and pump-discharge data are available, is computed from the following equation:

A = Kwhr / Ee

or

A = F / Ef

where A = water pumped from well during the month or year, in acre-feet;
Kwhr = kilowatt-hours of electrical energy consumed during the month or year (the records generally are available from power company);
F = gallons of fuel energy consumed during the month or year.

Power consumption varies with differences in motor, pump, well efficiency, and total head. Inadequate maintenance and improper operating procedures reduce both the efficiency and the life of pumping equipment.

Water-Level Fluctuations

The water table or potentiometric surface is not stationary, but fluctuates much like the water surface of a lake or reservoir. The water table rises when recharge exceeds discharge and deelines when discharge exceeds recharge. In Ness County, the alluvium and Ogallala aquifers are unconfined ground-water bodies (water table), and the Dakota is a confined groundwater body (artesian).

The principal factors controlling decline are the amount of water drawn from thc ground-water reservoir by transpiration and evaporation, the amount discharged into streams through springs and seeps, and the amount pumped from wells.

The principal factors controlling a rise in water table are direct infiltration of precipitation, seepage of water from streams, and percolation of irrigation water applied to the land. Local rises in the water table may occur near a well or well field after a pumping season as water moves laterally to restore the normal water-table gradient.

The alluvium in Ness County is recharged by precipitation, by seepage of water from streams, and by infiltration of irrigation water. Residents along the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys reported that at times the streams have flowed continually. This occurs when the water table in the alluvium is higher than the stream, thus contributing a base flow to the stream through springs and seeps. In recent years, the streams are dry much of the time because pump age and evapotranspiration exceed the amount of natural recharge to the system. The hydrographs for wells 20-22W-20CCC and 20-23W-32CDA along the Pawnee River valley, as shown in figure 9, reflect both the effects of precipitation and pumping. Water levels were fairly constant during the 1940's; that is, recharge and discharge were nearly equal. During 1950 and 1951, water levels rose as a result of above-normal precipitation. During 1952-56, water levels declined as more ground water was discharged to streamflow, transpired through plants along the valley, and pumped by wells. Water levels again responded to recharge from abovenormal precipitation in 1958-60, then began a gradual decline of about 0.8 feet per year from 1960 to 1975 with some partial recovery during years of abovenormal precipitation. The continuous development of wells along the Pawnee River, both in Ness County and upstream, has lowered the water table until there is essentially no base flow to the stream.

Figure 9--Hydrographs for selected wells.

Hydrographs for 5 wells plotting depth to water vs. time.

During 1975, small pools or sumps were occasionally present in both the Pawnee River and the Walnut Creek streambeds that contained water. However, most of the ground-water contribution, if any, was consumed by evaporation from the water surface of the pools and by transpiration through trees and plants along the stream channels. In reality, the water level in the alluvium was below the streambed; therefore, during any period of streamflow from precipitation, water is lost from the stream to the ground-water reservoir and is a source of recharge to the aquifer. In one respect, lowering the water level is beneficial because it provides space for percolation of excess runoff that occurs during high streamflow and flooding. Thus, stream channels in the alluvial valleys are line sources of recharge when precipitation is great enough to cause runoff.

Wells along Walnut Creek also have practically dried up the base flow, and streamflow occurs only during periods of sufficient precipitation. Hydrographs for observation wells 19-23W-8CBB and 18-21W-31CAA along Walnut Creek valley (fig. 9) indicate that water levels rose in 1967, then declined until 1971-72. Water levels rose again during the 1972-74 period because of above-normal precipitation.

Ground water pumped from the alluvial valleys of Ness County is renewable during periods of abovenormal precipitation; however, pumpage for irrigation is great enough to cause depletions during dry periods.

Gillespie and Slagle (1972) report that recharge from high flows in Walnut Creek and its tributaries can be substantial. High flows produced water-level rises in observation wells in adjacent Hush County of about 6 to 14 feet in 1959, about 2 to 11 feet in 1967, and about 0.5 to 4 feet in 1970.

Declining water levels occur in the alluvium of the tributary valleys and upland draws during extended periods of below-normal rainfall, with subsequent drying up of wells. In addition, because of the relatively shallow depth to water, transpiration by deep-rooted plants during the growing season often results in a decline in water levels.

In contrast to the alluvium, the Ogallala Formation in Ness County receives very little recharge. Annual recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 0.25 inch or about 1 percent of the average precipitation. The water level in the Ogallala, for the most part, is above the stream valleys. Only small valleys exist in the western part of Ness County where the Ogallala is present. Streams have eroded through the Ogallala into the bedrock, and in this way, act as drains. This has been occurring for a long period of time, so discharge from the Ogallala is about equal to recharge. The amount of ground water draining from the Ogallala to each valley is small, but the amount of water contributed to all tributary valleys could be significant. Field inspections during October and November 1975 revealed only small trickles of less than 0.1 ft3/s from seeps along contacts of the Ogallala with the bedrock. The seepage, which filled sumps along the channel, subsequently was lost through evaporation, transpiration, or seepage into cracks of the bedrock before reaching the principal valleys of the Pawnee River and Walnut Creek in Ness County and the Smoky Hill River in Trego County. The seeps are enough to support tree growth and grass. Very few wells have been drilled into the Ogallala (see table 4) because the saturated material is thin and, to a large part, drained. Therefore, water-level fluctuations are small because discharge and recharge are small.

The Dakota Formation receives no known recharge in Ness County. Nearest areas of recharge are in adjacent counties to the east and south along outcrops and where the alluvium of deep valleys is in contact with the underlying Dakota. The hydrograph (fig. 9) of irrigation well 19-23W-1CCB, which taps the Dakota, indicates that the water level (potentiometric surface) is declining about 1.5 feet per year. This decline probably is the result of ground-water withdrawals at this site because the nearest irrigation well tapping the same aquifer is more than 15 miles.

