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Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 9, originally published in 1987
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References

Abdullah, T. Y., 1983, Depositional environments and porosity development in the Funston Limestone (Lower Permian), southwestern Kansas: M.S. thesis, University of Kansas (Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 83-23), 139 p.

Absher, W. F., 1954, Greenwood's geology in water headaches plague Greenwood's drilling: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 53, no. 22, p. 150-152.

Adams, W. L., 1964, Diagenetic aspects of Lower Morrowan, Pennsylvanian sandstones, northwestern Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 48, p. 1,568-1,580.

Adler, F. J., 1971, Future petroleum provinces of the Midcontinent, region 7; in, Future Petroleum Provinces of the United States--Their Geology and Potential, I. H. Cram, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 15, p. 985-1,120.

Akin, R., 1964, Map of Arbuckle pools of Oklahoma: Tulsa Geological Society, Digest, v. 32, p. 36.

Allan, T. H., and Valerius, M. M., 1929, Fairport oil field, Russell County, Kansas; in, Structure of Typical American Oil Fields, v. 1, p. 35-49; American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 510 p.

Amsden, T. W., and Klapper, G., 1972, Misener sandstone (Middle-Upper Devonian), north-central Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 56, p. 2,323-2,334.

Anonymous, 1956, Abbyville pool; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Pools, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 1-3.

Anonymous, 1959a, Interstate field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 65-71.

Anonymous, 1959b, Pollnow field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 141-144.

Anonymous, 1959c, Taloga field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 182-191.

Anonymous, 1960a, Davis Ranch field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, V. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 49-55.

Anonymous, 1960b, John Creek field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 99-103.

Ash, R. G., 1965, Sunny Slope and Groff fields; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 237-254.

Aukerman, R. A., 1959, Nunn field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 118-125.

Ball, S. M., 1964, Stratigraphy of the Douglas Group (Pennsylvanian/Virgilian) in the northern Midcontinent region: Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas (Kansas Geological Survey Open-file Report 64-1), 502 p.

Barwick, J. S., 1928, Salina basin of north-central Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 12, p. 77-99.

Bass, B. L, and Lukert, L. H., 1959. Geophysical history of the Fall Cmek pool, Sumner County, Kansas; in, Symposium on Geophysics in Kansas, W. W. Hambleton, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 137, p. 287-295.

Bass, N. W., 1934, Origin of the shoestring sands of Greenwood and Butler counties, Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 18, p. 1,313-1,345.

Bass, N. W., 1936, Origin of the shoestring sands of Greenwood and Butler counties, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 23, 135 p. [available online]

Bass, N. W., Icatherock, C., Dillard, W. R., and Kennedy, L E., 1937, Origin and distribution of Bartlesville and Burbank shoestring oil sands in parts of Oklahoma and Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 21, p. 30-66.

Bennett, F. O., 1960, Mississippian production within the Kansas portion of the Hugoton gas field with special emphasis on the Pleasant Prairie and Eubank pools: Tulsa Geological Society, Digest, v. 28, p. 85.

Berry, G. F., Jr., and Harper, P. A., 1948, Augusta field, Butler County, Kansas; in, Structure of Typical American Oil Fields, J. V. Howell, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, v. 3, p. 213-224.

Bickford, M. E., Harrower, K. L., Nussbaum, R. L, Thomas, J. J., Nelson, B. K., and Hoppe. W. J., 1981, Rb-Sr and U-Pb and geochronology and distribution of rock types in the Precambrian basement of Missouri and Kansas: Geological Society of America, Bulletin, v. 92, p. 323-341.

Biederman, E. W.. Jr., 1966, Petrology of the Viola Formation, El Dorado field, Butler County, Kansas: Tulsa Geological Society, Digest, v. 34, p. 41-60.

Bloesch, E., 1964, Arbuckle production and prospects in northeastern Oklahoma: Tulsa Geological Society, Digest, v. 32, p. 91-97.

