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Fauna of the Drum Limestone of Kansas and Western Missouri

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Description of Species


Family Fusulinidae


Triticites irregularis (Schellwien and Staff) Emend. Dunbar and Condra.

1912. Fusilina centralis. var. irregularis. Schellwien and Staff (in parts), Paleontographica, vol. 59, p, 178-179; p. 17, figs. 10, 11 (not p. 16, figs. 7 or 9 or pl. 17, figs. 5 or 7, or pl. 18, fig. 6).
1927. Triticites irregularis. Dunbar and Condra, Neb. Geol. Surv., Bull. 2, 2d ser., p. 108, pl. 8, figs. 7-10; pl. 9, figs. 1-3.

A number of fusulinids were found in the collections. All of them were more or less incrusted with calcium carbonate, which obscured the surface markings almost completely. These specimens and several poor sections were sent to Dr. Carl O. Dunbar, who has identified them. He states that the species is characterized, not only by its proportions, but also by a tendency toward irregular growth. Instead of tapering toward the poles it frequently undulates by radial expansion and contraction; while the ante theca and front line of growth is usually uneven.

"This species has a considerable range, appearing in the Wayland shale of central Texas, a zone equivalent to some part of the Kansas Marmaton group, and running up to the Deer Creek limestone in Kansas. However, it is never so abundant elsewhere in the Mid-continent field as in the Drum limestone and closely adjacent members of the Kansas City formation. It seems to be rare in the oolitic phase of the Drum, but is abundant in parts of the bed on Turkey creek, near Kansas City, Mo. Your specimens are, of course, more or less broken and encrusted so that they do not look very typical, but I have no doubt of their identity." [Dunbar, C. O., in a letter written April 2, 1928.]

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Turner, Kan.


Family Zaphrentidae

Genus LOPHOPHYLLUM Milne-Edwards and Haime.

Lophophyllum profundum (Milne-Edwards and Haime).
(Pl. I, figs. 3-5.)

1916. Lophophyllum profundum. Mather, Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison University, vol. 18, p. 91, pl. pl. 1, figs. 11-13.*

* In this paper long synonorny lists will not be given. The most recent published synonomy list of each species is given for reference.

The fossils here under consideration show considerable variation. They have a conical shape and vary from gently curving to nearly straight; the long specimens expanding less abruptly than do the short ones. In the long specimens the maximum dimensions observed are 6 cm. long by 2 cm. in diameter, the most abrupt curvature occurring near the base. In the shorter forms the average is about 2.5 to 3 cm. long and 8 mm. wide. Epitheca thin, showing concentric striae and growth lines, which vary in sharpness and regularity from specimen to specimen. These are crossed by strong, more or less rounded longitudinal ridges which are situated opposite the interseptal loculi and are separated by sharp depressions which are opposite the septa. Calice deep, circular, and provided with a columella which is compact, prominent and flattened with the general curve of the corallum. Sections show the columella to be connected at the bottom of the calice with one of the septa. Septa arranged in two alternating sets of about twenty-eight each. One set extending to, or nearly to, the columella, the other short and extending only a short distance beyond the epitheca; the longer septa being generally a little tortuous below the calice. Tabulae fairly numerous, generally extending outward and downward from the columella, although in some instances they do not reach the columella, but coalesce with adjacent tabulae.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic and shale members, at Kansas City, Mo.; Turner, Muncie, Independence (stations 12 and 23), Kan.

Family Favositidae

Genus MICHELINIA De Koninck.

Michelinia eugeneae White.
(Pl. I, figs. 1-2.)

1916. Michelinia eugeneae. Mather, Bull. Sci. Lab. Dension University, vol. 18, p. 95, pl. 1, figs. 17, 17a; pl. 2, fig. 1.

Corallum globular, or irregularly ovoid, somewhat higher than wide; maximum dimensions: height, 5 cm.; width, 3.5 cm. Corallites diverging from the small base and increasing interstitially so as to open on all sides. Corallites polygonal, commonly hexagonal or pentagonal in section and varying in size with the stage of growth, the majority being between 2 mm. and 3 mm. in diameter. Walls thin, perforated at irregular intervals by minute pores, and striated longitudinally. Lines of growth numerous and gathered at irregular intervals into low transverse ridges. Tabulae numerous, very thin, and irregularly spaced; generally crossing the corallites from wall to wall, but in many cases arching from the central part of the tabula to the wall of the corallite. Base unknown.

Two specimens are referred with some question to M. eugeneae White They are larger than typical members of that species and the tabu Ire are somewhat more numerous. The thickness. of the tabulae, as compared with that of the walls, however, is about the same as is the size and distribution of the mural pores, and the size and shape of the corallites are also quite similar. Consequently, it seems advisable, for the present at least, to consider them as members of this species.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, Independence (station 12), Kan.


Family Poteriocrinidae


Hydreionocrinus sp.

A number of the spines which surround the summit of the ventral sac of the crinoids belonging to this genus are found among the collections. Nothing further is known about the other parts of these fossils, and specific identification cannot be made.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Kansas City, Mo., and Turner, Kan.

Genus Eupachycrinus Meek and Worthen.

Eupachycrinus sp.

A number of rather large plates, pentagonal or hexagonal in outline and somewhat curved, are found in collections. The outer convex- side is ornamented with numerous rather large nodes. These plates are similar to the plates of the crinoids referred to Eupachycrinus, with which genus these plates are identified.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, Turner and Muncie, Kan., and Kansas City, Mo.


