Co-generation, Ethanol Production and CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery
Model for Environmentally and Economically Sound Linked Energy Systems

Kansas Geological Survey
Open-file Report 2002-6

Potential Energy Gains and CO2 Avoided on Annual Basis


Tons CO2/year
  Co-Gen Waste Heat 31,923
Cattle Feeding    
  Grain Corn Replaced by Distillers Dried 49,694
  Grains - Ethanol Process by-product  
Enhanced Oil Recovery  
  CO2 from Ethanol Sequestered by 74,520
  EOR (4.3 MCF/BO recovered)  
  Total Potential CO2 Avoided 156,138

CO2 Emissions Avoided

The CO2 emissions avoided for the co-gen and ethanol processes were calculated assuming that without the co-gen heat, the same amount of energy would have been generated by the use of natural gas. These results are based on a heating factor of 1,050 MCF/ft3 (EPA, 1985) of natural gas and a CO2 emission factor of120 lbs CO2/MCF of gas (EPA, 1998).

Avoided CO2 emissions from cattle feeding operations were calculated by assuming various energy inputs used diesel fuel, natural gas, or electricity and multiplying by the corresponding emission factor (White, 1998) times the number of acres that would be required for feed that was offset by DDG. Details can be provided by the authors.

CO2 sequestration benefits were assumed to be equal to the net utilization, 4.3 MCF per barrel of oil produced, which was derived in the DOE funded project. The model also assumes that the oil produced and combusted in the project merely replaces oil from non- CO2 EOR sources that would have otherwise been combusted.

Net Economic Gains through Linked Systems
Co-generation 560 Billion BTU $1,700,000
CO2 sales 1.3 BCF (75 m tons), raw $500,000
  Pipeline supercritical CO2 $800,000
EOR oil sales 260,000 Barrels oil $5,200,000
Distiller's Dried Grains Offset corn feed $600,000
Total net economic gains through linkages $8,800,000

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Last updated March 2002