Bornemann, E., Doveton, J. H., and St. Clair, P., 1982, Lithofacies analysis of the Viola Limestone in south-central Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Petrophysical Series 3, 44 p.

Brewer, J. E., 1956, Whelan pool; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Pools, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 91-94.

Brewer, J. E., 1965, The Tobias field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 255-268.

Brewer, R. R., Jr., 1959, A geophysical case history of the Lindsborg pool, McPherson County, Kansas; in, Symposium on Geophysics in Kansas, W. W. Hambleton, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin 137, p. 287-295.

Brinegar, W. L., 1960, Ashburn field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 10-18.

Brown, A. R., 1960, Unger field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 142-149.

Brown, C. A., Crafton, J. W., and Colson, J. G., 1982, The Niobrara gas play; exploration and development of a low-pressure, low-permeability gas reservoir: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 34, p. 2,863-2,870.

Brown, H. A., 1963, Examination of Pennsylvanian carbonate banks in southwestern Kansas: Amoco Production Company, Central Division Geological Report 13-A (Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 63-5), 9 p., 14 plates.

Brown, H. A., 1984, Lansing-Kansas City carbonate reservoirs of Haskell County, Kansas; in, Limestones of the Midcontinent, N. J. Hyne, ed.: Tulsa Geological Society, Special Publication No. 2, p. 75-85.

Brown, J. H., 1956, Fitzsimons field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society. p. 38-41.

Bunte, A. S., and Fortier, L R., 1941, Nikkel pool, McPherson and Harvey counties, Kansas; in, Stratigraphic Type Oil fields, A. I. Levorsen, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, p. 105-117.

Busch, D. A., 1959, Prospecting for stratigraphic traps: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 43, p. 2,829-2,843.

Byers, P. C., 1959, Llanos field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 92-97.

Caldwell, C. D., 1985, Kansas-type cyclothems and porosity development in the Middle Pennsylvanian Marmaton Group, Dirks field, Logan County, Kansas; in, Core Studies in Kansas; Sedimentology and Diagenesis of Economically Important Rock Strata in Kansas, W. L. Watney, J. H. Doveton, and A. W. Walton, comps.: Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 6, p. 79-101.

Caldwell, C. D., and Boeken, R., 1985, Wireline log zones and core description of upper part of the Middle Ordovician Viola Limestone, McClain and McClain Southwest fields, Nemaha County, Kansas; in, Core Studies in Kansas; Sedimentology and Diagenesis of Economically Important Rock Strata in Kansas, W. L. Watney, J. H. Doveton, and A. W. Walton, comps.: Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 6, p. 17-35.

Capps, W. M., 1965, Nescatunga field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 157-162.

Charles, H. H., 1941, Busch City oil field, Anderson County, Kansas; in, Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, A. I. Levorsen, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 43-56.

Clark, S. K., Arnett, C. L., and Royds, J. S., 1947, Geneseo uplift, Rice, Ellsworth, and McPherson counties, Kansas; in, Structure of Typical American Oil Fields, J. V. Howell, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, v. 3, p. 225-248.

Clark, W. R., 1956, The Rhodes field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 77-81.

Cole, V. B., 1960, Greenwich field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 81-91.

Cole, V. B., 1975, Subsurface Ordovician-Cambrian rocks in Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 2, 18 p.

Cole, V. B., 1976, Configuration of the top of Precambrian rocks in Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Map M-7, scale 1:500,000.

Condra, G. E., 1927, The stratigraphy of the Pennsylvanian System in Nebraska: Nebraska Geological Survey, Bulletin 1, 2nd series, 291 p.

Costa, D. J., 1965, Southeast Oro pool; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 163-173.

Cruce, J. D., 1956, Willowdale pool; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields. v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 95-97.

Curtis, G. R., 1956, Coats field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 19-24.

Curtis, G. R., 1959, Warner field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 192-205.

Daniels, R. P., 1985, Pennsylvanian (Des Moinesian) stratigraphy and petroleum potential, southeast Colorado: M.S. thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 129 p.