Family Archaeocidaridae


Archaeocidaris sp.

The echinoidea are represented in the Drum limestone by a large number of spines and small, hexagonal plates which are equipped with a ball-and-socket joint for the attachment of the spine. The spines are quite variable in size, but are broken off for the most part. The specific position of these forms is not clear, but they may be referred to the genus Archaeocidaris.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, near Turner, Kan.



Serpulopsis insita (White).
(Pl. XXI, fig. 1.)

1915. Serpulopsis insita. Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 41, pl. 5, figs. 7, 8; pl. 6, fig. 13. [available online]

A few specimens of this species are found attached to other fossils, but they are by no means abundant in the Drum. They consist of small tubes which are somewhat smaller at their inception than distally, but for the most part retain about the same diameter elsewhere. Some of them are straight or only slightly curved, while others are very much contorted and so laced together that they cross one another. They appear to be partly imbedded in the shell substance of the fossil, to which they are attached; and should, therefore, be placed in Girty's genus Serpulopsis.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Kansas City, Mo.


Family Fistuliporidae


Fistulipora nodulifera Meek.
(Pl. II, figs. 4-6.)

1903. Fistulipora nodulifera. Condra, Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 30, pl. 1, figs. 1-5.

Zoarium usually found incrusting other objects and assuming the form of the incrusted object. Zoarium varying from a few millimeters to about 2 cm. in width, with a maximum thickness of about 3 mm. Surface sometimes smooth, but generally with irregularly distributed nodes. Zoecial apertures subcircular; 0.24 to 0.26 mm. in diameter, averaging over the surface a little less than their own diameter apart but more widely separated on the nodes. Peristome in unworn specimens a prominent lip extending about one-half way around the apertures. Zoecia short, prostrate at first, then curving rather abruptly toward the surface, which they approach at nearly right angles. Zoecial tubes circular in section, small at first, increasing gradually in size to the point of most pronounced curvature and extending from this point to the apertures with about the same diameter. Diaphragms wanting or only one present near the apertures. Interzoecial spaces. filled with small, thin-walled vesicles, wider than deep, irregularly arranged about the zoecia in one to two series.

The walls of the zoecia of many of the specimens found in the Drum limestone appear quite" thick due to an incrustation of calcite. In some specimens calcite has so completely replaced the original structures that the walls of the interzoecial vesicles cannot be distinguished from the material filling them.

This species may be distinguished from F. carbonaria Ulrich and F. carbonaria-nebrascensis Condra by its thin growth, its usual lack of diaphragms and by the smaller, more numerous and more irregular vesicles.

Horizon and locality. Rather uncommon in the oolitic member of the Drum limestone. Independence (stations 9, 12, 23), Turner and Muncie, Kan.

Family Batostomellidae


Tabulipora heteropora (Condra).
(Pl. II, figs. 2-3.)

1903. Stenopora heteropora, Condra, Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 43, pl. 4, figs. 7, 8.

Zoarium massive or incrusting; upper surface with clusters of apertures larger than the others about 5 mm. apart and generally elevated, but sometimes even with the general surface; lower surface concentrically wrinkled. Apertures polygonal to rectangular, 0.24 to 0.4 mm. in diameter (average 0.26 to 0.28 mm.), with about 15 in 5 mm. arranged more or less in concentric series about the monticules. Zoecial tubes about 3 mm. long; prostrate at their inception, then curving quickly to the surface, which they approach at right angles; tubes polygonal in section; walls usually not more than 0.02 mm. in thickness, but increasing in thickness near the surface to about 0.05 mm. Interspaces 0.05 to 0.06 mm. wide. Diaphragms thin, sometimes perforated in the center, with usually five to eight in each tube, about 0.25 mm. apart in the straight portion of each tube. Acanthopores few, of medium size, located at the cell angles. Line of division between adjacent zoecia quite distinct. Occasionally one layer of zoecia is found located on top of another. The largest zoarium found is incomplete, but measures 5.5 cm. across and 6 mm. in thickness.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, Muncie, Turner, Independence (stations 9, 12 and 23), Kan.; Kansas City, Mo.

Family Fenestellidae

Genus FENESTELLA Lonsdale.

Fenestella mimica var. latirama Sayre, n. var.
(Pl. II, figs. 1, 1a.)

Zoarium a delicate foliar expansion. Branches straight, with few bifurcations, slender, and uniformly about 0.28 mm. wide, with 13 to 14 in 5 mm. Dissepiments short, about half as wide as the branches, expanded terminally, much depressed on the obverse side, and but slightly depressed or nearly level on the reverse side. Fenestrules quite regular in size, rectangular on the reverse, sides slightly concave on the obverse face; about 0.16 mm. wide and 0.30 mm. long, with 13 in 5 mm. Carina faint, slightly elevated, with small nodes about 0.15 mm, apart. On well-preserved specimens the nodes are elongated. into small spines. Zoecia in two alternating ranges, so arranged that one aperture occurs at the end of each dissepiment with another at each side of the fenestrule. Apertures small, about 0.1 mm. in diameter and about 0.12 mm. apart; 25 to 27 in 5 mm. Peristome strongly raised. On the reverse face the branches and dissepiments are smooth or very slightly nodose and regularly rounded.

This variety differs from F. mimica Ulrich in its slightly wider branches, and shorter, narrower and more closely spaced fenestrules. The nodes on the keel of the obverse face are farther apart, and the number of zoecia in a given distance is constantly greater.

Horizon and locality. Muncie, Turner and Independence (stations 12 and 23), Kan.

