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Special Report on Mineral Waters (1902)

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Part I--General Discussion of Mineral Waters

Chapter I--The Sources of Mineral Waters

Some Definitions

  1. Herpin defines mineral waters as all waters which, by the nature of their principles or by their therapeutic action, differ from drinkable waters.
  2. Ossian Henry, sr. says: "Mineral waters are those waters which, coming from the bosom of the earth at variable depths, bring with them substances which may have upon the animal economy a medical action capable of giving rise to effects often very salutary in the different diseases affecting humanity."
  3. M. Durian-Fardel, speaking of mineral waters, says they are "natural waters which are employed in therapeutics because of their chemical composition or their temperature."
  4. A mineral water, in the medical acceptation of the term, is one which by virtue of its ingredients, whether mineral, organic, or gaseous, or the principle of heat, is especially applicable to the treatment of disease. [Mineral Springs of United States and Canada, Walton, page 14.]
  5. Mineral waters are those natural waters which contain an excess of some ordinary ingredients or a small quantity of some rare ingredients, and which on this account are used as remedial agents.

As an indication of what the United States government is doing in gathering statistics of the production of mineral waters, and to show how much the term "mineral waters" covers, the following, by A. C. Peale, of the United States Geological Survey, from the circular just sent to all the mineral springs proprietors in the United States, is quoted:

"Our reports do not restrict the term 'mineral waters' to medicinal waters, but includes all spring waters put on the market, whether they are utilized as drinking or table waters, or for medicinal purposes, or used in any other way. If the water comes from a spring and is put on sale--in bottles, jugs, barrels, or any other way--it is entitled to a place in our reports. If, therefore, you sell a spring water, please send us an estimate of your sales for 1901, no matter what the amount--large or small. The information received is regarded as confidential, the figures, as published, being included in the totals by states, as will be seen on reference to the report sent you herewith."

In studying these waters, there is also a class of waters sometimes called neutral, like the Poland spring, in Maine, which are simply very pure, and which have a beneficial effect upon the system when taken in large quantities by reason of their very purity. These contain no special mineral constituents, but sometimes, on account of the heat at which they are discharged from the earth, or sometimes simply because of their very purity, they have found favor as remedial agents.

Origin of Mineral Waters

It is no doubt true that the study of the origin of mineral springs belongs properly to the science of geology; yet as the geologist must refer ultimately to the chemist in explaining this subject, it is proper to consider it from this standpoint also, M. Garrigau divides the geological distribution as follows:

  1. Warm waters are found in the oldest rocks (granites).
  2. Bicarbonate and gaseous waters in the midst of volcanic rocks.
  3. Ferruginous waters should have their origin in the strata of transition.
  4. Simple saline waters, obtained in the secondary strata or at their limits.

Our best received theory in regard to the earlier history of water is, that while this globe was hot and surrounded by vapors there was mingled with the vapor of water that of other substances which at the present time are solids. This condensing vapor would carry with it to the earth greater or less quantities of other elements condensed, and these no doubt formed a basis for the oceans as they now exist, As the sea has given up much of its mineral matter to the earlier forms of life--that is, as such immense quantities of fossil remains containing substances that originally were present in the waters are found--it is possible that the ocean has changed much in composition. [Philos. Trans. K. C. I. V., p. 205.]

It is easily understood, however, that the great contributions to the solid matter of the sea have come from the mineral matter dissolved from the streams that are continually carrying their burden to the ocean. These streams not only carry immense quantities of suspended matter which is building the great deltas in front of the mouths of the large rivers, but they have carried the soluble matter of the rocks and soils over which they have passed. On this theory, too, one should expect to find all the elements that are found on land in varying proportions in the sea water. This is practically true, for even such an insoluble substance as gold is present in an appreciable quantity. Forchhammer mentions twenty-seven of the elements as found in the sea water, and to these, others such as arsenic, lithium, caesium, rubidium and gold should be added. [Philos. Trans. K. C. I. V., p. 205.]