Davis, R. M., 1959, Patterson field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 126-130.

Devlin, J. B., 1965, Grant pool; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society. p. 96-99.

Dickas, A. B., 1984, Midcontinent rift system; Precambrian hydrocarbon target: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 82, October 15, p. 151-159.

Donnelly, E. B., 1965, Wisby and Wisby North fields; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 290-297.

Douglass, H. M., 1956, Nurse gas field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Pools, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 74-76.

DuBois, M. K., 1985, Application of cores in development of an exploration strategy for the Lansing-Kansas City "E" zone, Hitchcock County, Nebraska; in, Core Studies in Kansas; Sedimentology and Diagenesis of Economically Important Rock Strata in Kansas, W. L. Watney, J. H. Doveton, A. W. Walton, comps.: Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 6, p. 120-132.

Ebanks, W. J., Jr., 1975, Kansas oil for enhanced recovery--a resource appraisal: Tertiary Oil Recovery Project, University of Kansas, Contribution 1, 31 p.

Ehm, A. E., 1965, Lyons West field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 146-156.

Elster, T., 1960a, Sabetha field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 120-124.

Elster, T., 1960b, Strahm field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 125-129.

Elster, T., 1960c, Strahm East field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 130-134.

Fath, A. E., 1921, Geology of the El Dorado field, Butler County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 7, 187 p.

Foster, W. H., 1929, Coffeyville oil field, Montgomery County, Kansas; in, Structure of Typical American Oil Fields: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, v. 1, p. 49-51.

Franz, R. H., 1984, Lithofacies, diagenesis, and petrophysical properties of selected sandstones from the Morrowan Kearny Formation of southwestern Kansas: M.S. thesis, University of Kansas (Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 94-4), 177 p.

Frensley, R. W., and Darmstetter, J. C., 1965, Spivey-Grabs field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 221-228.

Fugitt, L. B., and Wilkinson, R. D., 1959, Eubank field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 13-20.

Forbush, M. A., 1959, Hugoton field, Kansas; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 55-64.

Glossa, J. M., 1982, Depositional environments and diagenetic history of the Nolans Limestone (Upper Wolfcampian), Rice County, Kansas: M.S. thesis, University of Kansas (Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 82-23), 30 p.

Goebel, E. D., 1960, Yaege field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 193-198.

Goebel, E. D., 1968s, Cambrian System; in, The Stratigraphic Succession in Kansas, D. E. Zeller, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 189, p. 11-14. [available online]

Goebel, E. D., 1968b, Ordovician System; in, The Stratigraphic Succession in Kansas, D. E. Zeller, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 189, p. 14-15. [available online]

Goebel, E. D., 1968c, Undifferentiated Silurian and Devonian; in, The Stratigraphic Succession in Kansas, D. E. Zeller, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 189, p. 15-17. [available online]

Goebel, E. D., 1968d, Mississippian System; in, The Stratigraphic Succession in Kansas, D. E. Zeller, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 189, p. 17-21. [available online]

Goebel, E. D., 1968e, Mississippian rocks of western Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 52, p. 1,732-1,778.

Gussow, W. C., 1954, Differential entrapment of oil and gas; a fundamental principle; American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 39, p. 547-574.

Hanley, E. J., and Van Horn, L E., 1982, Niobrara development program, Washington County, Colorado: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v. 34, p. 628-634.

Harbaugh, J. W., and Ducastaing, M., 1981, Historical changes in oil-field populations as a method of forecasting field sizes of undiscovered populations--a comparison of Kansas, Wyoming. and California: Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 5, 56 p.

Harris, J. W., 1985, Stratigraphy of the Cherokee Group, southeastern Kansas; in, Core Studies in Kansas; Sedimentology and Diagenesis of Economically important Rock Strata in Kansas, W. L. Watney, J. H. Doveton, and A. W. Walton, comps.: Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 6, p. 66-73.

Hattin, D. E., 1981, Petrology of Smoky Hill Member, Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) in type area, western Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 65, p. 831-849.