Fenestella moorei Sayre, n. sp.
(Pl. II, figs. 7-7a; Pl. 3, fig. 1.)

Zoarium a small, thin, delicate, foliar expansion. Branches slender, straight, with a nearly uniform width of about 0.16 mm. and 15 in 5 mm.; bifurcations few. Dissepiments rather long, about half as wide as the branches, expanded terminally to receive the zoecia; depressed below the branches on the obverse face. Fenestrules variable, generally having an hour-glass shape; about 0.2 mm. wide, and 0.36 mm. long, with 12 in 5 mm. Carina very faint or lacking, its position marked by a row of very small nodes separated by about a distance equal to that between the zoecia. Zoecia in two alternating ranges, so arranged that one lies at the end of each dissepiment and one midway between; apertures oval in outline, 0.06 to 0.08 across and about 0.16 mm. apart, with 24 in 5 mm., each one projecting decidedly beyond the margin of the branch and thus giving the branch a very irregular outline on the obverse face. On the reverse face the branches' are strongly striated and regularly rounded. Dissepiments delicate, straight, striated also, and well depressed below the branches. Fenestrules subrectangular and only slightly indented at the sides.

This species may be readily distinguished from all other forms except, possibly, F. perminuta Ulrich by its extremely thin, delicate zoarium and its projecting apertures. It is apparently very closely related to F. perminuta Ulrich, but may be distinguished by its more regular growth, wider dissepiments, smaller fenestrules, and more numerous zoecia.

Horizon and locality. Muncie, Turner and Independence (stations 9 and 12), Kan.


Polypora elliptica Rogers.
(Pl. III, figs. 2-4.)

1903. Polypora elliptica. Condra, Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 69, pl. 11, figs. 4-11; pl. 12, figs. 1-13; pl. 16, fig. 3.

Zoarium a large, undulating, foliar expansion. Branches straight or slightly flexuous, 0.4 to 0.5 mm. wide, 7 to 8 in 5 mm.: rounded and bearing numerous nodes on the obverse side; bifurcations few. Dissepiments short, about half as wide as the branches and depressed below them. Fenestrules elliptical; 0.25 mm. wide, 0.45 mm. to 0.5 mm. long with 4 to 5 in 5 mm, Zoecia in 3 to 4 alternating rows; this number may be reduced to 2 just after bifurcation or increased to 5 just before bifurcation. Apertures large, separated by a little more than their own diameter; 17 in 5 mm., sometimes displaying a distinct peristome. Ranges separated by low undulating ridges and bearing distinct nodes which are about as numerous as the apertures. On the reverse face the branches are flat, almost angular at the edges; sometimes striated and sometimes bearing very numerous, irregularly arranged, small nodes; dissepiments almost as wide as the branches and nearly level with them; fenestrules elliptical to sub circular.

The specimens at hand show considerable variation from the original description of P. elliptica in the number of ranges of zoecia and the size and shape of the fenestrules and branches. As Condra has shown the species to be quite variable, there can be little doubt that the specimens at hand belong to this species.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Turner, Muncie and Independence (stations 9, 12 and 23), Kan.; Kansas City, Mo.

Polypora submarginata var. nodosa Sayre, n. var.
(Pl. III, figs. 5-5a; Pl. IV, fig. 2.)

Zoarium a large, undulating, flabelliform expansion. Branches with numerous bifurcations near the base; 0.9 to 1.4 mm. wide, with 6 to 8 in 10 mm.; subpentagonal in outline, obverse face gently rounded to nearly flat, subangular at the margins, sides flattened, reverse narrowly rounded. Dissepiments short, similar to the branches in outline; 0.6 to 1.0 mm, in width; much expanded terminally; depressed on the obverse, but nearly level with the branches on the. reverse. Fenestrules averaging 0.7 mm. wide and 1.8 mm. long, with 3 to 4 in 10 mm.; generally elongate oval in shape. Zoecia arranged in vertical and curved diagonal rows; the latter crossing in the middle of the branch to form an irregular inverted V. Zoecia in five ranges just after bifurcation and generally eight just before bifurcation. Apertures averaging 0.10 mm. in diameter, about 0.2 mm. apart, with 16 to 17 in 5 mm.; provided, in well-preserved specimens, with a strongly raised peristome which tends to be better developed in the outside ranges. The majority of the specimens show a row of low nodes alternating with the zoecia of the central range. Some, however, bear, besides the central row, two, other rows of very faint nodes alternating in position with the zoecia of the ranges on either side of the central range. Reverse face often beautifully striated: One specimen shows a row of nodes down the middle of each branch, four to each fenestrule.

These specimens were at first referred to P. submarginata Meek. More careful consideration, however, leads the writer to believe that the differences observed between them and Meek's species are worthy of at least varietal and perhaps specific distinction. The principal differences are: the lack of the sub marginate character of the branches; a little greater variation in size; the presence of two extra rows of nodes on the obverse face; and the presence of a row of nodes along the middle of the reverse face of the branches. This last character is not certainly constant, as not all specimens, examined show it. The chalky character of most of the specimens would easily permit the wearing away of these nodes except under exceptional conditions. On the other hand, the nodes on the reverse face may be characteristic of certain parts of the zoarium and absent in other parts.

Horizon and locality. Muncie, Turner and Independence (stations 9, 12 and 23), Kan.

Family Acanthocladiidae

Genus SEPTOPORA Prout.

Septopora biserialis (Swallow).
(Pl. IV, figs. 9-9a.)