Potential for Additional Development

The greatest potential for future development of ground water in Ness County is from the Dakota Formation. This aquifer is areally extensive and is the only developed aquifer that underlies the entire county. Well 19-23W-1CCB, in 1975, yielded 800 gal/min for irrigation from the Dakota. The performance of the well and fluctuations of water level are shown in figures 6 and 9, respectively. Several irrigation wells tap the Dakota in Hodgeman County, which adjoins Ness County on the south.

The Dakota differs greatly in lithology and degree of cementing. In general, the cementing reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Yields of wells a few hundred feet apart differ by several hundred gallons per minute.

The quality of water available from the Dakota for irrigation use is speculative because the concentration of sodium may be high enough to affect the tilth of calcium soils. This, however, is the only ground water in Ness County that is soft to moderately hard. Extensive tests to monitor the effects of using high sodium water from the Dakota Formation for irrigation in Ness County are being conducted by the Fort Hays Experiment Station at the site of irrigation well 19- 23W-1CCB. Although water from the Dakota may be considered as a supply for industrial, irrigation, and municipal use, its quality should be considered in connection with the economic feasibility of treatment for the intended use.

More studies are needed to test the performance of the Dakota aquifer and its water quality throughout western Kansas. Much interest has been shown in developing a water supply from the Dakota where the Ogallala Formation is missing or inadequate and where additional ground water is needed to supplement existing supplies.

Although the Ogallala in Ness County yields less than 250 gal/min to wells, it probably stores as much or more water than the alluvium because of its greater areal extent. The saturated thickness of the Ogallala decreases toward the edges of the areas of outcrop (see fig. 5), where it is being drained of water along its contact with the underlying bedrock. Likewise, its saturated thickness should be greatest farthest from the outcrops. Therefore, areas such as those along Kansas Highway No. 4, which connects the towns of Utica, Arnold, Ransom, and Brownell, and along the western tier of R. 26 W. in Tps. 18 and 19 S. could be sites for further exploration for water in the Ogallala (see figs. 3 and 5).

The Ogallala could be developed further for industrial, minor irrigation, or municipal use in northern and western Ness County if demands are less than 250 gal/min per well and if good quality water is desired. Generally, industries and municipalities can afford to pay more per unit of water than thc irrigator. Thus, more wells can be constructed to supply these needseven though the wells may yield only 50 to 100 gal/min. Land acquisition and well spacing would be factors in developing water stored in the Ogallala, as construction of wells too near or too far apart may not provide best utilization of the ground-water supply. For ultimate development of the Ogallala aquifer in Ness County, construction of a well on every 10-acre tract might be possible in some areas, but management policy might prohibit this practice.

New wells are being drilled into the alluvium of Pawnee River and Walnut Creek valleys in Ness County to maintain irrigation supplies when well yields decrease late in the season owing to well interference and water-level declines.

The greatest concentration of large-capacity wells, those with yields of 100 gal/min or more, is along the entire length of the Pawnee Hiver reach and in the vicinities of Bazine and Ness City along Walnut Creek (see pl. 1). Water stored in the alluvium is depleted gradually year after year and is replenished only in years of excess precipitation, such as 1950-51 and 1958-60. Since 1961, water levels have declined steadily at the rate of about 0.8 feet per year in response to significant increases in the amount of ground water pumped. Because of the high transmissivity and limited storage capacity of the alluvial aquifer, it can be depleted readily by heavy pumping, as well as recharged when excess precipitation and streamflow occur.

Further development of ground water along these valleys for industrial and municipal use is attractive because of the large well yields that are obtainable from rather shallow wells, but extensive development would impair the rights of current users. Unless management restrictions are imposed, ground-water development in these two major valleys will no doubt continue.

The potential for developing any great amounts of water from alluvium and undifferentiated deposits in tributary creek valleys and draws that overlie the Carlile Shale is not very promising. However, these deposits may contain small amounts of water and serve as local catchment basins to yield small quantities for domestic and stock use. The water in these deposits is reported to be of poorer quality than that from the alluvium of the principal valleys.

Selected References

Bass, N. W., 1926, Geologic investigations in western Kansas pt. 3, Geologic structure of the Dakota Sandstone of western Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 11, pt. 3, p. 84-89.

Beene, D. L., 1974, 1972 Oil and gas production in Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Energy Resources Series 2, 149 p.

Durfor, C. N., and Becker, Edith, 1964, Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities in the United States, 1962: U.S. Geol. Survey, Water-Supply Paper 1812, 364 p. [available online]

Ferris, J. G., Knowles, D. B., Brown, R. H., and Stallman, R. W., 1962, Theory of aquifer tests: U.S. Geol. Survey. Water-Supply Paper 1536-E, 174 p. [available online]

Fischel, V. C., 1952, Ground-water resources of Pawnee Valley, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 94, 144 p. [available online]

Gillespie, J. B., and Slagle, S. E., 1972, Natural and artificial ground-water recharge, Wet Walnut Creek, central Kansas: Kansas Water Resources Board Bull. 17, 94 p.

Gutentag, E. D., Lobmeyer, D. H., McGovern, H. E., and Long, W. A., 1972, Ground water in Finney County, southwestern Kansas: U.S. Geol. Survey Hydrol, Inv. Atlas, HA-442. [available online]

Gutentag, E. D., and Stullken, L. E., 1976, Ground-water resources of Lane and Scott Counties, western Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Irrig. Ser. No. 1, 37 p. [available online]

Hattin, D. E., 1975, Stratigraphy and depositional environment of Greenhorn Limestone (Upper Cretaceous) of Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 209, 128 p. [available online]

Hodson, W. G., 1965, Geology and ground-water resources of Trego County, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 174, 80 p. [available online]

Hodson, W. G., and Wahl, K. D., 1960, Geology and groundwater resources of Gave County, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 145, 126 p. [available online]

Kansas State Board of Health, 1973, Water quality criteria for interstate and intrastate waters of Kansas: Kansas State Board of Health Regulations 28-16-28, 5 p.

