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Dakota Paleontology and Geology


Invertebrate Paleontology and Faunal Summary, continued


Lingula sp.

Fragments of a Lingula are not uncommon in the Kiowa shales and also to a less extent in the Mentor bed, but in no instance has an entire shell been collected. The shell is small, the maximum length probably not exceeding five-eighths inch. The present color of the fragments is black, and such was probably the original color.



Anchura kiowana Cragin
(Plate IX, figures 2 and 3.)

1890. Anchura sp. Cragin. Bull. Washburn Coll. Lab. Nat. Hist., vol. II, No. 11, p. 75 (not described).
1891. Anchura kiowana Cragin. Colorado Coll. Studies, 6th Ann. Publication, pp. 66, 67.
1892. Anchura kiowana Stanton. In Hill, Am. Jour. Sci., vol. L, p. 217 (not described).

Cragin's description. Shell small, consisting of six convex whorls; spire elevated; suture impressed; wing of moderate size, consisting of a proximate flangelike part, continued posteriorly across half or more of the first spire whorl, and a carinated falciform process; carina gradually arising at the base of the falciform process and traversing the latter to the extremity; falciform process much shorter and less upturned distally than that of the somewhat similar species, A. ruida White, not rising to the lowest level of the suture between the body whorl and the first spire whorl, but having its point directed outward and somewhat upward, so as to make a large angle with the axis of the spire; exteroinferior outline of wing rounded and the border between this and the canal sinuous; margin of upper (flange) part of wing describing a slightly concave to sigmoid outline and more or less thickened and reflexed; inner lip provided with a moderately broad and prominent callous; canal short and obliquely truncated; spire whorls and posterior half to two-thirds of body whorl ornamented with narrow, curved, subvertical ribs, or folds, of which there are about twenty-four on the first spire whorl, and with numerous revolving stria, the latter ornamentation gradually becoming prominent and superseding the ribs on the lower third to half of the body "whorl." The height of a full-grown shell is about 22 mm. The apical angle is about 30 degrees.

This species appears to be closely related to A. mudgeana White from the Paw Paw beds of the Texas section, a fact previously noted by Stanton. Cragin stated a resemblance to A. ruida White from the Cretaceous of Utah, but the relationship does not appear to be close. The entire wing haa not been preserved in any specimen which the present writer has observed. A. mudgeana and A. kiowana are about the same size, but in the latter the ribs are concave toward the aperture instead of straight as they appear to be in the former.

Horizon and locality. This shell occurs in abundance in the calcareous beds of the Kiowa shales, making its appearance in the Champion shell bed and extending to the top of the section. It is also locally abundant in the Windom member in McPherson County, particularly at the Natural Corral and the exposures to the northwest of Conway. A single well-preserved mold of the exterior was collected in the Mentor sandstone to the west of Smolan, and four fragments from the Mentor sandstone at the Natural Corral.

Anisomyon cragini, n. sp.
(Plate VII, figure 3.)

Three specimens of patelloid shells have been found in the collections made by the writer. The largest of these haa a diameter of about 4 mm. and a height of 1 to 1 1/2 mm. The specimens in two cases have the shell absent; a single specimen from the Champion Draw section has portions of the shell still present. The surface is shown by all three specimens to have been ornamented by irregular concentric undulations. The apex is central and there is a little variation in the apical angle, the specimen from the Champion Draw section being of smaller angle than the others. This may be of a different species. In no one of the specimens is the shell entirely preserved, but there appears to have been no twisting of any kind.

Horizon and locality. Mentor bed, 5 miles west of Smolan, 2 specimens; one specimen from zone 12 of the Champion Draw section.

Margarita (Solarella) newberryi Cragin

1894. Maryarita (Solarella) newberryi Cragin. Am. Geol., vol. XIV, pp. 10, 11.

Cragin's description. Shell thin, low-turbinate, consisting of about four rapidly enlarging whorls; spire small and low, the sutures rather deeply impressed, the body whorl very large and ventricose; surface of each whorl ornamented with coarse, unevenly elevated revolving lines or granuliferous ridges, the intervals between which are marked with usually two similar but much finer revolving lines, the whorls being also obliquely crossed by a system of rather remote, narrow, raised lines which proceed from the apex down the slopes of the shell with a somewhat sigmoid, or sicklelike, curvature, and produce more or less distinct eminences at their intersection with the revolving ridges. Of the primary revolving lines or ridges there are six or seven on the flank and shoulder of the body whorl. Measurements: Height of shell, 13 mm.; breadth of body whorl, 15 mm.; divergence of slopes, 104 degrees.