1903. Septopora biserialis. Condra, Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 93, pl. 18, fig. 5.

Zoarium a large, irregular, strongly folded expansion. Branches nearly parallel except near the base of the zoarium; increasing in number by interpolation; averaging 0.5 mm. wide, but quite variable and with 10 to 12 in 10 mm.; carinate on the obverse face, regularly rounded on the reverse. Dissepiments about two-thirds as wide as the branches; slightly depressed below the branches; usually arched, and faintly carinate on the obverse face; regularly rounded on the reverse and depressed below the branches. Carina on both the branches, and the dissepiments bearing a row of nodes, which are long and prominent on some specimens and spaced 0.6 mm. apart. Fenestrules transversely oblong; quadrangular or often crescentic; generally wider than the branches; averaging 12 in 10 mm. Zoecia in two ranges, separated by the median carina, on both the branches and the dissepiments. Apertures subcircular to ovate, about two-thirds their own diameter apart and with 24 to 27 in 5 mm. Dissepiments with 3 to 12 apertures. Accessory pores few in number, on the obverse face, scattered among the zoecia; on the reverse generally located at the junction of the branches with the dissepiments and surrounded by a small rim. Reverse face generally striated.

This group of fossils differs from described S. biserialis in having a uniformly. greater number of zoecia. On this basis alone it might be considered as a new species or a new variety. In other respects, however, the form is so similar to S. biserialis that the writer believes it best for the present to consider it as identical with that species. It is closely related to S. subquadrans, but differs in its mode of growth, branches increasing by interpolation instead of bifurcation.

Horizon and locality. U. P. railroad west of Kansas City, Muncie, Turner and Independence (station 12), Kan.

Family Rhabdomesontidae


Rhabdomeson kansasense Sayre, n. sp.
(Pl. I, figs. 9-11.)

Zoarium slender, ramose, 0.5 to 1.5 mm. in diameter; branching nearly at right angles to the main stem at distant intervals. Zoecia arranged in longitudinal and diagonal rows on the surface; originating at a central axial tube and passing direct to the surface at an angle of 30 to 40 degrees. Walls thin in the immature region, thickening in the mature region. Acanthopores large, few in number, projecting from the surface of the zoarium in well-preserved specimens, arranged longitudinally in line with the zoecia, with generally two (sometimes only one) above each zoecium and two below it. Zoecial tubes rhombic in cross section in the immature region, circular to oval in the mature region. Tabulae wanting. Superior and inferior hemisepta present, the latter being more strongly developed and nearer the aperture. Apertures rather large, suboval, opening into sub hexagonal vestibules.

This species is closely related to R. americanum Rogers. It differs in being somewhat larger, the apertures are more closely spaced, and this species has well-developed hemisepta.

Horizon and locality. Found in the oolitic member of the Drum limestone at Turner, and Independence (stations 9, 12 and 23), Kan.


Rhombopora lepidodendroides Meek.
(Pl. 1. figs. 6-8.)

1903. Rhombopora lepidodendroides. Condra, Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 99, pl. 6, figs. 2-4; pl. 7, figs. 1-12.

Zoarium ramose, cylindrical or slightly compressed, straight or slightly irregular between bifurcations; surface bearing very small nodes; bifurcations at irregular intervals. Diameter of branches varying from 1 mm. to 3.5 mm. Zoecia originating at the center and passing upward and outward gradually to the cortical portion of the zoarium. Zoecial walls thin in the immature region, becoming thicker as the surface is approached. Acanthopores prominent, two sizes being generally present; a small size quite numerous and surrounding each zoecium, and a larger size, generally situated at the cell angles, and in well-preserved specimens projecting above the surface of the zoarium as small nodes. Zoecial tubes polygonal in section in the immature region, but circular in the mature region. Apertures subcircular, opening into rhombic vestibules, which are sometimes lost due to abrasion; arranged in vertical and diagonal intersecting series. Tabulae wanting in most zoecia, but sometimes found in old growths.

This widespread species, as noted by previous writers, shows considerable variation in character. While much of this variation is undoubtedly real, some of it may be only apparent and due to the confusion of this species with species of the genus Rhabdomeson, which is very similar in outward appearance and may only be distinguished by sections showing the central tube.

Horizon and locality. This species is very abundant in both the limestone and shale member of the Drum limestone. Kansas City, Mo.; Muncie, Turner and Independence (stations 9, 12 and 23), Kan.


Family Discinidae

Genus ORBICULOIDEA d'Orbigny.

Orbiculoidea convexa (Shumard).
(Pl. IV, figs. 1-1a.)

1906. Orbiculoidea convexa. Woodruff, Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 274, pl. 12, fig. 11.

Superior valve patelliform, nearly circular, convexity equal to a little less than half the diameter. Shell thin. The beak, situated about one-third of the diameter from the posterior side, is slightly incurved so as to cause a slight depression beneath it on the posterior side. Surface marked by fine concentric striae. Dimensions: breadth, 30 mm.; height, 13 mm.

White describes what he supposes to be an inferior valve as being fiat, marked like the superior valve and possessed of a foramen directly below the beak of the superior valve.

Horizon and locality. Two superior valves were found in the oolitic member of the Drum limestone at Kansas City, Mo.

Family Strophomenidae

Genus DERBYA Waagen.

Derbya crassa (Meek and Hayden)
(Pl. IV, figs. 3-5.)