Latta, B. F., 1944, Geology and ground-water resources of Finney and Gray Counties, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 55, 272 p. [available online]

Lohman, S. W., and others, 1972, Definitions of selected ground-water terms--revisions and conceptual refinements: U.S. Geol. Survey, Water-Supply Paper 1988, 21 p. [available online]

McClain, T. J., Jenkins, E. D., Keene, K. M., and Pabst, M. E., 1975, Water resources of Gove, Logan, and Wallace Counties, west-central Kansas: U.S. Geol. Survey, Hydrol. Inv. Atlas, HA-521.

McLaughlin, T. G., 1949, Geology and ground-water resources of Pawnee and Edwards Counties, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 80, 189 p. [available online]

McNellis, J. M., 1973, Geology and ground-water resources of Rush County, central Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 207, 45 p. [available online]

Merriam, D. F., 1957, Preliminary regional structural contour map on top of the Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) in Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Oil and Gas Inv. 15, map.

Meyer, W. R, Gutentag, E. D., and Lobmeyer, D. H., 1970, Geohydrology of Finney County, southwestern Kansas: U.S. Geol. Survey, Water-Supply Paper 1891, 117 p. [available online]

Moss, R. G., 1932, Geology of Ness and Hodgeman Counties, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 19, 48 p. [available online]

Muilenburg, Grace, and Swineford, Ada, 1975, Land of the post rock: Univ. Press of Kansas, 207 p.

Prescott, G. C., Jr., 1951, Geology and ground-water resources of Lane County, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Bull. 93, 126 p. [available online]

Stullken, L. E., Weakley, E. C., Gutentag, E. D., and Slagle, S. E., 1974, Hydrogeologic data from Greeley, Wichita, Scott, and Lane Counties, Kansas: Kansas Geol. Survey, Basic Data Series, Ground-Water Release No. 4, 58 p.

U.S. Department of Commerce, 1975, Climatological data (Kansas): U.S. Dept. of Commerce Pub., v. 88, no. 13.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1976, Water resources data for Kansas, Water year 1975: Lawrence, Kans., Water Resources Div., Water-Data Report KS-75-1, 405 p.

U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954, Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils: U.S. Dept. Agriculture Handb. 60, 160 p.

Plate

Plate 1--Map showing location of irrigation, public-supply, and selected stock wells in 1975, Ness County, Kansas
available as an Acrobat PDF file, 3 MB

Glossary of Hydrologic Terms

Most of the definitions of hydrologic terms given below are taken from Lohman and others (1972).

Aquifer--Formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains sufficient saturated permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs.

Aquifer test--Measurements of the effect with time of a discharging well on the water level in tire well and in nearby wells. Data from aquifer tests are used primarily to determine the hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, and storage coefficient or specific yield of an aquifer.

Artesian--Synonymous with confined. Artesian water is equivalent to confined ground water. The water level in an artesian well stands above the top of the artesian water body it taps. If the water level in an artesian well stands above the land surface, the well is a flowing artesian well.

Confined ground water--Ground water that is under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric, and has as its upper limit the bottom of a bed of distinctly lower hydraulic conductivity than that of the material in which the confined water occurs.

Drawdown--The lowering of the potentiometric surface as a result of pumping. It is the arithmetic difference between the pumping level and the static level of the water surface.

Hydraulic conductivity--If a porous medium is isotropic and the fluid is homogeneous, the hydraulic conductivity of the medium is the volume of water at the existing kinematic viscosity that will move in unit time under a unit hydraulic gradient through a unit area measured at right angles to the direction of flow.

Percolation--Laminar flow of water, usually downward, by tire force of gravity or under hydrostatic pressure, through small openings within a porous material.

Potentiometric surface--A surface that represents the static head. As related to an aquifer, it is defined by the levels to which water will rise in tightly cased wells.

Saturated thickness--The amount (thickness) of aquifer material that contains all the water in interstices that it is capable of holding.

Specific capacity--The rate of discharge of water from a well divided by the drawdown of water level within the well.

Transmissivity--The rate at which water of tire prevailing kinematic viscosity is transmitted through a unit width of the aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient.

Unconfined ground water--Water in an aquifer that has a water table.

Water table--That surface in an unconfined ground-water body at which the water pressure is atmospheric. It is defined by the levels at which water stands in wells that penetrate the water body enough to hold standing water. The water table is a particular potentiometric surface.

Table 4--Records of selected wells.