Haworth, E., 1908, Special report on oil and gas: University Geological Survey of Kansas, v. 9, 586 p.

Hemsell, C. C., 1939, Geology of the Hugoton gas field of southwestern Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 23, p. 1,054-1,067.

Hiestand, T.C., 1933. Voshell field, McPherson County, Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 17, p. 169-191.

Hilpman, P. L., 1958, Producing zones of Kansas oil and gas fields: Kansas Geological Survey, Oil and Gas Investigations 16, 10 p.

Hilpman, P. L., 1960, Comiskey and Comiskey Northeast fields; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 42-47.

Hilpman, P. L., 1967, Devonian stratigraphy in Kansas; a progress report: Tulsa Geological Society, Digest, v. 35, p. 88-98.

Hinton, C. H., 1952. The story of Hugoton field: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 52-1, 13 p.

Howell, O., 1965, O.S.A. and Gillian pools, Sedgwick County, Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 49, p. 1,561-1,562.

Hulse, W. J., 1979, Depositional environment of the Bartlesville Sandstone in the Sallyards field, Greenwood County, Kansas; in, Pennsylvanian Sandstones of the Midcontinent, N. J. Hyne, ed.: Tulsa Geological Society, Special Publication No. 1, p. 327-336.

Imbt, W. C., 1941, Zenith pool, Stafford County, Kansas, an example of stratigraphic trap accumulation; in, Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, A. I. Levorsen, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, p. 139-165.

Ireland, H. A., 1965, Regional depositional basin and correlation of the Simpson Group: Tulsa Geological Society, Digest, v. 12, p. 215-234.

Ireland, H. A., 1967, Zonation and correlation of the subsurface Hunton Group (Silurian-Devonian) in Kansas by Foraminifera and acid residues; in, Essays in Paleontology and Stratigraphy--R.C. Moore Commemorative Volume, C. Teichert and E. L. Yochelson, eds.: University of Kansas, Department of Geology, Special Publication 2, p. 479-502.

Jacques, A. N., 1956, Boggs field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 8-11.

Jacques, A. N., 1965, Holt field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 48-51.

James, A., 1956, Haviland and Wellsford fields; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 57-62.

Jamieson, J. J., 1959, McKinney field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 2: Kansas Geological Society, p. 104-111.

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Lewis, J. P., 1960a, Mill Creek field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 109-114.

Lewis, J. P., 1960b, Newbury field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 115-119.

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Mason, J. W., 1968, Hugoton-Panhandle field, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas; in, Natural Gases of North America, B. W. Beebe, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 9, v. 2, p. 1,539-1,547.

McCaleb, G. A., and Wheeler, J., 1965, Wil field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 278-289.

McCaslin, J. C., 1982, Pendleton find may revive action in the Forest City basin: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 80, February 1, p. 177178.

McCoy, J. R., 1965, Pendennis South field; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 4: Kansas Geological Society, p. 185-192.

McCracken, E., 1955, Correlation of insoluble residue zones of upper Arbuckle of Missouri and southern Kansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 39, p. 47-59.

McGinness, D. H., 1956, Lerado and Lerado Southwest fields; in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 1: Kansas Geological Society, p. 63-68.

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McNeil, H. E., 1941, Wherry pool, Rice County, Kansas; in, Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, A. I. Levorsen, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, p. 118-138.

McQueen, H. S., and Green, F. C., 1938, The geology of northwestern Missouri: Missouri Geological Survey and Water Resources, v. 25, 2nd Series, 217 p.

Merriam, D. F., 1960, Alta Vista field (abandoned); in, Kansas Oil and Gas Fields, v. 3: Kansas Geological Society, p. 1-9.

Merriam, D. F., 1963, The geologic history of Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 162, 317 p. [available online]

Merriam, D. F., and Goebel, E. D., 1954, The geology of the Norton oil field, Norton County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 109, pt. 9, p. 125-152.

Merriam, D. F., and Goebel, E. D., 1959, Where's the oil in Kansas (Part 2): Oil and Gas Journal, v. 57, March 9, p. 212-218.