1915. Derbya crassa. Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 54, pl. 7, figs. 1-1c. [available online]

Shell semicircular, generally wider than long; hinge margin equal to or less than the greatest width of the shell. Anterior margin more or less regularly rounded. Dorsal valve only slightly convex, with greatest convexity near the middle or a little behind it. Beak indistinct and extending very little beyond the cardinal margin. Surface of the valve marked by numerous radiating striae of unequal size which are crossed by fine concentric striae. These latter give a finely crenate appearance to the radiating striae. Ventral valve unknown.

Several dorsal valves of this species, all more or less imperfect, were found at Turner, Kan. No ventral valves were found.

Horizon and locality. From the oolitic member of the Drum limestone, Turner, Kan.

Family Productidae

Genus CHONETES Fischer de Waldheim.

Chonetes verneuilianus Norwood and Pratten.
(Pl. IV, figs. 6-8.)

1906. Chonetes verneuilianus. Woodruff, Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 276, pl. 11, fig. 8.

Shell rather small; transversely subsemicircular, the width being greater than the length; hinge line a little longer than the greatest width of the shell. Ventral valve convex, with the greatest convexity slightly anterior to the middle. Dorsal valve concave. A narrow, rounded mesial sinus extends from the beak, becoming broader and deeper as it approaches the anterior margin, causing a slight sulcus in the outline of the shell and dividing the gibbous portion of the valve into two distinct divergent rounded ridges, which are set off from the ears by a broad depression. Ears triangular and pointed at the junction of the lateral and cardinal margins. Beak in curved, scarcely projecting beyond the hinge line, which is provided with four to five spines with sometimes a rudimentary sixth spine near the beak. Cardinal area narrow, slightly larger on the ventral valve, and inclined to the plane of the shell. Pedicle opening large, subtriangular, partly closed above by an arching deltidium and nearly filled with the bilobate cardinal process of the other valve. Interior of the ventral valve marked by numerous small nodes which are opposite small pits in the dorsal valve. Dorsal valve concave, bearing a median fold which extends part way to the beak. Surface of each valve marked by 100 to 130 very small, bifurcating, rounded ribs radiating from the beak and, near the margin, a few lines of growth which sometimes give the radiating ribs a nodose appearance.

Dimensions: Length of a large specimen, 8 mm.; width 12.4 mm.; convexity, 4 mm.

Some of the specimens under consideration show less convexity than the typical C. verneuilianus, and also a larger number of radiating ribs. It may be that these should be considered as a distinct variety, but as their state of preservation does not permit accurate description it is considered best to identify them with this species.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic and shale members, at Turner, Kan.

Genus PRODUCTUS Sowerby.

Productus insinuatus var. missouriensis Sayre, n. var.
(Pl. v, figs. 1-2b; Pl. VI, fig. 1.)

Shell very large, subovate, strongly arched toward the beak and much produced anteriorly; width greater than length; hinge line a little shorter than the greatest width: ventral valve very convex, strongly arched over the umbo to the beak. Two varieties can be distinguished: one wide, like typical P. cora in outline and with the umbo somewhat flattened; the other narrower, with the median portion elevated, almost subcarinate and with a corresponding shallow inflection in the anterior margin. Ears large, flattened and marked by strong rugae which pass inward from the cardinal margin upon sides of the umbo, where they become obsolete. Beak small and strongly incurved over the cardinal margin. The whole surface is ornamented with small, even, rounded, crowded, radiating costae, which increase by bifurcation, and fine, obscure, concentric growth lines. Spines are situated on the costae at rather wide intervals and are so arranged as to form diagonal rows. The cardinal margin also bears a row of spines.

Dimensions of two shells: Width, 80 mm.; length, 76 mm.; convexity, 25 mm.; and width, 60 mm.; length, 58 mm.; convexity, 34 mm.

This variety differs from P. insinuatus Girty in its more numerous spines and in the regular arrangement of the spines in diagonal rows, while the sinus in the anterior margin is not nearly so deep as that indicated in the illustrations of that species. It is, perhaps, closely related to P. americanus Swallow, which is described, but not figured. Swallow's species is characterized by the regular arrangement of the spines in diagonal rows and is, apparently, quite similar to this variety; according to his description, however, it is longer than wide, while the present variety is regularly wider than long. Compared with P. magnus, this variety is considerably smaller, much more convex and is ornamented with many spines.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, Kansas City, Mo., and Elsmore (station 46), Kan.

Productus sp.

One fragment of a shell from the shale member of the Drum limestone at Muncie, Kan., shows the heavy costae and the reticulation of the visceral portion characteristic of P. semireticulatus Martin, but the state of preservation is such that this identification cannot be certain. The fragment is 2 1/4 by 2 inches.

Genus PUSTULA Thomas.

Pustula symmetrica (McChesney).
(Pl. VII, figs. 6-6b.)

1892. Productus symmetricus. Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., vol. 8, pt. 1, pl. 17a, figs. 19, 20.

Shell large, slightly wider than long, gently rounded on the sides; hinge line a little shorter than the greatest width; cardinal extremities angular to subangular. The dimensions of a complete specimen a little below average size are: Length from hinge line to anterior margin, 24 mm.; length from umbonal region to front margin, 28 mm.; width, 33 mm.; length of hinge line, 28 mm.; convexity, 13 mm.