Well number
(1)
Owner or user Year
completed
Depth
of well
(2)
Diameter
of casing
(inches)
Geologic
unit
(3)
Method
of lift
and
type of
power
(4)
Use
(5)
Yield
(gallons
per
minute)
(6)
Specific capacity Altitude
of land
surface
above
mean
sea level
(feet)
(8)
Depth
to water
below
land
surface
datum
(feet)
(9)
Date of
measurement
(10)
Chemical
data
(11)
Acres
irrigated
Power
consumption
per acre-foot
Gallons
per
minute
per
foot of
drawdown
(7)
Hours KWH
(12)
Gallons
of fuel
16-22W-27BAA City of Brownell 1953 65R 18 TO T,E PS 165 R       47 R 1953        
16-24W-15ABB F. H. Flax 1956 38R 24 TO SUB,E I,O         29.9 1/1975        
16-24W-15ACA F. H. Flax 1956 41 R 24 TO SUB,E I 215 44     23.7 1/1975   10 149  
16-24W-15ACC F. H. Flax 1972 84 R 12 TO SUB,E I 245 20     64 R 1972   25 100  
16-24W-15ADB F. H. Flax 1956 42 R 24 TO SUB,E I 215 35     21.5 1/1975   10 193  
16-24W-15DDD City of Ransom 1938 40 R 8 TO T,E PS 150 R       28.0 3/1976        
16-24W-15DDD2 City of Ransom 1938 40R 8 TO T,E PS 150 R       28.0 3/1976        
16-24W-15DDD3 City of Ransom 1968 40 R 8 TO T,E PS 150 R       28.0 3/1976        
16-26W-23ABB City of Utica 1956 34 R 18 TO T,E PS 30 R       24 R 1956 C      
16-26W-35CCD City of Utica 1953 40 R 13 TO T,E PS 40 R     2568 30 R 1953 C      
16-26W-35CDC City of Utica 1953 35 R 18 TO T,E PS 60 R     2562 25 R 1953        
17-25W-7AA Duane Stutz 1949 35 R 24 QA T,E I 120 R       25 R 1949   5    
17-25W-7AA2 Duane Stutz 1951 39 R 16 QA T,E I 110 R       22 R 1951   5    
17-25W-7AA3 Duane Stutz 1970 40 R 16 QA T,E I 65 R       25 R 1970   5    
17-25W-7AA4 Duane Stutz 1970 45 R 16 QA T,E I 35 R       30 R 1970   5    
17-25W-7AA5 Duane Stutz 1970 38 R 16 QA T,E I 100 R       22 R 1970   5    
17-25W-7AA6 Duane Stutz 1970 39 R 16 QA T,E I 120 R       20 R 1970   5    
17-25W-7AA7 Duane Stutz 1973 40 R 16 QA T,E I 200 R       20 R 1973   5    
17-25W-8BB Duane Stutz 1970 25 R 16 QA T,E I 140R       5 R 1970   5    
17-25W-8BB2 Duane Stutz 1973 12 R 16 QA T,E I 110 R       5 R 1973   5    
17-25W-8BB3 Duane Stutz 1973 35 R 16 QA T,E I 65 R       20 R 1973   5    
17-26W-2BAA City of Utica 1956 52 R 18 TO T,E PS 40 R     2562 40 R 1956        
17-26W-2BAB City of Utica 1966 40 R 18 TO T,E PS 50 R     2552            
18-21W-24ACA James Seltman 1974 62 R 16 QA T,E I 520 47   2098 41.0 9/1975   50 135  
18-21 W-24BAC James Seltman 1974 80 R 16 QA T,E I 675 R     2110 45.0 11/1974   133    
18-21 W-25AAA Lon Wells, Jr. 1965 50 R 16 QA T,E I 350R     2085 30.7 11/1974   22    
18-21 W-25AAB Lon Wells, Jr. 1966 50 R 16 QA T,E I,O 275 R     2085 28.6 11/1974   23    
18-21W-27CBC E. H. Marshall 1967 48 R 16 QA C,E I 300 R     2100 32.0 11/1974   50    
18-21 W-30ACB Emanuel Kuehn 1973 32 R 24 QA T,G I 200 R     2122 20 R 1973   22    
18-21W-31ACA Glenn Schniepp 1970 52 R 16 QA T,LPG I 350 R     2123 27.5 12/1974   55    
18-21W-31CAA George Diemer   44 R 5 QA   O       2122 33.8 12/1971        
18-21W-31CAB City of Bazine 1935 48 R 12 QA T,E PS 150 R     2126            
18-21W-31CAD City of Bazine 1950 48 R 12 QA T,E PS 220 R     2127            
18-21W-31CCA Reuben Dewald 1957 49 R 19 QA T,T I 230 R     2131 35.0 11/1974   5    
18-21W-31CCC Reuben Dewald 1961 62 R 19 QA T,E I 60 R     2132 42.7 11/1974   2    
18-21W-31CDBB Reuben Dewald 1957 49 R 18 QA T,T I 330 R     2129 34.9 11/1974   6    
18-21W-31CDBC Waldimore Strecker 1935 54 R 18 QA T,T I 400 R     2129 35.0 11/1974   26    
18-21W-31DBA Glenn Schniepp 1965 36 R 16 QA T,E I 175 R     2118 18.1 12/1974   25    
18-21W-31DBB Glenn Schniepp 1971 48 R 16 QA T,E I 50 R     2126 30.1 12/1974   25    
18-21W-31DBD Glenn Schniepp 1965 50 R 16 QA T,E I 175 R     2121 32.7 12/1974   25    
18-22W-13DCC J. F. Wunder 1967 21 R 15 QA SUB,E I 30 R     2148 97.5 11/1974   7    
18-22W-13DCC2 J. F. Wunder 1967 21 R 15 QA SUB,E I 50 R     2148       7    
18-22W-13DCC3 J. F. Wunder 1967 21 R 15 QA SUB,E I 75 R     2148       8    
18-22W-13DCC4 J. F. Wunder 1974 21 R 15 QA SUB,E I 30 R     2148       7    
18-22W-16ADD Vernon Schwartz 1939 52 R 16 QA T,LPG I 140     2204 30.8 11/1974   14    
18-22W-35DCA Larry Kleweno 1974 55 R 16 QA T,E I 440 R     2142 30.8 11/1974   60    
18-22W-35DCC Larry Kleweno 1974 53 R 16 QA T,E I 31S R     2142 31.5 11/1974   24    
18-22W-36DCC Galen Ely 1956 5S R 18 QA T,G I 400 R     2134 34.8 12/1974   26    
18-23W-30BCC City of Ness City 1975 60 R 18 QA T,E PS 125 R     2240 29.0 1/1976        
18-23W-30CBC City of Ness City 1969 54 R 16 QA T,E PS 90 R     2245 38.0 1/1974        
18-23W-30CBD City of Ness City 1932 51 R 12 QA T,E PS 65 R     2242 35.0 1/1974        
18-23W-30CCA City of Ness City 1932 52 R 12 QA T,E PS 50 R     2245 42.0 1/1974        
18-23W-30CCA2 City of Ness City 1934 52 R 12 QA T,E PS 65 R     2242 32.0 9/1974        
18-23W-31ADB City of Ness City 1975 82 R 18 QA T,E PS 125 R     2240 505.0 1/1976        
18-23W-31CAC City of Ness City 1947 48 R 16 QA T,E PS 90 R     2233 31.0 1/1974        
18-23W-31DCB City of Ness City 1947 48 R 16 QA T,E PS 125 R     2229 31.0 1/1974        
18-24W-16DCC Bert Jones 1955 68 R 19 QA T,E I 200 R     227S 28.5 12/1974   25    
18-24W-22CCB Junior Gabel 1969 67 R 16 QA T,E I 250 R     2279 29.4 10/1974   35    
18-24W-23DCC Ummel Brothers   45 R 18 QA T,T I 450 R     2259 23.1 11/1974   37    
18-24W-23DDC Ummel Brothers   45 R 18 QA T,T I 450 R     2259 23.2 11/1974   38    
18-24W-25ACB City of Ness City 1969 51 R 16 QA T,E PS 135 R     2250 32.0 1/1974        