Merriam, D. F., and Hambleton, W. W., 1959, Exploration geophysics in Kansas; in, Symposium on Geophysics in Kansas, W. W. Hambleton, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 137, p. 53-62.

Meyer, R. F., and Fleming, M. L., 1985, Role of small oil and gas fields in the United States: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 69, p. 1,950-1,962.

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Miller, R. R., 1968, Geology of Otis-Alben field. Rush and Barton counties, Kansas; in, Natural Gases of North America, B. W. Beebe, ed.: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 9, v. 2, p. 1,588-1,615.

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Roby, R. E., 1961, The Pleasant Prairie field; in, Symposium on Lower and Middle Paleozoic Rocks of Colorado, 12th Field Conference: Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, p. 152-156.

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Glossary

Anticline--A convex-upward fold. Anticlines are commonly elongate features that can, in effect, resemble ripples on a carpet in a layered sedimentary sequence. They are the product of either compressive forces or differential vertical uplift. Anticlines can be quite complexly faulted in severely deformed areas, but they are generally very subtle features in Kansas, with their flanks gently dipping at less than 15° from horizontal. (Also see arch, basin, syncline).

Arch--A large upwarp in the earth's crust that may be tens or hundreds of kilometers across. Arches may have smaller anticlines superimposed on them. If an arch is a round feature with virtually no elongation, it may be called a dome. Both arches and domes (and the basins they separate) can be extremely long-lived features that form very slowly over many millions of years. (Also see basin).

Arkose--A type of sandstone that is rich in feldspar and granitic rock fragments. It is usually poorly sorted and is derived from weathered granites or high-grade metamorphic rocks such as gneiss.

Barrel--Barrels are the traditional volumetric measurement of petroleum and its products in the United States. One barrel is equal to 42 US gallons.

Basal sandstone--The sedimentary rocks deposited at the beginning of a transgression usually include a basal sandstone or conglomerate, which is an expression of a nearshore or shore-line high-energy depositional environment. As the name implies, the position of the sandstone is at the base of the sedimentary-rock sequence laid down by the transgression. Sandstones in the lower part of the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group and the lower part of the Cambrian Reagan Sandstone are the basal sandstones of two separate major transgressions; others are also present in the Kansas rock column. (Also see transgression.)

Basement rocks--In the Midcontinent, the dense, hard Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks that underlie the sedimentary-rock sequence are called the basement rocks. These rocks are extremely deformed and consist of granites, schists, and gneisses that may be older than 1 billion years.

Basin--A broad downwarp in the earth's crust. Basins, like arches, can be very broad features that are many hundreds of kilometers across. Folds and other types of traps within basins and arches are areas where petroleum may accumulate. Sedimentary layers are generally thicker in basins than on adjacent arches.

Biogenic gas--Natural gas (methane) formed by an anaerobic (without oxygen) fermentation process where forms of organic matter such as carbohydrates are reduced by bacteria to form methane. The process is associated with low temperature (less than 75° C). In contrast, thermal cracking of organic matter occurs at elevated temperatures to form other hydrocarbons including methane. Biogenic and thermogenic methane can be differentiated through examination of their carbon and hydrogen isotopes.

Cambridge arch--Northwest-southeast-trending uplift present in northwestern Kansas in Norton and Decatur counties. This arch is separated from the Central Kansas uplift by a structural saddle in Graham and Rooks counties. Vertical movement and uplift of the arch are most pronounced in pre-Mississippian, post-Mississippian, pre-Pennsylvanian, and Mesozoic time.

Chalk--Widespread deposits composed of very small fossils of calcite called coccoliths. These were floating algae once abundant in the open sea that covered most of the west-central United States during Cretaceous time.

Chlorite--Clay mineral composed of aluminum, iron, and magnesium silicate.

Clastic--Term describing rocks that are made up of fragments of other rocks, fossils, or various types of minerals (such as quartz or feldspar sand grains).