Ventral valve convex, gently rounded in the middle and curving quickly to the anterior margin in front and to the beak posteriorly; viewed from the front the shell curves regularly from one lateral margin to the other. Mesial sinus broad and shallow. Umbo extending well beyond the hinge line. Beak fairly large, rounded, and strongly. incurved. Ears small, flattened, rounded to subangular. Surface of the valve marked by strong, closely set, concentric wrinkles of nearly uniform size which bear numerous closely spaced, prominent nodes which appear to be spine bases. Dorsal valve nearly flat, but slightly concave in the middle and in the two posterior lateral areas, so as to cause two broad, low ridges which originate at the middle of the cardinal margin and extend toward the anterior margin at an angle of about 100 degrees to each other. Surface covered with closely set concentric wrinkles on which there are rather widely spaced, small spines, and a few pits are noted in the intervening depressions.

This species is quite abundant in the oolitic member of the Drum limestone. It resembles P. symmetrica (McChesney) very closely, but it is smaller, more convex and has a small sinus in the ventral valve. This last, however, is not of great importance, for the writer has seen specimens of P. symmetrica which show the sinus or depression quite as well developed as in the specimens at hand. The convexity is not as great as in P. nebrascensis (Owen), while the wrinkles are much more closely set, the anterior margin is rounded regularly, and the brachial valve is nearly fiat and not concave at the margins.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Kansas City, Mo.; Muncie, Turner and Independence (station 12), Kan.

Pustula semipunctata (Shepard).
(Pl. VI, figs. 2-2b.)

1920. Pustula punctata. Mather, Bull. Sci. Lab. Den. Univ., vol. 18, p. 172, pl. 8, fig. 11.

Two specimens from the oolitic member of the Drum limestone at Kansas City, Mo., are complete and apparently adult forms. In every respect, save that of size, they agree with published descriptions of P. punctata. They bear well-marked concentric bands, ornamented with spines; hinge margin shorter than the greatest width of the valve; mesial sinus distinct and extending from the anterior margin nearly to the beak; beak strong and incurved a little beyond the cardinal margin. They are, however, much smaller than the typical members of the species. Length, 23 mm.; width, 25 mm.; convexity, 12 mm.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, Kansas City, Mo. Elsmore (station 46), Kan.

Pustula nebrascensis (Owen).
(Pl. VI, figs. 3-3b.)

1920. Pustula nebrascensis. Mather, Bull. Sci. Lab. Den. Univ., vol. 18, p. 169, pl. 5, figs. 6-7.

This species has been described so often that it is not necessary to repeat the description here. Several specimens were found in the oolitic member of the Drum limestone at Turner, Kan. These agree entirely with Meek's description, to which the reader is referred. Length of shell from the hinge line to the anterior margin, 20 mm.; length from the umbo to the anterior margin, 23 mm.; width, 28 mm.; convexity of the pedicle valve, 13 mm.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone oolitic member, at Turner, Kan.

Family Rhynchonellidae

Genus PUGNAX Hall and Clarke.

Pugnax osagensis (Swallow).
(Pl. VII, figs. 10-10c.)

1915. Puanax osagensis, Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 81, pl. 10, figs. 11-11c. [available online]

Meek's description: "Shell small, more or less variable in form, often subtrigonal, generally wider than long, more or less gibbous; front truncated, or sometimes sinuous in outline; anterior lateral margins rounded in outline; posterior lateral margins convex, or nearly straight and converging to the beaks at an angle of about 90 degrees to 120 degrees. Dorsal valve more convex than the other, greatest convexity near the middle or between it and the front, which has a broad rather deep, marginal sinus for the reception of a corresponding projection of the anterior portion of the other valve; mesial fold somewhat flattened, but slightly prominent, and rarely traceable back of the middle of the valve; generally composed of three, but sometimes of four-rarely more-plications; sides rounding down rapidly on each side of the mesial fold, and each occupied by about three or four simple plications; beak curving strongly beneath that of the other valve; interior with a faint linear mesial ridge, on each side of which is a raised curved line inclosing an ovate space, occupied by the adductor muscular impressions. Ventral valve distinctly less convex than the other, with a broad, shallow, short sinus occupied by about two or three short plications; anterior lateral margins on each side of the sinus, with from two to four simple plications; beak moderately prominent, and more or less arched, rather pointed; foramen small."

Length of a medium-sized specimen, 6.5 mm.; width, 7 mm.; convexity, 4mm.

Seven specimens are identified as belonging to this species which, according to Girty, is distinct from P. uta Marcou. Marcou's species, according to A. L. Mathews, is a Mesozoic form.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Independence (stations 12 and 23), Kan.

Family Terebratulidae

Genus DIELASMA King.

Dielasma bovidens (Morton).
(Pl. VII, figs. 4-5b.)

1903. Dielasma bovidens. Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 16, p. 409, pl. 7, figs. 11-11a. [available online]

Meek's description: "Shell ovate, rounded, and rather compressed at the anterior and anterior-lateral margins, and most convex a little behind the middle; valves nearly equally convex; ventral valve strongly arcuate longitudinally, and presenting a regularly increasing curve, from the front to the beak, which is moderately prominent, and very strongly and closely curved over and upon that of the other valve; foramen a little oval, and not truncating the immediate apex of the beak, but situated directly outside of it; mesial sinus rather wide, and rounded at the front, but narrowing and becoming less deep farther back, until it dies out near the curve of the umbo, which is sometimes slightly flattened. Dorsal valve often nearly straight, or but slightly convex, along the middle, from the beak to the front, where its margin is usually somewhat raised for the reception of the slightly produced margin of the other valve at the termination of the sinus; sides sloping from the middle to the lateral margin along nearly the entire length of the valve; beak terminating directly under that of the other valve, without any distinct curvature. Surface nearly smooth, or only showing moderately distinct marks of growth; and, by the aid of the magnifier, exhibiting very distinctly the moderately large, regularly arranged punctures."