18-24W-25ADC City of Ness City 1967 52 R 16 QA T,E PS 125 R     2241 32.0 1/1974        
18-24W-25BBA Glen Pember 1966 54 R 18 QA T,E I 95 9 94 2254 26.4 11/1974 C 17    
18-24W-25DCA City of Ness City 1954 56 R 16 QA T,E PS 115 R     2243 37.0 1/1974        
18-24W-25DCC City of Ness City 1955 58 R 16 QA T,E PS 40 R     2251 43.0 5/1974        
18-24W-26DAA Dwaine Radke 1955   18 QA T,LPG I 350 R       17.7 12/1974   35    
18-24W-26DBC Dwaine Radke 1960 62 R 18 QA T,D I 250 R       28.5 12/1974   37    
18-24W-27ADB Otto Stoppel 1967 66 R 18 QA T,LPG I 300 R     2270 35.1 10/1974        
18-24W-36AAA City of Ness City 1975 60 R 18 QA T,E PS 125 R     2240 35.0 1/1976        
18-24W-36ADB Keith Parkerson 1971 59 R 16 QA T,LPG I 320 32   2235 36.4 10/1974   40    
18-25W-5ACA Leonard Norton 1972 70 R 16 QA T,E I 400 12   2376 26.6 12/1974   50 145  
18-25W-5ACB Leonard Norton 1972 62 R 16 QA T,E I 165 5   2383 26.8 12/1974   20 212  
18-25W-33ADC Chris Dinges 1965 48 R 20 QA T,E I 305 R     2388       24    
18-25W-33BAD Chris Dinges 1965 48 R 20 QA T,E I 485 44   2393 18.8 11/1974   29 97  
18-25W-33BBC Chris Dinges 1965 48 R   QA T,T I,O 350 R     2402 24.2 11/1974        
18-25W-33BCB Chris Dinges 1965 48 R 20 QA T,E I 350 R     2398 22.2 11/1974   30    
18-25W-33BDB Chris Dinges 1965 4S R 20 QA T,E I 600R     2392 18.4 11/1974        
18-26W-6BAB C. J. Whipple 1958   12 QA,TO SUB,E I       2570 6.8 12/1974   13    
18-26W-6BAB2 C. J. Whipple 1958   12 QA,TO SUB,E I,O       2570 7.4 12/1974   13    
18-26W-6BAB3 C. J. Whipple 1958   12 QA,TO SUB,E I       2570 3.7 12/1974   14    
19-21W-6BBC Waldimore Strecker 1967 47 R 19 QA T,E I 50 R     2132 35.7 11/1974   14    
19-21W-6BCA L. A. Strecker 1956 55 R 16 QA T,E I 185     2132     C 9    
19-21 W-6BCB L. A. Strecker 1964 52 R 16 QA T,E I 450 R     2132       9    
19-22W-1ACA Herbert Moore 1971 50 R 16 QA T,E I 350 R     2132 36.0 11/1974   50    
19-22W-1ADA Herbert Moore 1971 50 R 16 QA T,E I 225 R     2131 34.4 11/1974   50    
19-22W-1BAA Herbert Moore 1971 50 R 16 QA T,E I 300 R     2133 33.8 11/1974   51    
19-22W-3ACD Larry Kleweno 1968 47 R 16 QA T,E I 85 7 120 2142 31.1 11/1974 C 23 338  
19-22W-3ADC Larry Kleweno 1974 53 R 16 QA T,E I 120 7 168 2141 31.5 11/1974   25 416  
19-22W-4DCD A. Elaine Gross   54 R 16 QA T,E I 300 R     2153 28.6 11/1974   30    
19-22W-7AAD George Knotts 1956 59 R 16 QA T,E I 135 10 72 2167 35.8 10/1974   57 323  
19-22W-7ADC George Knotts 1958 49 R 16 QA T,LPG I 250 31 72 2172 37.8 10/1974 C 57   43
19-22W-7ADD George Knotts 1970 55 R 16 QA T,E I 115 23 72 2170 38.1 10/1974   57 230  
19-22W-8ABB Richard Stenzel 1974 56 R 16 QA T,E I 400 R     2160 30.3 11/1974   50    
19-22W-8ADB Richard Stenzel 1971 52 R 16 QA T,E I 300 R     2163       50    
19-22W-8BCA Ron Eckels 1969 61 R 16 QA T,LPG I 770 59   2166 36.9 10/1974   50   14
19-22W-8BCB Ron Eckels 1949 58 R 12 QA T,LPG I 670 61 504 2168 36.0 10/1974 C 50   16
19-23W-1CCB J. R. Clauston 1970 450 R 16 KD T,LPG I,O 800 9 54 2214 79.5 3/1975 C 120   54
19-23W-5BDB Alvin Langer 1966 65 R 16 QA T,D I 355 18   2222 33.6 10/1974   60   12
19-23W-5CCD City of Ness City 1971 70 R 16 QA T,E PS 105 R     2218 30.0 1/1974        
19-23W-5CD City of Ness City 1958 70 R 16 QA T,E PS 95 R     2218 32.0 1/1974        
19-23W-5DCC City of Ness City 1958 72 R 16 QA T,E PS 115 R     2210 36.0 1/1974        
19-23W-6AAA Alvin Langer 1974 65 R 16 QA T,D I 155 11   2227 30.2 10/1974   32   18
19-23W-8CBA Robert Schniepp 1970 48 R 16 QA T,LPG I 260 22   2222 31.9 10/1974   30   21
19-23W-8CBB Robert Schniepp   52 R 1 QA N O       2220 21.3 8/1971        
19-23W-8CCC Robert Schniepp 1944 42 R   QA T,LPG I 200 R     2223 27.1 10/1974   10    
19-23W-11BBD George Clauston 1956 44 R 16 QA T,LPG I 250 R     2191 26 R 10/1974        
19-23W-11BBD2 George Clouston 1958 44 R 16 QA T,LPG I       2191 26 R 10/1974        
19-23W-14BAD H. H. Cooper 1958 58 R 16 QA T,LPG I 350 R     2184 37.5 10/1974   17    
19-23W-14DBA Orville Pfaff 1964 70 R 18 QA T,LPG I 350 R     2177 37.8 10/1974   35    
19-23W-21DA Ralph Stum 1975 282 R 4 KD T,E S       2240     C      
19-24W-7CDA Charles Shauers 1948 34 R 19 QA T,D I 450 R     2330 16.4 11/1974   48    
19-24W-7DBC M. L. McCoy 1965 60 R 18 QA T,E I 350R     2345 43.4 11/1974   35    
19-24W-8DCC Art Pember 1968 64 R 18 QA T,E I 370 30   2332 36.9 11/1974   25 127  
19-24W-17BAA Art Pember 1968 63 R 18 QA T,E I 135 14   2332 36.5 11/1974   25 170  
19-24W-17BAA2 Art Pember 1968 67 R 18 QA T,E I 350 25   2332 36.3 11/1974   25 141  
19-24W-17BAD Art Pember 1969 55 R 18 QA T,E I 200 30   2329 34.6 11/1974 C 25 113  
19-25W-2DBC W. B. Baldwin 1953 55 R 14 QA T,D I 225 R     2360 30 R 7/1974   55    
20-22W-3DDD Fred Stoecklein 1974 315 R 5 KD CY,W S 80 E     2250 135 R 12/1974        
20-22W-19CCD T. F. Brennan 1940 75 R 18 QA T,E I 830   72 2190     C 110 126  
20-22W-19DDC T. F. Brennan 1920 75 R 18 QA T,LPG I 1000 R     2195       40    
20-22W-2OCCC C. L. Whitley   51 R 20 QA N O       2189 34.4 8/1971        
20-22W-20CCC2 M. A. Whitley 1935 93 R 16 QA T,E I 500     2189 24 R 8/1945   49 129  
20-22W-20CCC3 M. A. Whitley 1972 127 R 16 QA T,E I 870 41   2188 33.7 10/1974 C 49 112  
20-22W-20DCA C. G. Holmes 1964 86 R 18 QA T,E I 800 R     2182 32.4 10/1974   97    
20-22W-20DCC C. G. Holmes 1964 90 R 18 QA T,E I 1000 R     2184 32.6 10/1974   98    
20-22W-21DBB J. J. Bowman 1942 70 R 18 QA T,E I 220 10   2178 38.0 10/1974 C 40 200  