Coccoliths--Button-like calcite plates of algae around 3 micrometers (3 x 10-1m) in diameter. Algae are floating plankton found in temperate and tropical waters. Remains are commonly found in Mesozoic chalk deposits and deep-sea ooze.

Commingled production--Oil or gas produced from the mixing of two or more separate zones in a single well.

Conglomerate--Coarse-grained sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments larger than 2 mm in diameter. Particles include pebbles, cobbles, and boulders. Matrix (the material found between the clasts) is usually composed of sand and silt-sized particles.

Cuttings--Chips of rock typically less than 2 cm across, broken from strata encountered by a drill bit. Cuttings are produced by a rotary bit with three toothed wheels which rotate as drill pipe is turned. Drilling mud circulated down through drill pipe is ejected through ports on the bit. Mud then carries the cuttings to the surface as it moves between the drill pipe and borehole wall. Geologists can inspect these cuttings to determine rock lithology and presence of oil shows.

Cyclothem--A vertically repeating sequence of sedimentary rocks a few meters to tens of meters thick, originally defined as those found in Pennsylvanian strata. Origin has been controversial and continues to stimulate research.

Crevasse splay--A fan-shaped sand body deposited in a lagoon or swamp adjacent to a distributary channel where levee has been breached.

Diagenesis--The processes of lithification which are responsible for making newly deposited sediments into rocks. Diagenesis includes (but is not limited to) the processes of compaction, cementation, and recrystallization.

Dip--The angle at which a bed or rock layer is inclined from the horizontal.

Dolomite--A rock such as limestone that is composed of Ca,Mg(CO3)2. Most limestones are composed of CaCO3 (calcite). Many dolomites in the rock record were originally limestones. The magnesium was introduced during the long processes of lithification of the limestones.

Embayment--An indentation along the continental margin that underwent subsidence during sedimentation, resulting in a thickened sequence of sedimentary rocks. Commonly an extension of a basin which underwent even greater subsidence and filling by sedimentary rocks. The Sedgwick and Hugoton basins in Kansas are commonly referred to as embayments off the Anadarko basin.

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)--The additional oil that can be economically recovered from a petroleum reservoir after oil recovered by primary and secondary methods of production has been produced. Primary-recovery methods rely on the natural energy of the reservoir to produce oil, whereas secondary methods include techniques such is injection of water or gas to maintain reservoir pressure. EOR techniques include methods such as steam flooding and carbon dioxide injection. It is an expensive process, but more fields in Kansas will be subject to EOR. Since EOR is expensive, oil prices are very crucial to decisions to initiate such projects.

Fluvial--Adjective describing sediments that have been deposited by rivers or streams. Other terms commonly used to describe other types of depositional environments or processes include marine (pertaining to oceans), eolian (pertaining to wind), and lacustrine (pertaining to lakes).

Gamma radiation--Radiation emitted by rocks in generally small amounts which can be measured in a borehole by a gamma-ray wireline log, Logs record radiation intensity plotted against depth. In turn, this information can be used to define strata encountered in borehole for correlation and delineating shale content. (Also see wireline log)

Glauconite--A green mineral composed of potassium iron silicate commonly occurring in marine sedimentary rocks.

Insoluble residue--The material remaining after a limestone sample has been dissolved in hydrochloric or acetic acid. This material comprises siliceous material such as quartz-sand grains, chert, phosphatic material, and silicified fossils. Stratigraphic zonation of limestone units (such as the Arbuckle) has been achieved by insoluble-residue studies.

Kaolinite--An abundant aluminum silicate clay mineral, commonly called fire clay.

Lithology--The physical characteristics of a rock that can be determined by observation, either by the naked eye or a low-power microscope. Correlations of rock layers (geologic formations) over distances between two or more wells (or outcrops) are usually made on the basis of lithology.

Las Animas arch--Northeast-southwest-trending arch extending from southeastern Colorado through northwestern Kansas and into southwestern Nebraska. The Las Animas arch forms the western border of Hugoton embayment in western Kansas. Movement began in Late Pennsylvanian and extended into Cenozoic.