Horizon and locality. Cragin founded this species on a single specimen of the Champion Draw section, which he collected from the Champion shell bed. No other specimen is known to have been collected.

Margarita marcouana Cragin
(Plate VIII, figure 7.)

1891. Margarita marcouana Cragin. Am. Geol., vol. XIV, p. 9.

Cragin's description. Shell turbinate, spire moderately prominent; whorls, four and a half, convex, increasing rapidly in size, the large body whorl obliquely flattened below and above; aperture subcircular, apparently as high as wide; no umbilicus; columella flattened below; whorls marked with prominent, oblique growth lines, and ornamented with three strong, equidistant, coarsely but regularly beaded carinae, above which, on the body whorl, is a fourth smaller one close to the suture. Measurements: Height, 15 mm.; breadth, 14.5 mm.; divergence of slopes, 85 degrees.

The writer has collected only a single specimen of this shell, which shows a portion with the ornamentation. The shell is 8 mm. high and 10 mm. wide. The lower portion of the body-whorl below the lowest carina is ornamented with fine, somewhat nodular lines, of which there are about four per millimeter. In the depression between the lowest two carina is a low ridge which appears to be wanting between higher carinae. This shell may be identical With M. mudgeana Meek, but it is smaller and no nodes are stated to be present on the carinae of that shell. With the discovery of better specimens of Meek's species these may be found to be present. For the present it is deemed best to consider the two shells distinct.

Horizon and locality. Cragin's specimens, two in number, were derived from the Champion shell bed and his zone 3, which embraces zones 8, 10 and 12 of the writer's section. The specimen described by the writer came from zone 10.

Margarita mudgeana Meek
(Plate VIII, figures 8, 9.)

1871. Margarita mudgeanus Meek. Hayden's Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Territories, p. 3131.
1876, Margarita mudgeana Meek. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Territories, vol. IX, p. 300, pl. 2, figs. 9a-b.
1893. Margarita mudgeana Boyle. Bull. 102, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 177 (not described).

Meek's description. Shell rather large, turbinate, about as high as wide; spire moderately prominent; volutions, four and a half to five, increasing rather rapidly in size, convex, last one somewhat obliquely flattened below and above, and laterally compressed or flattened around the middle of the outer side, at the base of which it is angular; suture more or less channeled; aperture circular; outer lip thin and oblique; columella arched and flattened below; axis imperf orate; surface ornamented by strong, raised, oblique lines of growth, which are crossed by four equidistant rather sharp, revolving carinae, only three of which are seen on the volutions of the spire. Height, 0.66 in.; breadth, about 0.64 in.; divergence of slopes of the spire, about 75 degrees.

Horizon and locality. Meek's specimens came from the Mentor beds, about 12 miles southwest of Salina, Kan. It probably also occurs near Smolan. The shell has not been found in any of the writer's collections.

Margarita ornata, n. sp.
(Plate VIII, figure 6.)

Shell small; apical angle, 88 degrees; 12 mm. high; 11 mm. wide; at least three and a half whorls, sutures impressed, ornamented by spiral lines (these observed only on the lowest whorl). On the body whorl near the suture is a well-defined rounded ridge about 1 mm. wide, which appears to have a shallow groove on its apex. This ridge is succeeded below by a round-bottomed depression in which are two low, rounded, spiral ridges. The depression is bordered below by a well-defined ridge, below which for a short distance the surface is vertical. Below this spiral are six others, of which the topmost is the smallest and the other five are of nearly equal size. The body whorl is 8 mm. high. Aperture unknown.

Horizon and locality. Mentor beds, 5 miles west of Smolan, Saline County. Not common.

Natica? smolanense, n. sp.
(Plate VII, figure 6.)

Shell small; largest 13 mm. high, 13 mm. wide. About three and a half whorls; body whorl about 11 mm. high, other whorls small and not rising more than 3 mm. above body whorl. No ornamentation other than small ridges of growth. Specimen preserved as fillings of interior. Aperture wholly unknown.