20-22W-21DBB2 J. J. Bowman 1971 70 R 18 QA T,E I 220 22   2180 32.5 10/1974   40 133  
20-22W-27BCD Harry Shanks 1965 63 R 16 QA T,E I 300 30   2177 34.3 10/1974   48 110  
20-22W-27CBB A. Barricklow 1947 59 R 16 QA T,E I 760 R     2175 33.2 10/1974   48    
20-22W-27DCD Thelma Stone       QA T,E I 1000 R     2171       33    
20-22W-28AAC A. Barricklow 1951 65 R 16 QA T,LPG I 1000 R     2178 28 R 1951   43    
20-22W-28ACC A. Barricklow 1951 91 R 16 QA T,E I 1180 R     2172 28 R 1951   60    
20-22W-28BCC Dale Bowman 1956 98 R 16 QA T,E I 770 77   2185 37.6 10/1974 C 70 120  
20-22W-28CBC J. L. McFadden 1933 60 R 18 QA T,E I       2185       53    
20-22W-28CCB2 H. M. McFadden 1933 90 R 18 QA T,E I       2185 41.9 10/1974        
20-22W-28CCC Nellie McFadden 1929 60 R 18 QA T,E I       2185 42.8 10/1974        
20-22W-28DCC Omar Cook 1930 60 R 24   T,E I       2181 30 R 1930   40    
20-22W-29ACD R. F. Uehling 1955 80 R 14 QA T,E I 800 R     2188 42.0 10/1974   115    
20-22W-29BDA R. F. Uehling 1974 125 R 16 QA T,E I 550R     2190       110    
20-22W-29CBB Harry Hall 1966 87 R 16 QA T,LPG I 600 16 1 2191 39.3 10/1974 C 30   18
20-22W-29DBB Harry Hall 1957 108 R 19 QA T,LPG I 950 R     2190 41.7 10/1974   77    
20-22W-30AAB Harry Hall 1974 81 R 16 QA T,LPG I 650 17 96 2189 36.9 10/1974   45   25
20-22W-30ABC Harry Hall 1943 65 R 19 QA T,LPG I 1200 R     2195       65    
20-22W-30BCD Harry Hall 1949 63 R 19 QA T,LPG I 580     2198     C 138   37
20-22W-30CBA F. E. Roth 1935 60 R 19 QA T,E I 520     2195 40.0 10/1974   85 155  
20-22W-32AAA Ervin Koerner 1946 60 R 18 QA T,LPG I 275     2185 42.7 10/1974 C 20   59
20-22W-33ABC W. D. Barricklow 1969 90 R 16 QA T,LPG I 870 79   2183 40.6 10/1974   70   31
20-22W-33BAD W. D. Barricklow 1952 60 R 16 QA T,E I 435 73   2181 41.1 10/1974   44 138  
20-22W-33BBA W. D. Barricklow 1948 60 R 16 QA T,E I 750     2183 40.7 10/1971   36    
20-22W-33DAD Ray McFadden 1924 56 R 18 QA T,E I 800 R     2175 36.8 10/1974   14    
20-22W-34ACC Earl Cure 1951 90R 18 QA T,E I 1800 R     2173       155    
20-22W-34BCC Wilma McFadden 1966 86 R 16 QA T,E I 1600 R     2181       115    
20-22W-34DCB Orville Pfaff 1950 80 R 24 QA T,LPG I 1200 R     2171 30 R 1950   100    
20-22W-35ACC T. C. Bowie 1935 78R 16 QA T,LPG I 900R     2166       80    
20-22W-35BCC Leslie Cox 1935 68 R 14 QA T,E I,O 700R     2168 35.4 10/1974   100    
20-22W-35CCB Emerson Cox 1969 81 R 19 QA T,E I 1000 R     2171 38.2 10/1974   131    
20-22W-36CCC Chester Jordan 1972 100R 16 QA T,E I 540 8   2164 38.6 10/1974   80 190  
20-22W-36DCB Melvin Murphy       QA T,E I       2155 37.6 10/1974        
20-23W-23CCD H. A. Reinert 1960 58 R 18 QA T,E I 350 44 1 2215 45.4 10/1974 C 60 128  
20-23W-24DCC M. A. Whitley 1935 97 R 16 QA T,E I 700 R     2192 26.3 8/1945   65    
20-23W-25ACB Carl Reinert 1937 65 R 16 QA T,E I 297 30   2201 40.2 10/1974   48 132  
20-23W-25ADB Carl Reinert 1971 65 R 16 QA T,E I 429 61   2195 41.4 10/1974   48 132  
20-23W-25ADC Carl Reinert 1933 61 R 19 QA T,E I 374     2201 33 R 1933   49 137  
20-23W-25BBC Donald Dansel 1974 30 R 18 QA   I 500 R     2205            
20-23W-25BCC Donald Dansel 1964 65 R 18 QA T,E I 500 R     2205 36.1 10/1974        
20-23W-25CCB Carl Reinert 1936 113 R 16 QA T,E I 445 44   2208 44.5 10/1974   50 134  
20-23W-25CCB2 Carl Reinert 1945 60 R 16 QA T,E I 335 42   2208 44.8 10/1974   50 125  
20-23W-26ACD O. J. Marhofer 1953 82 18 QA T,E I 630 23   2211 43.9 10/1974 C 110 154  
20-23W-26BDC O. J. Marhofer 1948 72 R 18 QA T,LPG I 400 R     2209 41.2 10/1974   40    
20-23W-26CAB Harkness & Benson 1974 90 R 16 QA T,E I 535 6 720 2211 43.1 10/1974 C 73 167  
20-23W-26CBD Harkness & Benson 1963 120 R 16 QA T,E I 610     2211 44.5 10/1974   72 154  
20-23W-26DBC O. J. Marhofer Est. 1974 85 R 16 QA T,E I 565 28   2212 44.2 10/1974   70 131  
20-23W-26DCC O. J. Marhofer Est. 1945 63 R 19 QA T,E I 455 50   2212 40.5 10/1974   70 114  
20-23W-27DCB Ethel Edwards 1969 75 R 16 QA T,E I 620 44 480 2215 38R 1969 C 70 160  
20-23W-27DDC Parks & Harkness 1969 85 R 16 QA T,E I 810 115   2216 41.6 10/1974   70 129  
20-23W-28DDA James Burdett 1936 70 R 19 QA T,E I 400 R     2220       35    
20-23W-32BBC Marlin Stumm 1967 100 R 14 QA T,LPG I 900 35   2230 35. 6/1975 C 212   24
20-23W-32CDA J. E. Ficken 1934 67 R 19 QA T,LPG I,O 1000 R     2233 36.4 12/1971   84    
20-23W-33AAB E. Jedlicka 1937 60 R 16 QA T,LPG I 700 R     2222 43. 10/1974   60    
20-23W-33BCA Frusher & Frusher 1940 85 R 16 QA T,E I 455     2225 41.5 10/1974   70    
20-23W-33BCC Frusher & Frusher 1965 90 R 16 QA T,E I 360 17   2222 41.8 10/1974 C 40 163  
20-23W-33CBD Frusher & Frusher 1971 75 R 16 QA T,E I 650R     2225 40.6 10/1974   132    
20-23W-34BAC Frusher & Frusher 1972 85R 16 QA T,E I 600 46   2215 41.1 10/1974 C 75 134  
20-23W-34BBA Frusher & Frusher 1972 105 R 16 QA T,E I 305 9   2216 41.8 10/1974   45 185  
20-23W-35BBB A. Reinert 1961 80 R 18 QA T,E I 645 49   2217 43.7 10/1974   100 138  
20-24W-36BDA Humburg Ranch Inc. 1959 85 R 16 QA T,LPG I 415 69   2242 31.7 11/1974   107   47
20-24W-36CBB Humburg Ranch Inc. 1967 63 R 16 QA T,LPG I 330 47   2245 34.5 9/1974   53   47
20-24W-36CCC Humburg Ranch Inc. 1946 54 R 16 QA T,LPG I 535 67   2245 33.3 11/1974   150   36
20-24W-36CDA Humburg Ranch Inc. 1971 57 R 16 QA T,E I 125 25   2245 36.8 9/1974 C 15 188  
20-26W-7BDC Lyle Davidson 1970 50 R 16 QA T,LPG I,O 300 R       23.8 12/1974   72    
20-26W-7BDC2 Lyle Davidson 1970 50 R 16 QA T,LPG I 300 R       26.4 12/1974   73    