Length of a medium-sized specimen, 17 mm.; breadth of same, 13 mm.: convexity, 8 mm.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Kansas City, Mo.; Muncie, Turner, Cherryvale (station 40), Urbana (station 43), and Independence (stations 9, 12 and 23), Kan.

Dielasma ventricosa Sayre, n. sp.
(Pl. VII, figs. 1-30.)

Shell subovate, elongate and rather compressed laterally, quite convex, with the greatest convexity behind the middle. The dorsal valve is more convex than the ventral. The ventral valve is quite arcuate in the middle portion' and is strongly and rather sharply bent downward at both ends, so that the beak, which is prominent and large, is closely bent down over and upon that of the dorsal valve. Foramen oval and not truncating the immediate apex of the back, but situated just outside it. Mesial sinus fairly wide and rather deep at the anterior margin, but becoming less pronounced toward the beak, it becomes obsolete at the umbo. Dorsal valve convex, and somewhat sinuous in outline when viewed from the side, due to the heavy growth lamellae. When viewed anteriorly the valve is rather narrowly rounded in the middle and slopes directly to the lateral margins in all portions except those close to the beak. The beak terminates with slight curvature directly under that of the ventral valve. Anterior margin subtruncate, slightly sinuous in the middle, due to the deep sinus of the ventral valve. Surface marked by heavy concentric, imbricating growth lamellae, and showing, under the lens, numerous closely spaced, fairly large and regularly arranged punctae.

D. ventricosa is very much like D. bovidens internally. Two prominent dental lamellae in the ventral valve extend from the beak to a point slightly beyond the hinge. From the beak to the hinge these lamellae touch both the bottom and the top of the shell. Beyond the hinge the lamellae are not connected with the inner surface of the ventral valve. A long, narrow, upcurved plate occupies the median portion of the dorsal valve and extends from the beak about half the length of the valve. Near the beak it is attached to the shell along the middle and is supported on each side by a small plate. Anteriorly the lateral plates disappear and the curved plate is attached only in the middle. Divergent crura are attached to the edges of the curved plate near the beak, and long cruralia, extending over half the length of the valve, are attached to the crura.

Length of a rather large specimen, 23 mm.; width, 16 mm.; convexity, 13 mm.

This species is found associated with and is nearly as abundant in the Drum limestone as D. bovidens. But the latter species is smooth and subspatulate in shape, while the former is much more convex, longer and narrower in proportion to its width, and the surface is covered with concentric growth lamellae, which are not found on D. bovidens. The mesial sinus is deeper and sharper. The internal structure of these specimens places them definitely in the genus Dielasma. Although some of the immature specimens are more or less subspatulate like D. bovidens, the rather wide, subimbricating growth lamellae serve to distinguish even the young specimens from that species.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Kansas City, Mo.; Turner, Muncie and Independence (station 12), Kan.

Figure 1—A series of sections of D. ventricosa, showing the internal structure, X 7. 1, section of the beak of the ventral valve showing the dental lamellae touching both the top and bottom of the valve; 2, section near the hinge; 3, section anterior to the hinge, with the dental lamellae still persisting and showing the beginning of the development of the curved plate in the dorsal valve; 4, 5, the curved plate is raised above the floor of the dorsal valve and the edges are supported by vertical plates, small crura are developing on the edges; 6, 7, 8, 9, sections showing the development of the cruralia. [Images scaled and magnifications adjusted for web presentation.]

A series of sections of D. ventricosa, showing the internal structure.

Family Spiriferidae

Genus SPIRIFER Sowerby.

Spirifer triplicatus Hall.
(Pl. VII, figs. 8-9.)

1920. Spirifer cameratus. Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 87, pl. 11, figs. 4, 4b. [available online]

The collections contain several shells of the Spirifer type which, from their fasciculated costal, are believed to be Spirifer triplicatus Hall. These shells are poorly preserved and it is impossible to determine the character of the area or of the pedicle opening. The pedicle valve has a long hinge extended into pointed ears. The beak is fairly prominent and. incurved. Mesial fold prominent, subangular, and becoming broader and deeper toward the anterior margin. Surface covered with radiating costae, which are grouped or fasciculated. Marks of growth are fairly distinct.

Length of a large specimen, 41 mm.; breadth of same 55 mm.

Horizon and locality. Oolitic member of the Drum limestone, at Kansas City, Mo.; Turner, Urbana (station 43), Independence (stations 9, 12 and 23), Cherryvale (station 40), Kan., and shale member at Kansas City, Mo.

Genus SQUAMULARIA Gemmellaro.

Squamularia perplexa (McChesney).
(Pl. VII, figs. 13-14a.)

1915. Squamularia perplexa, Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 92, pl. 11, figs. 1-3a. [available online]

Seven specimens from the oolitic member of the Drum limestone at Independence (station 12), Kan., all more or less imperfect, are identified with this well-known species.

Dimensions: Length of dorsal valve, 12 mm.; width, 15 mm.; convexity of both valves, 8 mm.

Family Suessidae

Genus SPIRIFERINA D'Orbigny.

Spiriferina kentuckiensis (Shumard).
(Pl. VII, figs. 7-7b.)