Oil-in-place--The total quantity of oil trapped in a reservoir of an oil field is described as oil-in-place. Generally, only 10-35% of this oil-in-place can be produced by primary-recovery techniques. Hence, enhanced oil-recovery (EOR) techniques will become increasingly important in producing the oil remaining in old or abandoned oil fields.

Oolite--Nearly spherical sand-sized grain (0.25-2 mm in diameter) composed of an interior nucleus that is covered by outer concentric laminations. The concentric laminations are commonly composed of calcium carbonate and less commonly iron oxide or silica. An interior nucleus is commonly a quartz grain or shell fragment. Carbonate oolites are most often formed in warm, shallow, agitated marine waters.

Paleotopography--Topography (hills and valleys) that has been buried by a younger overlying sedimentary strata. Buried hills of Precambrian basement rock in the Central Kansas uplift form paleotopographic traps in Barton, Russell, Rice, and Stafford counties in Kansas. Fractures in the basement rock usually form the porosity that holds the oil.

Pay zone--The stratigraphic interval, or reservoir rock, that produces oil or gas in commercial quantities in an oil field.

Permeability--The ability of a rock to allow fluids to pass through it. In effect, rocks with high permeability have well-developed connections between pore spaces, whereas rocks with low permeability have either no porosity or isolated pores which are not connected to each other. (Also see porosity).

Petroleum--Petroleum is a catch-all term for any hydrocarbons that can be produced through a drill-pipe and, as such, includes crude oil, natural gas, and condensates.

Porosity--The amount of void space in a rock that can either be filled by brine, oil, water, or gas. (Also see permeability, reservoir rock.)

Prospect--A name given to a location which is identified as a likely site of petroleum occurrence and one which may be tested by the drill.

Regression--A relative fall in sea level. A regression is expressed by rocks displaying characteristics of progressively shallower environments of deposition. Subaerial exposure and possible erosion can ultimately result from regression expressed in the rock record as an unconformity. (Also see transgression, unconformity.)

Reserves--The amount of discovered oil that is presently economically producible under current economic conditions and present technology. (Also see resource.)

Reservoir rock--A rock layer that is capable of holding oil, gas, or water in its pore system. The pore system, or porosity, of a reservoir rock can be composed of different types of porosity such as that between sand grains, c. g., quartz and oolite grains, (intergranular porosity), between crystals in a recrystallized limestone or dolomite (intercrystalline porosity), small solution cavities (vugular porosity), or even dissolved shells of fossils (moldic porosity). A reservoir rock usually averages approximately 10-35% porosity, although greater and lesser amounts of porosity can also occur. (Also see pay zone, permeability, porosity.)

Resource--The amount of oil that may eventually be producible and useful to society, Resources include not only reserves but also inferred and undiscovered oil fields. Resources also include known subeconomic reservoirs that may be producible with future technology and techniques, or if the material being produced eventually commands a higher price. (Also see reserves.)

Shoestring sandstone--A sandstone body that is long and narrow, usually surrounded by shale. Shoestring sandstones are very important stratigraphic traps in the Cherokee Group of eastern Kansas. The dimensions of such reservoirs are highly variable but they can be on the order of 100-300 m wide, several kilometers long, and several meters thick.

Source rock--A rock that is organic-rich and capable of generating petroleum. Source rocks generally contain greater than 0.5% finely disseminated organic matter and are generally dark-colored shales and limestones.

Spillpoint--See trap.

Stratigraphic trap--A trap for hydrocarbons that is produced by depositional characteristics of the rock layer holding and surrounding an accumulation of hydrocarbons. There are several types of stratigraphic traps. Channel sands or lenticular sand bodies are particularly important types of stratigraphic traps found in eastern Kansas. Thick accumulations of chert fragments (chat) are particularly important traps in central Kansas at the top of the Mississippian limestones. (Also see structural trap, trap.)