Horizon and locality. Mentor beds, 5 miles west of Smolan, Saline County; common. Two specimens from the type locality of the Mentor beds at Mentor.

Nerita? semipleura, n. sp.
(Plate VII, figure 2.)

This shell is represented by two molds of the exterior, neither of which shows the shape of the aperature. It is low-spired the body whorl constituting nearly the whole of the shell, and it probably did not grow to much larger dimensions than those given below. The best specimen has about two and a half whorls, the apical whorl being not more than 0.5 to 0.75 mm. above the body whorl. About 8 mm. wide; 5 to 6 mm. high. Surface ornamented with transverse ribs, which trend backward from the suture so as to be convex toward the aperture. These are more prominent on the upper half of the whorl, and on the lower half they are crossed by low spiral ridges which give to this portion of the shell a slightly nodular appearance. These transverse lines are about 1 mm. distant from each other.

Horizon and locality. The specimens came from the Mentor beds, about 5 miles west of Smolan, Saline County.

Neritoma marcouana Cragin

1894. Neritoma marcouana Cragin. Colorado Coll. Studies, 6th Ann. Publication, pp. 92, 63.

Cragin's description. Shell small, of moderate thickness, depressed-subglobose, oblique, consisting of apparently three and a half whorls; spire sublateral, small, eroded; body whorl large, ventricose, evenly rounded, nearly smooth, its upper part with feebly elevated costellae, extending obliquely upward (that is, toward the suture and at the same time somewhat toward the aperture), and separated by the round-bottomed, groovelike intervals of about the same, breadth, that begin, in part abruptly, at or just above the periphery; periphery and base of body whorl smooth, or marked only by ordinary growth lines; aperture obliquely and rather narrowly ovate; inner lip with a callous, strongly flattened and without teeth; outer lip with a moderate, shallow, broadly rounded excavation just below the peripheral line. No umbilicus. The uneroded portion of the spire rises but little above the body whorl. Measurements: Height, 10 mm.; breadth, 10.5 mm. Costellae of body whorl about 3 in., 2 mm.

Horizon and locality. Cragin's specimens came from the Kiowa shales above the Champion shell bed, and he obtained a specimen very similar in the Windom member near Windom, in McPherson County.

Trochus texanus Roemer
(Plate IX, figure 4.)

1888. Trochus texanus Roemer. Paleont. Abhandl., vierter Band, heft 4, p. 15, taf. I (XXXI), fig. 13; Berlin.
1894. Trochus texanus Cragin. Am. Geol., vol. XIV, p. 11 (not described).
1896. Trochus texanus Stanton. In Hill, Am. Jour. Sci., vol. L, p. 217 (not described).

Shell small, 12 mm. high, about 11 mm. broad, apical angle 73 degrees; base rounded convex, not flat, meeting side slopes at rounded angles, ornamented with granulated ridges which are finer than those of the slopes, 1/2 mm. apart. As the shell grows larger these successively migrate over the margin angle and come up on the slopes, resulting in that the spiral lines of granules progressively increase from the apex to the base. The lower whorl in each specimen showing the ornamentation has six rows of spirals, the whorl above has five rows suggesting that the increase in the number of spirals is one for each whorl. In every one of the specimens many of the granules have a small hole in or near the apex. The spirals on the slopes are about 1 mm. apart; the separating depressions are narrower than the ridges, and round-bottomed.

This pretty shell is not common in any of the exposures. According to both Stanton and Cragin, it is somewhat smaller than the Texas form, but otherwise similar.

Horizon and locality. Zones 8 to l4, and of the Champion Draw section; not seen elsewhere. Roomer's specimens were collected about two miles above the mouth of Barton creek, near Austin, Tex. This is probably from the Fredericksburg.

Turritella kansasensis Meek
(Plate VIII, figures 3-5.)

1871. Turritella kansasensis Meek. Hayden'a 4th Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Territories, pp. 312, 313.
1876. Mesalia? kansasensis Meek. U. S. Geol. Surv. Territories, vol. IX, p. 333, 334, pl. 2, figs. 7a-b.
1897. Turritella kansasensis Cragin. Science, n. ser., vol. VI, p. 134.
1893. Turritella kansasensis Boyle. Bull. 102, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 294 (not described). AIso listed as Mesalia? kansasensis, p. 183.