(1) Numbering system described in text.
(2) Depths of wells given in feet below land surface--no letter after number, measured; R, reported.
(3) Geologic unit--QA, Alluvium; TO, Ogallala Formation; KD, Dakota Formation.
(4) Method of lift--C, centrifugal; CY, cylinder; N, none; SUB, submersible; T, turbine. Type of power--D, diesel; E, electric; G, gasoline; LPG, liquid petroleum gas; T, tractor; W, wind.
(5) Use--I, irrigation; N, none; O, observation; PS, public supply; S, stock.
(6) Yield given in gallons per minute--no letter, measured during present study; E, estimated; R, reported.
(7) Specific capacity-gallons per minute per foot of drawdown for the time shown in bours.
(8) Altitude of land surface in feet above mean sea level determined by topographic map.
(9) Depth to water below land surface datum (LSD) in feet-measured depths less than 100 feet are given to nearest 0.1 foot and those greater than 100 feet are given to nearest foot; R, reported. (10) Date of measurement-month and year.
(11) Chemical data--C, complete analysis.
(12) Power consumption--KWH/acre foot, kilowatt hours of electricity per acre-foot of water pumped; gallons/acre-foot, gallons of fuel per acre-foot of water pumped.

Table 5--Chemical analyses of water from selected wells. [Dissolved constituents and hardness given in milligrams per liter. Analyses by Kansas Department of Health and Environment]