Dittmar, in his report on the waters collected in the "Challenger" expedition, gives the following as the average composition of sea water [Report of the Voyage of the "Challenger," 1884.]:

Chlorin (Cl) 55.292
Bromin (Br) .188
Sulfuric anhydrid (SO3) 6.410
Carbonic anhydrid (CO2) .152
Calcium oxid (CaO) 1.676
Magnesium oxid (MgO) 6.209
Potassium oxid (K2O) 1.332
Sodium oxid (Na2O) 41.234
Less oxygen equivalent 12.493
Total salts 100.00
Sodium chlorid (NaCl) 77.758
Magnesium chlorid (MgCl2) 10.878
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) 4.737
Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) 3.600
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) 2.465
Magnesium bromid (MgBr2) .217
Calcium bicarbonate (CaH2(CO3)2) .345
Total salts 100.00

Other authors state the saline matter in the ocean to be from 3.47 to 3.51 per cent., and note the fact that inland seas would not be so strong where they received large accessions of fresh water from rivers, while in some situations bays and shallow seas might become more concentrated from excessive evaporation of water.

As sea water contains calcium carbonate, which is appreciably alkaline, and as it is in contact with the great oceans of atmosphere above, it naturally absorbs the gases contained therein. Dittmar (Report of the Voyage of the "Challenger," 1884) found that a liter of sea water would take up, at zero degrees C., 15.60 cc. of nitrogen and 8.18 cc. of oxygen, while at thirty degrees the proportions were 8.36 cc. of oxygen and 4.17 cc. of nitrogen. Buchanan (Proc, R. S., vol. 24) found the amount of carbon dioxid in surface-waters to be at twenty to twenty-five degrees C. from .0466 grams per liter to .0268. The carbon dioxid is mostly united with sodium, although a small amount is united with calcium.

Rain Water

The rain, which has been evaporated from the surface of the earth, which floats over our heads in clouds, is condensed and again waters the earth, is the original material from which mineral water is made. As it answers as a vehicle for dissolving and transferring the mineral substances, its characteristics and composition should be first discussed. As the rain falls through the air it not only takes up the dust and floating particles, which in cities and manufacturing districts are liable to be abundant, but it absorbs certain gases. The per cent. of these, gases, by volume, according to Baumert (Ann. Chem. Pharm, LXXX, VIII, p. 17) is, of nitrogen, 64.47; of oxygen, 33,76; of carbon dioxid, 1.77. We find normally about three parts of carbon dioxid in 10,000 parts of the atmosphere; and the carbon-dioxid gas being very soluble in water, the rain as it descends is found to contain fifty times as much as the same volume of air would contain.

The newly discovered gases argon and helium are probably also present in rain water. Nitric or nitrous acid, uniting with ammonia, will be found in considerable quantity, and in the vicinity of towns and manufacturing centers hydrogen sulfid and sulfuric acid, and even such a solid substance as sodium chlorid (common salt) is liable to be present in rain water, especially in the vicinity of the ocean, Interesting experiments on this point have been made under the direction of boards of health, both in Europe and this country. In Massachusetts, for instance, a study was made of the well waters with respect especially to their chlorin contents, and it was found that the line of equal chlorin content was quite closely parallel to the coast-line, and as the wells were farther away from the coast the amount of salt in the water diminished quite regularly in proportion to that distance. The fine particles of salt are carried in the air, especially during storms, and the rain washes this salt into the soil, so that its presence may be detected in the well waters. At Land's End, in Cornwall, it was found that rain contained 3.59 parts of salt per 10,000 parts of water, while the mean proportion in England is only .022 per 10,000 (Text-book of Geology, Geikie, page 341).

Though we may have what may be called distilled water in the clouds, it is evident that by the time it has reached the earth this water has taken up many impurities. For instance, J. Pieirre estimated that in France each hectare of land received annually from the rain alone 78.5 kilograms of mineral matter which had been washed out of the atmosphere.

The rain water, having reached the surface of the earth, begins to do chemical work on the substances which come in contact with it, and these things which the rain water has absorbed, especially oxygen, carbon dioxid, and organic matter, assist greatly in producing these chemical changes, According to Geikie (Text-book of Geology, Geikie, pp. 343-345), these changes may be best considered as:

  1. Oxidation, from the oxygen in the water. Common examples of this are the changing of the sulfids to sulfates, as the change which takes place in ordinary pyrite by which it becomes copperas and later limonite, with the setting free of sulfuric acid. In all zinc and lead regions, as in the southeastern part of Kansas, localities are found where the blend (zinc sulfid) has been changed partially to zinc sulfate, and even galena (lead sulfid) to lead sulfate, by oxidation.
  2. Deoxidation, as when organic and vegetable matter reduces sulfates to sulfids, which, in contact with water and carbon dioxid, give off hydrogen sulfid. This may be considered a common source of hydrogen sulfid in so-called sulfur waters.
  3. Solution, as in the case of salt and to some extent gypsum. This solution is frequently very much aided by the presence of carbon-dioxid gas in the water. Gypsum, for instance, dissolves in the proportion of one part per 1000 in water saturated with carbon dioxid; but it dissolves in the proportion of about one part per 400 in ordinary water.
  4. The formation of carbonates, as in the case of complex silicates like feldspar, which absorbs the carbon dioxid from the rain water and forms carbonates with the liberation of silica. By the process of disintegration, clay, a hydrous aluminum compound, is formed, while nearly all the other elements of feldspar are dissolved and carried away by the water.
  5. Hydration, as in the case of minerals like anhydrite, which by absorbing water leaves gypsum, and some iron minerals, which aften oxidation take up the water,

Sea Water

As without doubt the original water upon the earth's surface was sea water, in the study of mineral waters it is appropriate to study ocean water first. M, Antoine D. Saporta says that the taste of sea water is due to the presence of salt, and the peculiar bitter taste to the magnesium salts in the solution (Pop. Sci. Mo. XXVI, pp. 529-541; trans. from Revue des Deux Monde). It was once held that the bitter taste was due to bitumen, and, indeed, artificial sea water was made in the time of Louis XIV, and bitumen in small quantities was actually introduced to imitate the taste, but M, Lavoisier, more than 100 years ago, distilled sea water and proved that there was no bitumen in it, and that the bitter taste was due rather to magnesium salts. The ocean may be considered as a great inexhaustible mineral spring. The ingenuity of man has been taxed many times to obtain pure drinkable water from the brine of the ocean, and numerous ingenious devices have been brought forward for this purpose. Practically, however, the only efficient method is simply the boiling of the water and condensing the steam.

"It is generally known that a strong dose of sea water acts as an emetic; in larger proportions it is a purgative and diuretic. Dioscroides advised diluting it with honey, which might perhaps produce an effective medicine, but certainly not a savory one. At the beginning of this century it was diluted with wine, but such a mixture would hardly be better than the previous one. It was prescribed in Spain against yellow fever, and in England against worms; in the former case as an emetic, and in the second case milk was added to it, so that the child could drink it without aversion."

On concentrating, sea water deposits calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, sodium chlorid, then the magnesium salts, while bromin and iodin compounds accumulate in the mother-liquors and can be finally obtained from this source. It is a well-known fact that brine springs, especially some found in Ohio and West Virginia, contain sufficient quantity of bromin so that the mother-liquor, after the separation of salt, is used for the manufacture of bromin. Iodin was discovered in 1812 by Courtois in sea water. Moloquette discovered copper, lead, sulfur and iron in seaweed, and they were afterwards found in sea water. Some compounds of iodin and bromin, especially the former, seem to be concentrated in animal tissue, as in the familiar case of iodin in cod-liver oil. M. Dieulafait showed that the Dead Sea was not originally a part of the Red Sea, as he found neither iodin, lithium nor sulfur in the Dead Sea and found them in the Arabian gulf.

What is a Mineral Water?

"By their very characteristics," says Mr. Kellar (A Sketch of the Natural History of Mineral Waters, Frederick Maurin; Sanitarian, vol. 33, pp. 203-209), "mineral waters yield to a rigorous method of classification with great difficulty. These are complex compounds, or rather mixtures of variable composition. These contain very many substances in solution in greater or less proportion of all the soluble elements of the regions through which they circulate or which they traverse before gushing from the surface of the soil. The multitude of these elements, the chemical analysis of which has not always revealed their mode of composition, renders the rational classification of mineral waters very difficult and very complicated, and the necessity of keeping account of their action on the economy and of their medicinal role, which often seems due to certain substances found there in very small quantity, tends still more to increase the difficulty,"

The Changes that Mineral Waters may Undergo

The question may properly be asked, Do mineral waters change their composition? Usually they do not; this may he shown by a comparison of the analysis of a Saratoga water made by Doctor Steel and one of the same water made by Doctor Chandler thirty-nine years later, and these two practically agreed. In the case of the Great Spirit spring, or Waconda No.1, the analysis made twenty-one years ago agrees essentially with the analysis made in 1901.