Meek's description. Shell elongate-conical, or gradually and regularly tapering from below to the apex, with the lateral slopes of spire straight; volutions eight to ten, increasing regularly in size, flattened, or only very slightly convex; last one rounded below; suture nearly linear; aperture ovate; surface with small, threadlike, revolving lines, varying much in their arrangement and distinctness, but usually more strongly defined on the lower half of the last turn; lines of growth very fine, obscure, and strongly arched or sigmoid, so as to indicate a deep sinuosity in the outer lip above the middle. Length of a large specimen, 1.10 in.; breadth, 0.34 in.; divergence of slopes of spire, about 22 degrees.

This shell reaches a considerably larger size than given by Meek. One specimen, which was measured, has a length of 35 mm. and a width at the apertural end of 95 mm. Another specimen 12 mm. wide at the aperture has a length of 40 mm. The apical angle is around 14 to 15 degrees, the variation being from 14 to 15. As noted by Meek there is also a variation in the number and development of the spiral striations, and these appear to be altogether wanting in ornamentation, no nodes of any kind having been observed on a single one of the hundreds of specimens examined.

The essential difference between this species and T. belviderii Cragin appears to be in the presence of nodes on the spirals of the latter.

Horizon and locality. In great abundance in the Mentor beds and present in every locality where these strata have been seen. Occurs in great abundance at Smolan, Mentor, Brookville, Natural Corral, Lehigh, etc.

Turritella seriatim-granulata var. belviderii Cragin
(Plate VIII, figures 1-2.)

1893. Turritella seriatim-granulata Cragin (partim). 4th Ann. Rept. Texas Geol. Surv., pt. 2, p. 231.
1883. Turritella ventrovoluta Cragin. Ibid., p. 232.
1893. Turritella flagellta Cragin. Ibid., p. 232.
1897. Turritella ventrovoluta Cragin. Science, n. ser., vol. VI, p. 134.
1897. Turritella belviderii Cragin. Science, Ibid., p. 134.
1889. Turritella marnochii White, Cragin. Bull. Wash. Lab. Nat. Hist.. vol. II, No. 9, p. 35.
1890. Turritella marnochii typ. Cragin. Ibid., vol. II, No. 11, p. 75.
1890. Turritella marnochii var. belviderii Cragin. Ibid., p. 75.
1895. Turritella sp. Stanton. In Hill, Am. Jour. Sci. vol. L, p. 217.

Cragin's Description. Shell of medium size in the genus, consisting of ten or more flattened or somewhat convex whorls; suture feebly impressed; aperture round-rhombic, slightly elevated; whorls ornamented with about six subequal to unequal, abruptly elevated revolving ribs whose summits are beaded, each bearing rather closely set or oblique to transverse prominent granules; the intercostal intervals square-bottomed, those of the upper spire whorls and of the lower part of the body whorl and the first spire whorl respectively less than and about equal to the ribs; upper rib tubercles of each whorl usually coarser than the others, especially so in the case of the body whorl, in which the large tubercles are sometimes distinctly arcuate (concave on the side away from the aperture), an attenuated rib, or raised line (sometimes two) developed just above it, about on the suture, the second rib above this being also sometimes smaller than the average.

Shells of this form are present in great abundance in the Kiowa shales at every occurrence where these strata have been seen. The largest specimen seen has twelve whorls. The whorls nearest the apex are flat or only slightly convex and the sutures are only faintly indicated. The whorls nearest the aperture show the sutures more plainly and the convexity of the whorls is greater. Each whorl has six to seven spirals, which on, the large whorls are ornamented with small knobs or beads. These may be conical or elongated parallel to the spirals, both types being present on the same specimen. The highest spiral is generally the most prominent and has the largest nodes. The apical whorl has the spiral nodes or beads very obscure, and in many instances they appear to be wanting. There is considerable variation in the development of the spirals on different whorls and on different specimens.

The shells reach a large size, the largest specimen measured being 76 mm. long and 18 mm. wide at the aperture end, with the possibility that a part of this end has been broken away. The apical angle is around 15 degrees.

This shell is related to T. seriatim-granulata, and it is possible that it is not deserving of varietal differentiation from it, but until the "Comampnche" Turritellas have been monographed it appears best to consider the Kiowa form distinct. It appears to differ in the development and ornamentation of the spirals.

