KGS Home Geology Home Reports

Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 2016-29
Part of the South-central Kansas CO2 Project

Reservoir Modeling of CO2 Injection in Arbuckle Saline Aquifer at Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas

Principal Author: Yevhen Holubnyak

Contributors: Willard Watney, Tiraz Birdie, Jason Rush, and Mina Fazelalavi

KGS Open File Report 2016-29
DOE Award No: DE-FE-0006821
October 2016


This section presents details of the Arbuckle reservoir simulation model that was constructed to project the results of the Wellington Field short-term Arbuckle CO2 pilot injection project and delineate the EPA Area of Review (AoR). Work was performed under DE-FE-0006821 to fulfill Task 18--Reside Site Characterization Models and Simulations for Carbon Storage. As required under §146.84(c) of EPA Class VI Well rule, the AoR must be delineated using a computational model that can accurately predict the projected lateral and vertical migration of the CO2 plume and formation fluids in the subsurface from the commencement of injection activities until the plume movement ceases and until pressure differentials sufficient to cause the movement of injected fluids or formation fluids into a underground source of drinking water USDW are no longer present. The model must:

  1. Be based on detailed geologic data collected to characterize the injection zone(s), confining zone(s), and any additional zones; and anticipated operating data, including injection pressures, rates, and total volumes over the proposed life of the geologic sequestration project;
  2. Take into account any geologic heterogeneities, other discontinuities, data quality, and their possible impact on model predictions; and
  3. Consider potential migration through faults, fractures, and artificial penetrations.

This section presents the reservoir simulations conducted to fulfill §146.84 requirements stated above. The simulations were conducted assuming a maximum injection of 40,000 metric tons of CO2 over a period of nine months. Based on market conditions, KGS/Berexco now plans to inject a total of only 26,000 tons at the rate of 150 tons/day for a total period of approximately 175 days. The simulation results, therefore, represent impacts of the maximum quantity of CO2 that was originally planned for the Wellington project. The modeling results indicate that the induced pore pressures in the Arbuckle aquifer away from the injection well are of insufficient magnitude to cause the Arbuckle brines to migrate up into the USDW even if there were any artificial or natural penetration in the Arbuckle Group or the overlying confining units.

The simulation results also indicate that the free-phase CO2 plume is contained within the total CO2 plume (i.e., in the free plus dissolved phases) and that it extends to a maximum lateral distance of 2,150 ft from the injection well. The EPA Area of Review (AoR) is defined by the 1% saturation isoline of the stabilized free-phase plume.

The report is available as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file.

To view this map, you will need the Acrobat PDF Reader, available free from Adobe.


This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Kansas Geological Survey
Placed online Jan. 9, 2017
Comments to
The URL for this page is