There is an interesting cage of a water in Switzerland in which at one time it was reported that iodin was found, and later it could not be found. A more complete investigation showed that in reality the amount of iodin varied from day to day, from none at all, sometimes, to a maximum of 2.25 parts per 10,000 of water.

"The following changes may take place in the composition of water," says Professor Wiln (A Sketch of the Natural History of Mineral Waters, Frederick Maurin, Sanitarian, vol. 33, p. 207):

"1. Periodic variation, dependent on the mineral water being more or less mixed with superficial sheets of water.

"2. Progressive or secondary, dependent on the rocks washed by the waters, which may be different on account of storms in different places or being more or less diluted,

"3. The action of sunlight may change the composition of the water.

"4. By exposure to the air, which allows the pressure to change and which at the same time allows oxygen to come in contact with the water, many changes may be brought about. It is a well known fact that the mineral matter is often deposited in large quantities from spring water which is allowed to stand in an open vessel.

"5. A difference in temperature may change the composition, as substances held in solution at one temperature may not be soluble at another temperature,"

Gases in Mineral Waters

Oxygen may unite with the constituents of the water and change the composition, as may also carbon dioxid and certain sulfur compounds. This is not true, however, of nitrogen, as it is so inert that it does not easily unite with the ordinary substances present in the water. By the intervention of bacterial life, and as in the roots of certain plants like clover and alfalfa, the nitrogen of the air is "fixed" so that it can be assimilated, so the influence of plants on the composition of cultivated soil is too important to be ignored.

Nitrogen, Argon, and Helium

It is an interesting fact that at one time a certain physiological action was attached to mineral waters, and some authorities, especially Spanish physicians, introduced a new class of mineral waters, namely "azoades," or nitrogenous waters. It is quite probable, however, that what was frequently called nitrogen in mineral waters may have been largely helium and argon, as these new elements have been discovered in mineral waters recently. Dr. C. H. Bouckard has found helium and in some cases argon in the mineral waters of the French slope of the Pyrenees (Comptes Rendus, CXXI, p. 392). He was led to this investigation by noticing that on the Spanish slope of the Pyrenees certain so-called nitrogenous waters had been discovered. Ramsey 14 has found argon in several mineral springs (Chem., News, vol. 72, p. 95). Rayleigh found helium _in the proportion of 1.24 parts per 1000 in some of the Bath springs (Chem., News, vol. 73, p. 27). It is by no means proven, however, that in some cases these gases may not have come directly from the air, having been dissolved in the rain water. It is not proven that the nitrogen in the water had a remedial action, any more than it has been proven that the gases argon and helium dissolved in the water have a therapeutic effect.

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxid, Hydrogen Sulfid, etc.

All water contains in solution the gases that are in the air in certain proportions, In very pure water the amount of oxygen to nitrogen is:

Oxygen 35.1
Nitrogen 64.9

A thousand cubic centimeters (about a quart) of pure water dissolved 17.95 cc. of air. If water is impure it will not dissolve so much of the oxygen; that is, the proportion between the two gases will change, as the oxygen is used up in oxidizing the organic or impure matter.

Since the air that is dissolved in water is richer in oxygen than ordinary air, it is better adapted to the purpose of furnishing oxygen to fish for breathing. When the fish are in a confined volume of water they soon exhaust the water of oxygen; so this is replaced by blowing air into the water in aquaria, or by growing plants in the water, which also supply oxygen.

There seems to be a well-settled opinion that carbon dioxid, hydrogen sulfid and marsh gas are derived not from the air but from the soil, on account of certain changes that take place far below the surface of the earth. As natural gas consists largely of marsh gas (CH4), it is evidently formed at a depth of hundreds of feet below the surface, and it would not be incorrect to affirm that the other gases that accompany the marsh gas--such as carbon dioxid and carbon monoxid--can be formed at great depths. It is a matter of common observation that some mineral wells contain a large excess of carbon dioxid which escapes into the air when the water comes to the surface, as in the case of the Congress spring and the Hawthorne at Saratoga. This carbon dioxid holds many of the elements in solution--such as calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese as bicarbonates. The less the pressure of the atmosphere the more rapidly will the gases be evolved. A familiar illustration of this fact is a vessel of water placed under the receiver of an air pump. As soon as the pressure of the atmosphere is removed the gasses which are dissolved in the water rapidly make their escape. In some mineral springs it has been observed that the gases seem to bubble out more tumultuously before a storm. In the case of the deep wells of southeastern Kansas--where the water is pumped from a great depth and is exposed in reservoirs upon the surface--it has been observed that the turbidity of the water increases before a storm. This would be easily accounted for on the theory that the air at such times (as shown by the barometer) is much lighter than ordinarily, and on this account the gases which are dissolved in the water--especially hydrogen sulfid and carbon dioxid--would escape more readily and more abundantly into the air, and thus cause greater turbidity.

