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Geology

  Jefferson County Geohydrology

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Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Geology

Hydrology

Chemical Quality

Summary

Well Records

Logs of Test Holes

References

Plate

 

Table 1

Table 1--Generalized columnar section and water-bearing characteristics.

System Series Stage Group Formation or rock unit Member Thickness, in feet (1) Lithology Water-bearing characteristics (2)
Quaternary Pleistocene Recent and Wisconsinan   Alluvium and terrace deposits   0-90 Coarse sand and gravel containing some silt and clay beneath the flood plain and Newman terrace in the Kansas River valley. In smaller valleys, the alluvium contains a large percentage of fine-grained material. Large quantities of water are available to wells in the Kansas River valley. Moderate to large quantities of water are available locally to wells in the Delaware River valley. Only small quantities of water are available to wells in smaller tributary vall
Wisconsinan and Illinoisan   Loess   0-20 Wind-blown deposits of silt containing clay and fine sand. Generally mantles the upland area. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Wisconsinan, Illinoisan, and Kansan   Terrace deposits   0-50 Sandy gravel and clay locally beneath terraces bordering bluffs in the Kansas and Delaware River valleys. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Kansan and Nebraskan   Lacustrine clay   0-70 Silty clay with a few pebbles. Contains a few beds of silty sand in the north-central part of the county. Yields no water to wells in the area.
  Glacial drift   0-100 Glacial till (unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulders) and associated glaciofluvial material. Remnants of these deposits generally mantle the bedrock surface in the upland areas. Drift generally is thinly mantled by loess, except in the Moderate quantities of water are available locally to wells in coarse-grained glaciofluvial materials incorporated in till, especially in the northeastern part of the county. Elsewhere, only small quantities of water are available.
Pennsylvanian Upper Pennsylvanian Virgilian Wabaunsee Willard Shale   20-30 Dark-bluish-gray and brown silty shale and locally fine-grained sandstone. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells in the upper weathered zone.
Emporia Limestone Elmont Limestone 20-30 Limestone members are dense, hard, and bluish gray weathering light bluish gray to light brown. Shale member is bluish gray to brown and sandy to clayey. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells in the upper part of the limestones, where weathered.
Harveyville Shale
Reading Limestone
Auburn Shale   20-30 Gray to brown sandy shale locally containing silty sandstone. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Bern Limestone Wakarusa Limestone 20-30 Upper limestone is thick bedded and dark bluish gray weathering to light brown. Shale is bluish gray and sandy to clayey. Lower limestone is thick bedded and grayish brown weathering to brown; contains shale partings between beds. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells in the upper part of the limestones, where weathered.
Soldier Creek Shale
Burlingame Limestone
Scranton Shale Silver Lake Shale 75-120 Upper shale is bluish gray to yellowish brown and sandy to clayey; contains thin platy limestone beds. Upper limestone is bluish gray weathering to gray or brown. Middle shale is bluish gray to yellowish brown and sandy to clayey; contains the Elmo coal b Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Rulo Limestone
Cedar Vale Shale
Happy Hollow Limestone
White Cloud Shale
Howard Limestone Utopia Limestone 10-20 Upper limestone is thin to medium bedded and brownish gray to gray weathering to bight brown. Shale is clayey and gray to reddish brown. Lower limestone is bluish gray weathering to light gray or yellow brown. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Winzeler Shale
Church Limestone
Severy Shale   30-70 Brown to gray fissile sandy to clayey shale. Nodaway coal bed and carbonaceous shale in upper part. Locally contains a silty fine-grained sandstone. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Shawnee Topeka Limestone Coal Creek Limestone 20-30 Limestone members generally are medium to thick bedded and gray to grayish brown weathering to yellowish brown. Upper shale is a platy dark-gray carbonaceous shale. Two middle shales are silty to clayey and calcareous. Lower shale is sandy to clayey and b Small quantities of water are available locally to wells in the upper part of the limestones, where weathered.
Holt Shale
Du Bois Limestone
Turner Creek Shale
Sheldon Limestone
Jones Point Shale
Curzon Limestone
Iowa Point Shale
Hartford Limestone
Calhoun Shale   20-45 Gray to brown silty to sandy shale, locally containing silty fine-grained sandstone. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Deer Creek Limestone Ervine Creek Limestone 30-40 Upper limestone is thick bedded with wavy partings and gray weathering to yellowish brown. Upper shale unit grades upwards from black fissile shale to light-gray silty and sandy shale. Middle limestone is gray to brown weathering to yellowish brown. Lower Small quantities of water are available locally to wells in the upper part of the thicker limestones, where weathered.
Undifferentiated Burroak and Larsh Shale
Rock Bluff Limestone
Oskaloosa Shale
Ozawkie Limestone
Tecumseh Shale   60-85 Bluish-gray to olive-gray silty to sandy shale locally containing silty fine-grained sandstone beds. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Lecompton Limestone Avoca Limestone 30-45 Upper limestone is dark gray weathering to light yellowish brown and is interbedded with gray silty shale. Upper shale is clayey and olive gray weathering to gray. Second limestone is thin to medium bedded, bluish gray weathering to light tan, and very fo Small quantities of water are available locally to wells in the upper part of the thicker limestones, where weathered.
King Hill Shale
Beil Limestone
Queen Hill Shale
Big Springs Limestone
Doniphan Shale
Spring Branch Limestone
Kanwaka Shale Stull Shale 60-90 Upper shale is dark gray and silty to sandy; locally contains a silty fine-grained sandstone. Limestone is thin, dense, and bluish gray weathering to light grayish brown. Lower shale is silty to sandy and bluish gray; locally contains a silty fine-grained Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.
Clay Creek Limestone
Jackson Park Shale
Oread Limestone Kereford Limestone 35-60 Upper limestone is very fossiliferous, even to wavy bedded, and light gray weathering to yellowish brown. Upper shale is silty to clayey and light gray to reddish gray. Second limestone is wavy bedded and gray weathering to light grayish brown; contains c Small quantities of water are available locally to wells in the upper part of the thicker limestones, where weathered.
Heumander Shale
Plattsmouth Limestone
Heebner Shale
Leavenworth Limestone
Snyderville Shale
Toronto Limestone
Douglas Lawrence Formation   60 Reddish-gray and bluish-gray to olive-gray sandy to clayey shale and locally silty fine-grained sandstone. Small quantities of water are available locally to wells.

(1) Outcrop thickness given for rocks of Pennsylvanian age.

(2) In this report, small supplies refers to yields generally less than 10 gpm, moderate supplies to 10 to 100 gpm, and large supplies to greater than 100 gpm.

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  Kansas Geological Survey, Jefferson County Geohydrology
Comments to webadmin@kgs.ku.edu
Web version July 2002. Original publication date Dec. 1972.
URL=http://www.kgs.ku.edu/General/Geology/Jefferson/table1.html