Horizon and locality. This shell has been collected at every locality where the Kiowa shales have been studied. It is extremely abundant around Belvidere, Bluff creek, 6 miles west of Marquette, Natural Corral between Windom and Conway, etc.

Tylostoma elevata (Shumard)
(Plate XVI, figure 5; Plate XXII, figure 3.)

1861. Globoconcha? elevata Shumard. Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana in 1852, R. B. Marcy, p. 196, pl. 4, fig. 3.

Shumard's description. Shell ovate, spire produced, whorls six, regularly convex, body whorl shorter than spire. Length, 1.5 in.; breadth, 1 in.

Shumard's figure shows an apical angle of about 65 degrees. A shell apparently identical with this species occurs in the Kiowa member. A nearly perfect specimen from the Champion shell bed has a height of 45 mm., a width of 25 mm., and an apical angle of 65 degrees. Except for minute growth lines, the surface is without ornamentation. The same shell in somewhat smaller size has also been collected in higher beds.

Horizon and locality. Kiowa shales, Champion shell bed to zone 14 of the Belvidere section. Not seen at other localities. Shumard's specimens came from the Western Cross Timbers of Texas and were probably derived from Fredericksburg strata. Shells from the Fredericksburg of Benbrook, Tex., are like those of the Kiowa. Small forms which appear to be the young of this species occur in the Mentor beds at Smolan, and the Natural Corral.

Vanikora propinqua Cragin

1804. Vanikora propinqua Cragin. Colorado Coll. Studies, 5th Ann. Publication, p. 66.

Cragin's description. Shell rather small, depressed-subglobose, thin or of moderate thickness; whorls four, convex, those of the spire not prominently so; body whorl greatly enlarged, rounded, somewhat narrower and more elevated than in V. ambigua M. & H.; spire rather low, proportioned almost exactly as in V. ambigua; suture not deeply impressed; axis (?perforate); aperture rhomboidal-ovate, angular above, obtuse below; ornamentation unknown. Dimensions: Somewhat smaller than V. ambigua M. & H., the exact dimensions not measurable owing to the imperfections of the labial region. Angle of slopes of spire a little less than 90 degrees.

Cragin obtained but one specimen.

Horizon and locality. Cragin's specimen came from zones above the Champion shell bed. It is not known to have been recognized in other collections.

Petersia medicinensis Cragin

1894. Petersia medicinensis Cragin. Am. Geol., vol. XIV, pp. 11, 12.

Cragin's description. Shell of medium size, consisting of five or more (? six or seven) whorls; spire rather short, acute, equalling about or a little less than half the height of the shell; whorls shouldered and ornamented with rather closely spaced, raised, revolving lines and with prominent but rather narrow vertical ribs or folds, of which latter there are about 14 on each of the lower whorls; aperture elongate, subquadrilateral, bent slightly backward below to form a very short or rudimentary notchlike canal, and with a somewhat similar rounded, everted notch at the upper (posterior) comer; spindle short; inner lip, within, bearing, opposite the middle of the aperture, two oblique, parallel, narrow, sharply raised folds which do not extend outward to its slightly thickened and everted border; outer lip with a sharp, slightly crenulated edge, back of which the newest fold (in the stage of growth shown in the younger, but more perfect, of the two type specimens) forms a riblike thickening. Measurements: Height 21 mm.; breadth of body whorl, 11.5 mm.; divergence of slopes, 52 degrees, these being the measurements of a young shell. An imperfect specimen, which perhaps represents nearly the adult size, indicates a height of nearly 50 mm.

Horizon and locality. Cragin obtained his specimens from zone 3 of his section, corresponding to zones 8 to 12 or 14 of the writer's section. The species has pot been observed in any of the collections seen by the writer.


Dentalium sp.

Fragments of cylindrical shells which are referred to the genus Dentalium are present in both the sandy and limy strata of the Kiowa shale and the Mentor beds. The fragments are of small size and not sufficiently well shown in characteristics to warrant specific designation.

Horizon and locality. Limy bands of the Kiowa shale near Belvidere and Sun City and the Mentor beds near Smolan.


Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed on web February 2006; originally published 1924.
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