The Formation of Saline Springs

As has been stated, the ocean water is a type of the mineral waters, and in fact the water of the ocean is the original mineral water. This has evaporated and the condensed water has fallen upon the surface of the earth, and has the opportunity to take up the gases from the atmosphere and minerals from the earth. The substances thus dissolved are carried by the rivers to the sea. This is a case of solution, and the tendency is simply to greatly increase the mineral contents of the ocean or to make it more and more concentrated. It is but proper to consider what is the origin of the material, especially the gypsum and salt in the earth. M. Dieulafait (Pop. Sci. Mo., vol. 21, pp. 826-835), discussing this subject, suggests three hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the origin of gypsum and salt:

  1. Sulfuric acid coming up from the depths of the earth may have acted on the calcium carbonate and produced calcium sulfate.
  2. Sulfur dioxid, coming in like manner from the lower regions, may have absorbed oxygen and become sulfuric acid, which has acted on the limestone as noted above.
  3. Salts already formed in the interior have been brought to the surface, either in solution or sublimed.

M. Dieulafait believes these hypotheses are wholly gratuitous, and that "the salts held in solution in the waters of the seas, the salts existing in solid masses in the strata of our globe and those which furnish the mineral constituents of saline waters have a common origin, and that this origin is exterior to the first strata that were formed in the consolidation of the earth."

According to the nebular hypothesis, when the temperature of the mass outside the cooling globe was from 2000 to 2500 degrees C., then chlorin, sulfur, as well as hydrogen and oxygen, would not be united, as all bodies would be dissociated at this high temperature. As the mass cooled, only certain bodies could be formed, and another set of substances would be formed at another temperature. Thus sodium chlorid would have been condensed at a high temperature, but magnesium chlorid could not have been formed till the temperature was much lower; in fact, nearly as low as that of boiling water, as it is readily dissociated at that temperature. Metals combined with sulfur and chlorin; that is, those metals existing on the earliest crust of the earth, such as lithium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium, and those happened to be the chief constituents of sea water. It seems to be well established from the earliest evidence of life that is found that the earlier seas did not differ materially in their composition, though they differed in a few constituents, from the ocean as it is at the present time. The simplest way of explaining the origin of these saline formations, then, would be to assume that they were the result of the evaporation of saline lakes accidentally isolated from the ocean.

Experiments on saline waters have proven that the following deposits would take place upon the spontaneous evaporation of the water:

Till 80 per cent. of original volume is evaporated CaCO3, MgCO3, Fe(OH)3
Till 8 per cent. more is evaporated Gypsum (CaSO4 + 2H2O)
Till 2 per cent. more is evaporated No precipitation
Till 5 per cent. more is evaporated Sodium chlorid (NaCl)
Till 2 per cent. more is evaporated NaCl + MgSO4
Till 1 per cent. more is evaporated Carnellite (KCl, MgCl2)
Remaining 2 per cent. mostly Magnesium chlorid (MgCl2)

In consequence of this order of deposition, we should expect to find these minerals in the reversed order as we dig down into a deposit. The higher salts in the series will be less abundant and less likely to occur. If one of the upper groups is met with we should expect to find the other groups below it. It is remarkable that the strata of the Stassfurt (Prussia) beds show the deposition in the order named, and above the magnesium chlorid is a deposit of boric acid with the magnesium. A study of the ultimate mother-liquor of the water of the salt marshes of the south of France also shows considerable boric acid to be present.