Structural closure--Vertical distance between a structure's highest point and its lowest elevation contour that encloses itself. A structural closure is also a more general term for an anticline or faulted anticline.

Structural trap--A trap for hydrocarbons caused by deformation of rock strata. The simplest type of structural trap is a dome. Some structural traps can be quite complex, particularly those associated with severely deformed and faulted anticlines. Structural traps are found all over Kansas and can be detected by shallow core drilling, subsurface or surface geologic studies, and geophysics. (Also see anticline, stratigraphic trap, structural closure, trap.)

Subcrop--The map trace of a unit truncated by an unconformity. Subcrop maps are essentially paleogeologic maps which show the spatial distribution of geologic units at some time in the past before subsequently deposited rock units covered the outcrops. Subcrop maps are useful in locating buried geologic structures which may hold oil.

Syncline--A convex-downward fold. Synclines, like anticlines, are commonly elongate and are found between anticlines. (Also see anticline).

Township--Government land surveys in the United States and Canada parcel land into a gridded pattern. A fundamental unit in such a land grid is the township that is generally a rectangle 6 by 6 mi. Thirty-six sections, each about 1 sq. mi, comprise a township. In turn, each square mile is composed of 640 acres.

Transcontenental arch--Broad, persistent uplift traced between Wisconsin and Arizona extending through northern and western Nebraska and northeastern Colorado. The transcontinental arch was periodically uplifted during the Phanerozoic (the span of time encompassing the last 570 m.y.). It is referred to as "continental backbone" because of its central location and persistence.

Transgression--A relative rise of sea level. Several major transgressions have occurred on the North American continent over geologic time and some are recorded in the rocks of Kansas. (Also see basal sandstone, regression).

Trap--A trap is any set or combination of physical conditions that encourages the accumulation of significant quantities of hydrocarbons. A trap usually consists of a porous reservoir rock that contains hydrocarbons and a surrounding impermeable rock that keeps the hydrocarbons from leaking out of the reservoir rock. Traps can be further differentiated into stratigraphic or structural traps or even combination traps that are hybrids involving both stratigraphic and structural characteristics. The size of a trap can be given in terms of its closure, which either can be its areal extent or its maximum vertical dimension between its highest (shallowest) and lowest (deepest) points. The highest part of a trap is called its culmination or crest. The lowest point to which hydrocarbons can accumulate in a trap is called the spillpoint. Inasmuch as the usual type of fluid found in rock pores is water (usually brine), any gas or oil generated by organic matter will rise by buoyancy to the culmination of the trap (because oil is less dense than water). (Also see stratigraphic trap, structural trap.)

Unconformity--An unconformity is a buried, ancient, erosional surface sandwiched between rock layes of different ages. There are several types of unconformities that are defined by the structure and type of rocks lying above and below the unconformity. An angular unconformity occurs where the sedimentary layers above and below the unconformity are tilted at different angles. The older strata on which the unconformity is developed are generally tilted at a steeper angle than the younger strata above the unconformity. In Kansas, the difference. in tilt between strata below and above an angular unconformity is generally not great-usually less than 10°. A disconformity occurs where there is no appreciable difference in tilt between the rocks above and below an unconformity. A nonconformity is an unconformity in which stratified rocks, such as sandstones, limestones, or shale, lie above an erosional surface developed on igneous or metamorphic rocks. The unconformity developed over the Precambrian basement in Kansas is a nonconformity and represents a vast gap in time of at least 500 million years.

Vug--See reservoir rock.

Wireline logs--Instruments that are suspended on a cable and lowered into the borehole to measure such properties as resistivity, natural gamma radiation, acoustic (sound) travel time, and other physical characteristics of rock along the bore-hole wall. One or more surveys are made in a typical oil well to help the geologist correlate between wells and to determine porosity, presence of petroleum, and even composition of the rock, provided appropriate combinations of tools are used.


Prev--Number of producing zones

Kansas Geological Survey, Energy Research
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