Local well
number
Well
depth
(feet)
Geologic
source1
Date of
collection
Temp.
(°C)
Dissolved
silica
(SiO2)
Total
iron
(Fe)
Dissolved
manganese
(Mn)
Dissolved
calcium
(Ca)
Dissolved
magnesium
(Mg)
Dissolved
sodium
(Na)
Dissolved
potassium
(K)
Carbonate
(CO3)
Bicarbonate
(HCO3)
Dissolved
sulfate
(SO4)
Dissolved
chloride
(Cl)
Dissolved
fluoride
(F)
Dissolved
nitrate
(NO3)
Dissolved
solids
calculated
Hardness Sodium
adsorption
ratio
Specific
conductance
(microhhos
at 25 °C)
pH
(Ca, Mg) Non-
carbionate
16-26W-2ABB 34 TO 12-23-1975   9.5     54 18 20 5.3 0 124 49 78 .3 2.0 297 208 106 .6 540 7.5
16-26W-35CCD 40 TO 12-23-1975   36     104 18 20 6.6 0 349 33 28 .3 28 446 334 48 .5 710 7.7
18-24W-25BBA 54 QA 7-18-1975 15.0 43 .16   160 21 33 7.0 0 324 140 89 .2 16 666 480 214 .7 1080 7.5
19-21W-6BCA 55 QA 5-22-1975   41 .00 .00 200 16 41 6.5 0 444 209 55 .2 7.4 794 565 201 .8 1160  
19-22W-3ACD 47 QA 7-17-1975 17.0 37 .08 .00 126 14 67 7.5 0 310 186 43 .6 17 650 372 118 1.5 1020 7.5
19-22W-7ADC 49 QA 5-7-1975 15.0 42 .05 .00 149 22 45 7.2 0 359 124 81 .4 19 666 462 168 .9 1030 7.5
19-22W-8BCB 58 QA 5-7-1975 14.5 41 .05 .00 179 23 31 7.0 0 329 168 112 .4 16 739 541 271 .6 1170 7.4
19-23W-1CCB 450 KD 7-17-1975 19.0 8.6 .03 .00 9.6 3.9 240 5.8 0 244 132 161 2.4 .9 684 40 0 17 1220 7.7
19-23W-21DA 282 KD 8-25-1975   8.1 .11 .20 16 5.8 510 9.8 0 390 240 30 5.2 .1 1420 64   28 2470 8.0
19-24W-17BAD 55 QA 6-20-1975   38 .09 .00 72 13 45 5.5 0 310 52 20 .5 6.1 404 233 0 1.3 641 7.7
20-22W-19CCD 75 QA 5-7-1975 14.0 39 .03 .00 136 16 32 8.5 0 342 146 26 .2 13 585 406 126 .7 890 7.5
20-22W-20CCC3 127 QA 5-15-1975   41 .00 .00 112 16 43 8.5 0 339 121 32 .6 1.7 543 346 68 1.0 830 7.6
20-22W-21DBB 70 QA 6-17-1975   51 .02 .00 130 13 30 6.0 0 349 101 37 .6 7.4 548 378 92 .7 840 7.5
20-22W-28BCC 98 QA 6-17-1975   43 .02 .00 112 42 40 11 0 346 201 38 .3 .2 658 452 168 .8 980 7.7
20-22W-29CBB 87 QA 5-9-1975 14.5 42 .27 .00 178 18 15 6.5 0 388 158 33 .1 25 667 518 200 .3 1000 7.5
20-22W-30BCD 63 QA 5-15-1975   44 .02 .00 179 25 31 8.2 0 268 254 86 .3 28   550 330 .6 1160 7.4
20-22W-32AAA 60 QA 5-8-1975 13.5 25 .06   141 12 15 4.5 0 346 8.8 26 .2 32 524 402 118 .3 820 7.5
20-23W-23CCD 58 QA 5-8-1975 14.5 30 .11 .00 120 9.8 20 4.5 0 273 76 42 .2 37 474 340 116 .5 760 7.5
20-23W-26ACD 82 QA 5-16-1975   41 .02 .00 179 17 37 9.0 0 368 233 40 .3 10 748 516 214 .7 1090 7.6
20-23W-26CAB 90 QA 5-8-1975 14.5 44 .06 .00 142 17 33 7.2 0 322 164 37 .5 7.8 611 424 160 .7 920 7.4
20-23W-27DCB 75 QA 5-8-1975 14.0 41 .06   163 21 25 8.2 0 310 204 53 .3 6.4 675 493 239 .5 1010 7.5
20-23W-32BBC 100 QA 6-18-1975   35 1.3 .00 126 15 27 7.0 0 310 140 30 .3 4.3 537 376 122 .6 810 7.7
20-23W-33BCC 90 QA 6-18-1975   39 .02 .00 120 13 19 6.2 0 305 93 30 .3 7.8 478 353 103 .5 740 7.6
20-23W-34BAC 85 QA 5-22-1975   40 .02 .00 133 9.7 19 5.0 0 310 85 41 .3 18 503 372 118 .4 770 7.8
20-24W-36CDA 57 QA 6-19-1975   32 .02 .00 168 17 56 7.2 0 381 162 86 .2 22 738 489 177 1.1 1160 7.6

1. Geologic units abbreviated as follows: KD, Dakota Formation; TO, Ogallala Formation; QA, Alluvium.


Kansas Geological Survey
Placed on web July 18, 2013; originally published in 1977.
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