In the Rhone delta, where there is communication between the sea and an inland lake, and where the loss of water by evaporation is made up by more water from the sea, it is noticed that it continues to deposit gypsum at the present time, Another good illustration of the way in which deposition is going on is seen in the Gulf of Karabogaz, on the east side of the Caspian sea, and communicating with it by means of a shallow channel. As there is constant and rapid evaporation in the gulf and no fresh water is coming in, but there is a constant inflow of water from the sea; the result is a continuous and increasing deposit of gypsum, If the supply of water is at any time shut off suddenly we shall have a deposit of a series of salts noted above.

If such is the true theory of the origin of the saline deposits, the saline waters which are so common in many localities, and are especially common in this western Mississippi basin, are the result of the evaporation of the waters originally constituting the primeval ocean.

The Influence of Heated Water

Too much value can with difficulty be given to the influence of water, especially of hot water, in the formation of the crust of the earth. We know that under pressure water will penetrate into rocks that have all the appearance of being solid. The artificial coloring of agates by the use of dyes is a good illustration of what is frequently done in the application of this principle. The higher the temperature of the water the more rapidly the liquid will flow through the interstices in the rocks, and of course the greater will be the solvent action. It is a familiar fact that the minute cavities of rocks and crystals often contain concentrated solutions of the material of which the rock is composed. There is, in fact, a mother-liquor left in the crystal after it has been formed. As these crystals disintegrate this mother-liquor escapes and adds its mite of mineral salts to the water that flows over the rocks.

Many experiments have been made on the solvent action of liquids upon rocks at a high temperature under pressure. Ordinary glass is a silicate which in its composition suggests that of some of the rocks on the surface of the earth. Every chemist is aware of the action of ordinary chemicals on glass, and knows that in accurate analyses he cannot neglect the action even of boiling distilled water upon it. When water is used as a solvent for chemicals, especially for those which are alkaline in character, it becomes a still better solvent for glass. On this account we use platinum vessels in chemical analyses where great accuracy is required.

Thermal or Warm Springs

The high temperature of some waters as they issue from the earth is ascribed to several causes. Some argue that it is on account of the interior heat of the earth, as it has been noticed in some borings that there was a uniform increase in temperature as the drill descended. This is far from uniform in different localities, however, possibly on account of the varying thickness of the crust of the earth.

Others suppose that chemical action causes the heat of some waters. It is true that oxidation, of sulfur compounds especially, does cause heat, and this and similar reactions may have warmed the water in some localities.

It has been noticed furthermore that more thermal springs are found in volcanic districts or where there are evidences of former volcanic action than elsewhere. Thus, in the United States there are hardly any warm springs in the Northeastern states, but in the main body of the Appalachian chain, from Virginia south they are numerous; there is a hot-spring area in Arkansas, in the vicinity of the Ozark uplift; and finally all through the Rocky Mountain region. The more the rocks have been displaced by disturbances, the greater the opportunity for these subterranean waters to escape.

As there are all degrees of temperature in waters, we must fix an arbitrary point, say seventy degrees F., and say that any water having a temperature higher than this is to be classed as "thermal."

It may be of interest to note the temperature of a few important springs and wells, both American and foreign, first calling attention to some of the deep wells of southeastern Kansas that yield warm water.

  Degrees, F.
Cherokee city well 71.5
Columbus city well 75.2
Girard city well 75
Sweet Springs, West Virginia 74
Healing Springs, Bath county, Virginia 85
Hot Springs, Bath county, Virginia 98-106
Buncombe county, North Carolina 81-104
Merriwether county, Georgia 95
Warm Springs, French Broad, Tennessee 95
Washita (Hot Springs), Arkansas 140-156
Calistoga Hot Springs, California 100-195
San Bernardino Hot Springs, California 108-172
Skagg's Hot Springs, California 128
Great Salt Lake, Hot Chalybeate, Utah 132-136
Hot Springs, Idaho 164
Las Vegas, New Mexico, Hot Springs 110-140
Hot Springs, Pyramid Lake, Nevada 206-208
Sulfur Springs, Aix-les-Bains, France 108
Kaiserquelle, Aix-la-Chapelle, Reinisch Prussia 131
Hauptquelle, Baden Baden, Germany 155
King's Well, Bath, England 115
Carlsbad (Sprudel), Bohemia 162
Saline, Bourhonne, Haute-Marne, France 149
Lorenzquelle, Leuk, Valais, Switzerland 123
Kochbrunnen, Weisbaden, Nassau, Germany 156

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Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
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