1920. Spiriferina kentuckiensis. Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 85, pl. 11, figs. 8-8a. [available online]

Meek's description: "Shell rather small, varying from subglobose to semicircular, or even subfusiform, always wider than long; breadth sometimes twice or even three times the length; hinge line always equaling the greatest breadth of the valves, occasionally greatly extended, and terminating in slender mucronate ears; anterior and lateral margins generally forming a nearly semicircular curve.
"Ventral valve somewhat more convex than the other, the greatest convexity being between the beak and the middle; beak moderately prominent, and rather distinctly arched or incurved; area arched, usually of moderate height, well defined, and extending nearly or quite to the lateral extremities, highest in gibbous specimens, in which it is narrow near the extremities, while it increases rapidly in height with concave lateral margins toward the beak; foramen generally higher than wide, with a marginal furrow on each side, and, so far as known, not closed by a deltidium; mesial sinus narrow, rather deep, sometimes with a small obscure rib along its middle, but more frequently without it; plications on each side of the sinus about five to eight or nine, rather narrow, simple, prominent, and a little rounded; mesial septum of interior moderately prominent.
"Dorsal valve with greatest convexity near the middle; beak scarcely projecting beyond the hinge margin, more or less incurved; area very narrow, and incurved with the beak; mesial fold narrow, not very prominent, nor greatly larger than the first plication on each side, most generally rounded, but not infrequently with an obscure sulcus along the middle, near the front; lateral plications as in the other valve.
"Entire surface of both valves ornamented with numerous closely crowded, very regularly arranged, subimbricating lamellae of growth, strongly arched in passing over the costae; over the whole may also be seen, by the aid of a magnifier, numerous granules, apparently connected with the punctures passing through the shell, which are comparatively large and distant, though regularly arranged."

Length of a well-developed, fairly large specimen, 7.4 mm.; breadth of same, 11 mm.; convexity, 5.5 mm.

The specimens from the Drum limestone show many of the variations which Meek notes. Some are extremely long on the hinge line, some show the sulcus on the fold and some show the rib along the middle of the sinus. Others are quite normal and agree with the figured specimens of both Meek and Hall.

Horizon and locality. This species is found rather abundantly in the oolitic member of the Drum limestone at Kansas City, Mo.; Muncie, Turner, Independence (stations 9, 12, 23) and Urbana (station 43), Kan.

Family Rhynchospiridae

Genus HUSTEDIA Hall and Clarke.

Hustedia mormoni (Marcou).
(Pl. VII, figs. 11-12b.)

1915. Hustedia mormoni. Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 103, pl. 12, figs. 5-6a. [available online]

Meek's description: "Shell small, ovate; in mature specimens gibbous; hinge line short, or scarcely extended enough to show distinctly the little ears at the extremities. Ventral valve more convex than the other, the greatest convexity being between the middle and the umbo, which is prominent, rounded, more or less strongly arched, and provided with a moderately large circular foramen; area well defined, triangular, and arching with the beak. Dorsal valve most convex near the middle; beak extending a little beyond the hinge margin, and distinctly incurved. Surface of each valve ornamented by fourteen or fifteen (very rarely sixteen to seventeen) simple, rather prominent, radiating costae, one or two of which are sometimes slightly more depressed than the others near the front of the ventral valve, so as to cause some appearance of an obscure mesial sinus, but without producing any corresponding mesial elevation on the other valve, or visibly interrupting the general straightness of the uniting margin of the two valves; lines of growth obscure; punctures visible under a good lens, and very regularly disposed."

Length of well-developed specimen, 5 mm.; breadth of same, 4.8 mm.; convexity, 3 mm.

The specimens at hand show the mesial sinus to be well developed in most specimens, but in some it is entirely lacking. On well-preserved specimens the lines of growth may be plainly seen without the aid of a lens. There can be no doubt, however, that these specimens may be correctly referred to H. mormoni, as redescribed by Meek.

Horizon and locality. Drum limestone, oolitic member, at Turner, Muncie and Independence (stations 9, 12,23), Kan.; Kansas City, Mo.

Family Athyridae

Genus COMPOSITA Brown.

Composita subtilita (Hall).
(Pl. VI, figs. 4-8c.)

1915. Composita subtilita. Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 544, p. 96, pl. 12, figs. 4-4c; pl. 6, fig. 7; pl. 6, fig. 18. [available online]

This well-known form is the most abundant species in the collection. It occurs at every locality from which collections have been made of the Drum fauna. Although the specimens show wide variation in form, it does not seem possible to split them up into separate species. For variations pass easily from long thin forms into short squat ones, and gradations are found between shells with a deep V-shaped sinus to those which are without a median sinus. In general, however, the younger specimens tend to show a nearly circular outline and a narrow shallow sinus, with almost no sulcus on the anterior margin. The older specimens are, as a rule, gibbous, much longer than wide, and show a broad, deep sinus with a pronounced sulcus on the anterior margin.

One specimen shows the interior of the hinge of the pedicle valve. This has a hinge plate with two dental lamellae which extend upward to the shell above and form a rectangular cavity in the interior of the beak of the pedicle valve. Length of a medium-sized specimen, 15 mm.; width of same, 12 mm.; convexity, 9 mm.

Horizon and locality. Very abundant in the oolitic member of the Drum limestone at Turner, Muncie, Elsmore (station 46), Urbana (station 43), Cherryvale (station 40), Independence (stations 9, 12,23), Kan.; and Kansas City, Mo. Also from the shale at these localities.

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Kansas Geological Survey, Geology
Placed on web Dec. 27, 2017; originally published June 15, 1930.
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